United Malays National Organisation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

United Malays National Organisation
Malay namePertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu
ڤرتوبوهن كبڠساءن ملايو برساتو
AbbreviationUMNO / امنو
PEKEMBAR / ڤکمبر
PresidentAhmad Zahid Hamidi
ChairpersonBadruddin Amiruldin
Secretary-GeneralAhmad Maslan
First Deputy PresidentMohamad Hasan
Second Deputy President (Women Chief)Noraini Ahmad
Vice-PresidentIsmail Sabri Yaakob
Mahdzir Khalid
Mohamed Khaled Nordin
Treasurer-GeneralTengku Adnan Tengku Mansor
Youth ChiefAsyraf Wajdi Dusuki (Pemuda)
Zahida Zarik Khan (Puteri)
Mohammad Farhan Mokhali (Putera)
FounderOnn Jaafar
Founded11 May 1946
Legalised11 May 1946
13 February 1988 (UMNO Baru)
Preceded byUnited Malays Organisation
USNO (in Sabah)
BERJAYA (in Sabah)
HeadquartersTingkat 38, Menara Dato’ Onn, Putra World Trade Centre, Jalan Tun Ismail, 50480 Kuala Lumpur
NewspaperNew Straits Times
Berita Harian[nb 1]
Harian Metro[nb 2]
Youth wingPergerakan Pemuda UMNO
Women's wingWanita UMNO
Women's youth wingPergerakan Puteri UMNO
Student wingKelab Mahasiswa UMNO
Membership (2021)3.39 Million[2]
Ideology
Political positionRight-wing
ReligionSunni Islam
National affiliationAlliance (1952–1973)
Barisan Nasional (since 1973)
Muafakat Nasional (2019–2022)
Perikatan Nasional (March 2020–July 2021 (pro Zahid Hamidi), August 2021–October 2022 (pro Ismail Sabri))
Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (since 2020)
Colours  Red and   white
SloganUnited, Loyal, In Service
Bersatu, Bersetia, Berkhidmat
AnthemBersatu, Bersetia, Berkhidmat
Dewan Negara:
15 / 70
Dewan Rakyat:
26 / 222
Dewan Undangan Negeri:
121 / 607
Chief minister of states
4 / 13
Party flag
UMNO (Malaysia).svg
Website
umno.org.my
umno-online.my

1. Red and white have been used since before independence.

The United Malays National Organisation (Malay: Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu; Jawi: ڤرتوبوهن كبڠساءن ملايو برساتو; abbreviated UMNO (/ˈʌmn/) or less commonly PEKEMBAR), is a nationalist right-wing[6] political party in Malaysia. As the oldest continuous national political party within Malaysia (since its inception in 1946), UMNO has once been called Malaysia's "Grand Old Party".[7]

UMNO is a founding and the principal dominant member of the Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition, which taken along with its predecessor Alliance, had been the main governing party of Malaysia from the independence of Malaya in 1957 until its defeat in the 2018 general election. From 1957 to 2018, every Prime Minister of Malaysia was also the President of UMNO. It has since returned to power twice as a result of the 2020-2022 Malaysian political crisis, firstly as a partner in a Perikatan Nasional-led government and subsequently as the leading party in a BN-led government with UMNO vice-president Ismail Sabri serving as Prime Minister.

A race-focused party, UMNO's goals are to uphold the aspirations of Malay nationalism and the racial concept of Ketuanan Melayu (lit. Malay Supremacy), as well as the dignity of the Malay race, the religion of Islam, as well as the country itself.[8] The party also aspires to protect Malay culture as the national culture and to uphold, defend and expand Islam across Malaysia.[9][10]

In the 2018 UMNO leadership election, which was considered by many as crucial to the party's progression, former Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad Zahid Hamidi was elected UMNO president in a three-cornered contest, defeating former UMNO Youth Chief Khairy Jamaluddin, and UMNO veteran Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah.[11]

History[edit]

After the British returned to Malaya in the aftermath of World War II, the Malayan Union was formed. However, the Union was met with much opposition due to its constitutional framework, which allegedly threatened Malay sovereignty over Malaya. A series of Malay congresses were held, culminating in the formation of the nationalist party, UMNO on 10 May 1946 at the Third Malay Congress in Johor Bahru, with Datuk Onn Jaafar as its leader. UMNO strongly opposed the Malayan Union, but originally did not seek political power. UMNO had no choice but continue playing a supporting role to the British colonial administration. The British cooperated with UMNO leaders and helped to defeat the communist insurgency.[12]

In 1949, after the Malayan Union had been replaced by the semi-autonomous Federation of Malaya, UMNO shifted its focus to politics and governance. According to at least one official school textbook published during UMNO's time in government, the party fought for other races once they were at the helm of the country.[13]

In 1951, Onn Jaafar left UMNO after failing to open its membership to non-Malay Malayans to form the Independence of Malaya Party.[14] Tunku Abdul Rahman replaced Dato' Onn as UMNO President. In the following year, the Kuala Lumpur branch of UMNO formed an ad hoc and temporary electoral pact with the Selangor branch of Malayan Chinese Association to avoid contesting the same seats in the Kuala Lumpur municipal council elections.[15] UMNO and MCA eventually carried nine out of the twelve seats, dealing a crushing blow to the IMP. After several other successes in local council elections, the coalition was formalised as an "Alliance" in 1954.[16]

In 1954, state elections were held. In these elections, the Alliance won 226 of the 268 seats nationwide. In the same year, a Federal Legislative Council was formed, comprising 100 seats. 52 would be elected, and the rest would be appointed by the British High Commissioner. The Alliance demanded that 60 of the seats be elected, but despite the Tunku flying out to London to negotiate, the British held firm. Elections for the council were held in 1955, and the Alliance, which had now expanded to include the Malayan Indian Congress, issued a manifesto stating its goals of achieving independence by 1959, requiring a minimum of primary school education for all children, protecting the rights of the Malay rulers as constitutional monarchs, ending the Communist emergency, and reforming the civil service through the hiring of more Malayans as opposed to foreigners.[17][18]

When the results were released, it emerged that the Alliance had won 51 of the 52 seats contested, with the other seat going to PAS (the Pan-Malayan Islamic Party, a group of Islamists that split from UMNO). The Tunku became the first Chief Minister of Malaya.[19]

Throughout this period, the Malayan Emergency had been on-going. The Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), the armed wing of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP), committed sabotage campaigns against the British by disrupting transportation and communication networks, attacking police stations, burning down factories, with the goal of gaining independence for Malaya by making British rule in Malaya too expensive to maintain. The colonial government declared the MCP, along with several left-wing political groups, illegal in 1948. In 1955, the Alliance government together with the British High Commissioner declared an amnesty for the communist insurgents who surrendered. Representatives from the Alliance government also met with leaders of the MCP in an attempt to resolve the conflict peacefully, as their manifesto in the election stated. Chin Peng, the MCP Secretary-General, insisted that the MCP be allowed to contest elections and be declared a legal political party as a pre-condition to laying down arms. However, the Tunku rejected this, leading to an impasse.[20]

In 1956, the Tunku led a group of negotiators, comprising Alliance politicians and representatives of the Malay rulers, to London. There, they brokered a deal with the British government for independence. The date of independence was set as 31 August 1957 on the condition that an independent commission is set up to draft a constitution for the country. The Alliance government was also required to avoid seizing British and other foreign assets in Malaya. A defence treaty would also be signed.[21]

The Reid Commission, led by Lord William Reid, was formed to draft the constitution. Although enshrining concepts such as federalism and a constitutional monarchy, the proposed constitution also contained provisions protecting special rights for the Malays, such as quotas in admission to higher education and the civil service, and making Islam the official religion of the federation. It also made Malay the official language of the nation, although the right to vernacular education in Chinese and Tamil would be protected. Although the Tunku and the Malay rulers had asked the Reid Commission to ensure that "in an independent Malaya all nationals should be accorded equal rights, privileges and opportunities and there must not be discrimination on grounds of race and creed," the Malay privileges, which many in UMNO backed, were cited as necessary by the Reid Commission as a form of affirmative action that would eventually be phased out. These measures were included as Articles 3, 152 and 153 of the Constitution.[22][23]

Independence was declared by the Tunku in Merdeka Stadium on 31 August 1957, marking a transition into a new era of Malayan and Malaysian politics.

Independence[edit]

Tunku Abdul Rahman, first Prime Minister of Malaya

In Malaya's first general elections in 1959, the Alliance coalition led by UMNO won 51.8% of the votes and captured 74 out of 104 seats, enough for a two-thirds majority in parliament, which would not only allow them to form the government again but amend the constitution at will. However, for the Alliance, the election was marred by internal strife when MCA leader Lim Chong Eu demanded his party be allowed to contest 40 of the 104 seats available. When the Tunku rejected this, many of Lim's supporters resigned, and ran in the election as independents, which cost the Alliance some seats.[24]

In 1961, the Tunku mooted the idea of forming a federation named "Malaysia", which would consist of the British colonies of Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak, and also the British Protectorate of Brunei. The reasoning behind this was that this would allow the federal government to control and combat communist activities, especially in Singapore. It was also feared that if Singapore achieved independence, it would become a base for Chinese chauvinists to threaten Malayan sovereignty. To balance out the ethnic composition of the new nation, the other states, whose Malay and indigenous populations would balance out the Singaporean Chinese majority, were also included.[25]

After much negotiation, a constitution was hammered out with some minor changes. For instance, the Malay privileges were now made available to all "Bumiputra", a group comprising the Malays and other indigenous peoples of Malaysia. However, the new states were also granted some autonomy unavailable to the original nine states of Malaya. After negotiations in July 1963, it was agreed that Malaysia would come into being on 31 August 1963, consisting of Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak. Brunei ultimately decided to opt out of the federation due in part to an armed revolt by the People's Party (Parti Rakyat Brunei) which objected to the formation of Malaysia,[26] and the Sultan of Brunei Omar Ali Saifuddien III's demand that he be recognised as the most senior Malay ruler—a demand that was rejected.[27]

The Philippines and Indonesia strenuously objected to this development, with Indonesia claiming Malaysia represented a form of neocolonialism and the Philippines claiming Sabah as its territory. The United Nations sent a commission to the region which approved the merger after having delayed the date of Malaysia's formation to investigate. Despite further protests from the Indonesian President, Sukarno, the formation of Malaysia was proclaimed on 16 September 1963. Indonesia then declared a "confrontation" with Malaysia, sending commandos to perform guerilla attacks in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). The confrontation was ended when Suharto replaced Sukarno as president. The Philippines, which had withdrawn diplomatic recognition from Malaysia, also recognised Malaysia around the same time.[28]

To reflect the change of name to Malaysia, UMNO's coalition partners promptly altered their names to the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Malaysian Indian Congress. Several political parties in East Malaysia, especially Sarawak, also joined the Alliance to allow it to contest elections there.

In the 1963 Singapore state elections, the Alliance decided to challenge Lee Kuan Yew's governing People's Action Party through the Singapore Alliance Party. UMNO politicians actively campaigned in Singapore for the Singapore Alliance, contending that the Singapore Malays were being treated as second-class citizens under the Chinese-dominated PAP government. All of the UMNO-backed Malay candidates lost to PAP candidates. UMNO Secretary-General Syed Jaafar Albar travelled to Singapore to address the Malay populace. At one rally, he called the PAP Malay politicians un-Islamic and traitors to the Malay race, greatly straining PAP-UMNO relations. The PAP politicians, who saw this as a betrayal of an earlier agreement with the Alliance not to contest elections in Malaysia and Singapore respectively, decided on running on the mainland in the 1964 general election. Although the PAP contested nine Parliamentary seats and attracted large crowds at its rallies, it won only one seat. The strain in race relations caused by the communal lines along which the political factions had been drawn led to the 1964 Race Riots in Singapore.

Alliance leaders also were alarmed at Lee's behaviour, which they considered unseemly for the Chief Minister of a state. They thought he was acting as if he were the Prime Minister of a sovereign nation. Finance Minister Tan Siew Sin of the MCA labelled Lee as the "greatest, disruptive force in the entire history of Malaysia and Malaya." Lee now seemed determined to press forward politically and continue contesting elections nationwide, with the formation of the Malaysian Solidarity Council—a coalition of political parties which called for a "Malaysian Malaysia", duplicating the effort introduced earlier by Dato' Onn Ja'afar.

On 7 August 1965, Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman, seeing no alternative to avoid further bloodshed, advised the Parliament of Malaysia that it should vote to expel Singapore from Malaysia. Despite last-ditch attempts by PAP leaders, including Lee Kuan Yew, to keep Singapore as a state in the union, the Parliament on 9 August 1965 voted 126–0 in favour of the expulsion of Singapore.

Tunku opened his speech in Parliament with the words, "In all the 10 years of my leadership of this House I have never had a duty so unpleasant as this to perform. The announcement which I am making concerns the separation of Singapore from the rest of the Federation."[29][30] On that day, Lee Kuan Yew announced that Singapore was a sovereign independent nation and assumed the role of prime minister. After the separation and independence of Singapore in 1965, the Singapore branch of UMNO was renamed the Singapore Malay National Organisation (Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura).

Post-separation[edit]

After the separation of Singapore from the Federation, the Alliance leaders focused on continuing its policies. One involved the Malay language, which was the official language of Malaysia. UMNO sought to reduce the reliance on English in government affairs. In this, it was aided by PAS, the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, which backed special rights for the Bumiputra, and the strengthening of Islam's position in public affairs. However, the PAP's Malaysian branch, which had now become Democratic Action Party (DAP), took a very strong stance against this, and continued the expelled PAP's call for a "Malaysian Malaysia". In 1968, the newly formed Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia or Gerakan, led by Lim Chong Eu, also adopted the DAP's stance.[31]

Matters came to a head in the 1969 general election. When polling closed on the mainland peninsula (West Malaysia) on 10 May, it emerged the Alliance had won less than half of the popular vote, although it was assured of 66 out of 104 Parliamentary seats available. Much of the losses came from the MCA, thus straining relations between the two parties.[clarification needed] However, the Alliance was dealt an even larger blow on the state level, losing control of Kelantan, Perak, and Penang.[32]

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) declared a national emergency after being advised by the national government to do so. Parliament was suspended, with a National Operations Council (NOC) led by Deputy Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak of UMNO, taking over the government. Further polling in East Malaysia as a continuation of the general election was also postponed indefinitely. Although the Cabinet still met under the Tunku as Prime Minister, his role was largely symbolic, with Tun Razak taking over the role of chief executive.[33]

UMNO backbencher Mahathir Mohamad, who had lost his Parliamentary seat in the election, wrote a letter to the Tunku criticising his leadership. Mahathir organised a campaign with University of Malaya lecturer Raja Muktaruddin Daim, circulating his letter among the student bodies of local universities. Mass demonstrations broke out calling for "Malay sovereignty" and the Tunku's ousting. After rioting broke out in June, Home Affairs Minister Ismail Abdul Rahman and Tun Razak agreed to expel Mahathir and former Executive Secretary of UMNO Musa Hitam from the party for breaching party discipline.

The suspended elections in East Malaysia were held in 1970, and restored the Alliance government's two-thirds majority in parliament. On 31 August that year, the Tunku announced the national ideology of Rukunegara and his planned retirement as Prime Minister in favour of Tun Razak. He also stated Parliament would be restored the following year.[34]

The New Economic Policy[edit]

After Tun Razak succeeded the Tunku in 1970, he began asserting UMNO's leadership in the Alliance more strongly. When the Tunku led the coalition, he had always consulted Alliance leaders regarding policy—if an Alliance leader objected, the policy was not passed. Under Tun Razak, UMNO was the base of the Alliance and thus the government. The NOC which he led until Parliament reconvened consisted of 7 Malays, one Chinese and one Indian.[35]

In Tun Razak's cabinet, the two most powerful men other than him were Ismail Abdul Rahman and Ghazali Shafie, who had declared the Westminster-style Parliamentary system inappropriate for Malaysia. Tun Razak also readmitted to the party "ultras" who had been expelled, like Mahathir and Musa Hitam. Mahathir gained notoriety after his expulsion from UMNO by authoring The Malay Dilemma, a book promptly banned from Malaysia, which posited that the Malays are the definitive people of Malaysia, and thus deserved special rights as the sovereign people of the nation. It also controversially argued that the Malays needed affirmative action to overcome deficiencies in their genetic stock.[36]

Hussein Onn, son of UMNO founder Dato' Onn Ja'afar, soon became a rising star in UMNO. After Ismail died suddenly of a heart attack in 1973, Hussein Onn succeeded him as Deputy Prime Minister. In the cabinet reshuffle that promoted Hussein Onn, Mahathir was given the key post of Minister for Education.[37]

The Tun Razak government announced the New Economic Policy in 1971. Its stated goal was to "eventually eradicate poverty... irrespective of race" through a "rapidly expanding economy" which emphasised to increase the Malays' share in the national economy to a reasonable portion between all the races. The NEP targeted a 30 per cent Malay share of the economy by 1990. The government contended that this would lead to a "just society" ("Masyarakat Adil"), the latter slogan being used to promote acceptance of the policy. Quotas in education and the civil service that the Constitution had explicitly provided for were expanded by the NEP, which also mandated government interference in the private sector. For instance, 30% of all shares in initial public offerings would be disbursed by the government to selective Bumiputras. The old civil service hiring quota of 4 Malays for every non-Malay's was effectively disregarded in practice; between 1969 and 1973, 98% of all new government employees were Malay. Five new universities were opened under the NEP, two of which were targeted to focus on the poor Malays and Muslim citizens.[38]

Tun Razak also began shoring up the government by bringing in several former opposition parties into the fold of the Alliance. Gerakan, PPP, PAS, and several former opposition parties in East Malaysia joined the coalition, which was renamed as Barisan Nasional. Barisan was formally registered as an organisation in 1974, the same year in which a general election was held.[39]

There had been much internal conflict in the National Front regarding the election; in 1973, Lim Keng Yaik and several supporters of his aggressive pro-Chinese stance left the MCA for Gerakan. This contributed to internal strife, as the MCA was no longer the sole representative of Chinese interests in the National Front.[40]

Discontent among student organisations in Malaysian universities soon posed a new problem for the UMNO-led government. However, Mahathir in his capacity as Minister for Education issued a stern warning to university students and faculty not to become involved in politics. However, after stories that children of rubber tappers had died after consuming poisonous wild yam due to poverty, university students reacted by staging the 1974 Baling demonstrations. The demonstrations resulted in the arrest of over 1,000 students, including Anwar Ibrahim who wasdetained under the Internal Security Act. In 1975, parliament passed amendments to the Universities and University Colleges Act which banned students from expressing support of or holding positions in any political party or trade union without written consent from the university's Vice-Chancellor.[41] The act also banned political demonstrations from being held on university campuses. In 1976, however, mass demonstrations were held at the MARA Institute of Technology, protesting the UUCA. Mahathir then threatened to revoke the scholarships of the students, most of whom relied on public support to pay their way through university.[42]

BN was also challenged in Sarawak after the 1974 election, which saw the Sarawak National Party led by James Wong become tied with the DAP as the largest opposition party in Parliament, both of them holding nine seats each. SNAP had campaigned against BN on a platform of opposing Chief Minister Abdul Rahman Ya'kub's pro-Malay policies, charging them with alienating the rural indigenous natives of Sarawak, such as the Iban. SNAP had been expelled from the Alliance in 1965 for supporting increased autonomy for Sarawak. In the aftermath of the election, Abdul Rahman ordered the detention of James Wong under the Sedition Act. SNAP elected a new leader, Leo Moggie, who secured the release of Wong and the entry of SNAP into BN in 1976.[43]

In Sabah, BN controlled the state government through the United Sabah National Organisation (USNO), which strongly backed UMNO's pro-Malay and pro-Islam policies. In 1973, Islam was made the official Sabah state religion (the official religion of Sabah was originally Christianity, as permitted by the agreement signed before the merger), and usage of indigenous languages such as those of the Kadazan people was discontinued in favour of the Malay language. The USNO Chief Minister, Mustapha Harun, was also known for favouring political patronage as a means of allocating valuable timber contracts, and living an extravagant lifestyle, being ferried to his A$1 million Queensland home by jets provided with Sabahan public funds.[44]

UMNO Baru (New UMNO)[edit]

Mahathir Mohamad

On 24 April 1987, UMNO held its Annual General Assembly and triennial Party election. The then Prime Minister and party President, Mahathir Mohamad, faced his first party election in 12 years, having been elected unopposed since the 1975 UMNO election.

The politics of the Malays, particularly UMNO politics, had undergone a sea change in the first few years of the Mahathir stewardship, and the party presidency was challenged for the second time in 41 years. The first challenge was a dull affair in which Hussein Onn was opposed by a minor party official named Sulaiman Palestin. In fact, in the early 1950s, Tunku Abdul Rahman's presidency had also been challenged by C. M. Yusof, who later became the Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat, but Tunku was not properly considered an incumbent then, being only a care-taker president.

The 1987 contest was a vastly different matter. Mahathir was opposed by his very popular former Finance Minister, Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah. The press took to referring to Mahathir and his supporters as Team A, and Razaleigh's camp as Team B. Team B included then Deputy Prime Minister Tun Musa Hitam, who was also the incumbent Deputy President of UMNO seeking re-election, as well as Datuk Suhaimi Kamaruddin, the former head of UMNO Youth and president of the Belia 4B youth organisation.[45]

Team B was critical of Mahathir's policies, arguing that the Malaysian New Economic Policy had failed to benefit the poor Malays. It also criticised Mahathir's leadership style, alleging he acted unilaterally without consulting other leaders in UMNO and the Barisan Nasional. Team B was also perceived as less Islamist than Mahathir's faction.[46]

Mahathir claimed that the charges against him were groundless, and suggested that his opponents were fracturing Malay unity and were only motivated by greed.[46]

Eventually, Mahathir was returned to office. However, he was elected with such a small majority of 43 (761 against 718 votes) that questions were immediately raised about his mandate. Team B supporters, many of whom had been anticipating a victory of similar margins, suspected that the election had been fixed. The Team B candidate for Deputy President, Musa Hitam, had also been defeated by Ghafar Baba of Team A, while two of the three vice-presidents were Team A candidates. The Supreme Council comprised 16 Team A candidates and 9 Team B candidates.[47]

Allegations were made that several delegates who had voted were drawn from UMNO branches not properly registered. There were also several unproved allegations being bandied about that the balloting process had not been above board.[48]

Nevertheless, Razaleigh pledged to support Mahathir, provided that a "witch hunt" was not launched. However, Mahathir promptly purged the government cabinet of all Team B members, and launched similar reshuffles in state and local governments.[49]

On 25 June 1987, an appeal was filed by 12 of the UMNO delegates to have the assembly and the election of April 1987 declared null. After one of the delegates, Hussain bin Manap, withdrew unexpectedly in August from filing the appeal, the remaining litigants have since become famous as the "UMNO 11." Although Razaleigh and Musa Hitam were not among the plaintiffs, it was widely believed that Razaleigh was funding the appeal.[48]

After a series of interlocutory hearings over the discovery of documents that took more than seven months, the matter finally came before Justice Harun Hashim in the Kuala Lumpur High Court on 4 February 1988. The judge ruled that under the existing law he had no option but to find the party, UMNO, to be an unlawful society due to the existence of several unregistered branches—an illegal act under the Societies Act of 1966. The question of the Assembly itself being illegal therefore became academic.[50]

"'It is a very hard decision to declare UMNO unlawful,' said Justice Datuk Harun Hashim in his February 4 judgement. 'But the law was made by our Parliament and certainly UMNO was aware [of the Societies Act] because they were in the majority [in Parliament] at all times [when the law was made].' Under the 1966 Act, amended five times over the years, and most recently by Mahathir's government, each of the society's branches has to register separately with the Registrar...."[50]

The Tunku and former UMNO President Hussein Onn set up a new party called UMNO Malaysia, which claimed to be the successor to the old UMNO. UMNO Malaysia was supported mainly by members of the Team B faction from UMNO, but Mahathir was also invited to join the party leadership. However, the party collapsed after the Registrar of Societies refused to register it as a society without providing an explanation.[51]

Mahathir showed no interest in reviving UMNO, and instead he set in motion the machinery to form a new surrogate party, and in due course, registered a party formally called Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu (Baru) or UMNO (New) a week after UMNO Malaysia's registration was rejected. Eventually the suffix "(New)" was dropped, and UMNO (Baru) became both the de facto and de jure successor of original UMNO, dropping the 'Baru' suffix with the old UMNO's assets handed over.[52] Most of its leaders, however, were selected from Team A of the old UMNO, with Team B ignored.[53]

In 10th general election in 1999, rocked by the arrest and trial of former UMNO deputy Anwar Ibrahim and the subsequent formation of the Barisan Alternatif opposition coalition, UMNO's share dipped to 54% of the vote and 102 out of 144 seats.

Post-Mahathir[edit]

An official photo of former prime minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi.
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi served as the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia from 2003 to 2009.
An official photo of former prime minister Najib Tun Razak.
Najib Tun Razak served as the 6th Prime Minister of Malaysia from 2009 to 2018.

After Mahathir stepped down as President of UMNO in 2003, he was replaced by his designated successor, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, who became Prime Minister of Malaysia. Najib Razak, the son of Tun Abdul Razak, took over as the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia.

In the 11th general election in 2004, Barisan Nasional, under Abdullah's leadership, enjoyed a landslide victory. However, in the 12th general election in 2008, the coalition for the first time fell short of a two-thirds majority in the Parliament. UMNO Chief Ministers were ousted in the states of Selangor, Perak, Penang and Kedah. As a result, Abdullah resigned as President of UMNO and Prime Minister in 2009. He was succeeded by Najib.

Under Najib's leadership, UMNO gained a total of 9 seats in the 13th general election and retook the state of Kedah.

In 2018, UMNO was required to hold an leadership election 19 April by the requirements of the Registry of Societies (RoS), to hold a leadership election within five years of the last leadership election, as the last leadership election was in 2013.[54] In April, some UMNO members filed a suit to declare UMNO illegal but was dismissed by the High Court.[55] UMNO announced in May that the RoS had in 2017 allowed UMNO to postpone the election until 19 April 2019.[55]

On 9 May 2018, Mahathir and the Pakatan Harapan coalition won the 14th General Election ending UMNO's 61 year long rule as part of the Alliance and later Barisan Nasional coalition.[56] UMNO experienced a mass exodus of rank-and-file members, state chiefs, as well as Members of Parliament in favour of Mahathir's Bersatu and regionalist parties such as Parti Warisan Sabah in the months after the election.[57][58][59]

After the general election defeat, UMNO held the UMNO leadership election in June 2018 instead of 2019.[60] Ahmad Zahid Hamidi won the election and became the president of UMNO.[61]

In September 2019, UMNO decided to form a pact with the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party called Muafakat Nasional. Its main purpose is to unite the Malay Muslim communities for electoral purposes.[62] There is however no formal agreement with the other parties of Barisan Nasional, although there are calls for Barisan Nasional to migrate to Muafakat Nasional.[63][64] Barisan Nasional continued to function as a coalition of four parties comprising UMNO, MCA, MIC and PBRS, but aligned themselves with Perikatan Nasional to form a new government in March 2020 after the collapse of the Pakatan Harapan government.[65]

In February 2020, in the leadup to the 2020–2022 Malaysian political crisis, UMNO leaders Ahmad Zahid Hamidi and Ismail Sabri Yaakob, along with Bersatu President Muhyiddin Yassin, PAS President Abdul Hadi Awang and PKR defector members led by Azmin Ali, collectively convened at the Sheraton Petaling Jaya hotel to initiate a change in government, thus causing political instability by depriving the elected Pakatan Harapan government of a majority within the 14th Malaysian Parliament. As a result, Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad (along with the Seventh Mahathir cabinet) tendered their resignation.[66][67][68] In March 2020, after the Yang di-Pertuan Agong consulted all members of the 14th Malaysian Parliament, Muhyiddin Yassin, with the support of UMNO and other parties, was deemed to have the greatest support within Parliament and was selected as the 8th Prime Minister of Malaysia.[69][70]

In Muhyiddin cabinet, which formed on 10 March 2020, six UMNO MP's became Ministers & eight UMNO MP's became Deputy Ministers.

In July 2021, further political instability ensued when UMNO, at the direction of its President Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, withdrew support for the government led by Muhyiddin along with his cabinet. Zahid claimed that as Muhyiddin failed to spearhead economic recovery and effectively handle the Covid-19 pandemic, therefore Zahid claimed Muhyiddin failed to fulfil the conditions underlined by UMNO when it backed Muhyiddin to become prime minister in March 2020.[71][72][73] In August 2021, after the Yang di-Pertuan Agong required all members of the 14th Malaysian Parliament to submit a statutory declaration (SD) indicating their preference of Prime Minister, Ismail Sabri Yaakob possessed the greatest support within Parliament (with 114 affirmative SDs out of a possible 222) and was selected as the 9th Prime Minister of Malaysia (without an electoral mandate).[74]

In the 2022 election, UMNO, as a part of BN, faced the worst-ever result in Malaysian history, with only winning 26 out of 222 seats.[75] Several key figures including Noh Omar, Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah, Mahdzir Khalid, Azeez Rahim, Tengku Zafrul Aziz, Khairy Jamaluddin, lost to either PN or PH candidates.[75][76][77][78] UMNO was also defeated at several state elections held in Pahang, Perlis and Perak.[79] Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, the party president, was re-elected with a slim majority.[80]

Ideology[edit]

2012 UMNO General Assembly

UMNO overtly represents the Malays of Malaysia, although any Bumiputra (indigenous Malaysian, a category which includes people such as the non-Malay and usually non-Muslim Kadazan, Iban, Dayak, etc. of East Malaysia) may join the party. The party propagates Ketuanan Melayu, the concept that the Bumiputra, including ethnic Malays, enjoy a special status within the country by virtue of their earlier settlement of the lands that now form Malaysia and as a result of the recognition of Malays in Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia.[81]

Bumiputera policies[edit]

In 2018, Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad announced the cabinet's decision for the government to "ratify all remaining core UN instruments related to the protection of human rights", including International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) and other five previously unratified conventions at a United Nations General Assembly, UMNO, PAS along with various non-governmental organisations, staged an anti-ICERD rally that was held at the Dataran Merdeka, Kuala Lumpur, to protest against the ratifications of the relevant international conventions, due to their perception that these human rights instruments contravene with the special position of the Malays, bumiputera and Islam within the country; all of which are enshrined within the Malaysian Constitution.[82][83][84]

On 23 November 2018, the Prime Minister's Office announced they would not ratify the convention and would continue defending the Federal Constitution, which they said represents a social contract that was agreed upon by all races during the formation of the country.[85]

In 2021, a new equity policy for bumiputeras in the Twelfth Malaysia Plan (12MP) attracted controversy which were announced by Ismail. It is said to ensure sustainable equity holdings by bumiputeras, an equity safety net would be launched to guarantee that the sale of shares or bumiputera-owned firms would only be sold solely to bumiputera-owned companies, consortium or individuals.[86][87] Syed Saddiq said that the new rulings were unfair as they would be tantamount to taking equity from the non-bumiputeras and giving them to bumiputeras. Former Health Minister, Dzulkefly Ahmad had also described the policy as "suicidal" and claimed that the new policy would only kill the bumiputera companies economically if that is their intention. He also said that based on the feedback from Malay businessmen, most were against the idea of the new bumiputera-only policy being implemented.[88] Ismail Sabri announced it after revealing that the government’s target to raise bumiputera equity ownership to 30% had yet to be achieved. He also announced funding to improve bumiputera businesses’ sustainability to hit 15% contribution in gross domestic product (GDP) by bumiputera micro, small and medium enterprises by 2025.[89]

List of leaders[edit]

President[edit]

Wanita Chief[edit]

[90]

# Name Term start Term end
1 Putih Mariah Ibrahim Rashid 1947 1949
2 Zainon Munshi Sulaiman 1950 1953
3 Khadijah Sidek 1954 1956
4 Fatimah Hashim 1957 1972
5 Aishah Ghani 1972 1986
6 Rafidah Aziz 1987 1996
7 Siti Zaharah Sulaiman 1996 2000
8 Rafidah Aziz 2000 2009
9 Shahrizat Abdul Jalil 26 March 2009 24 June 2018
10 Noraini Ahmad 25 June 2018 Incumbent

Pemuda Chief[edit]

[91]

# Name Term start Term end
1 Hussein Onn 1949 1951
2 Abdul Razak Hussein 1951 1951
3 Sardon Jubir 1951 1964
4 Senu Abdul Rahman 1964 1971
5 Harun Idris 1971 1976
6 Syed Jaafar Albar 1976 1977
7 Suhaimi Kamaruddin 1977 1982
8 Anwar Ibrahim 1982 1987
9 Mohd Najib Abdul Razak 1987 1993
10 Rahim Thamby Chik 1993 1994
11 Ahmad Zahid Hamidi 1996 1998
12 Hishammuddin Hussein 1999 2009
13 Khairy Jamaluddin 26 March 2009 24 June 2018
14 Asyraf Wajdi Dusuki 25 June 2018 Incumbent

Puteri Chief[edit]

[92]

# Name Term start Term end
1 Azalina Othman Said 2001 2004
2 Noraini Ahmad 2004 2009
3 Rosnah Shirlin 26 March 2009 12 October 2013
4 Mas Ermieyati Samsudin 12 October 2013 25 June 2018
5 Zahida Zarik Khan 25 June 2018 Incumbent

Structure and membership[edit]

Current office bearer[edit]

Official source

Elected representatives[edit]

Dewan Negara (Senate)[edit]

Senators[edit]

  1. Ahmad Masrizal Muhammad – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  2. Zunairah Musa – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  3. Arman Azha Abu Hanifah – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  4. Jefridin Atan – elected by the Johor State Legislative Assembly
  5. Mohamad Ali Mohamad – elected by the Malacca State Legislative Assembly
  6. Mohd Hisamudin Yahaya – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  7. Junhais Abdul Aziz – elected by the Pahang State Legislative Assembly
  8. Ajis Sitin – elected by the Pahang State Legislative Assembly
  9. Aziz Ariffin – elected by the Perlis State Legislative Assembly
  10. Seruandi Saad – elected by the Perlis State Legislative Assembly
  11. Noraini Idris @ Judith Fedelis – elected by the Sabah State Legislative Assembly
  12. Shamsuddin Abdul Ghafar – elected by the Perak State Legislative Assembly
  13. Ros Suyati Alang – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  14. Zambry Abdul Kadir – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  15. Tengku Zafrul Aziz – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)[edit]

Members of Parliament of the 15th Malaysian Parliament[edit]

UMNO has 26 MPs in the House of Representatives.

State No. Parliament Constituency Member
 Perak P055 Lenggong Shamsul Anuar Nasarah
P075 Bagan Datuk Dr. Ahmad Zahid Hamidi
 Pahang P078 Cameron Highlands Ramli Mohd. Nor
P079 Lipis Abdul Rahman Mohamad
P084 Paya Besar Mohd. Shahar Abdullah
P085 Pekan Sh Mohamed Puzi Sh Ali
P090 Bera Ismail Sabri Yaakob
 Kuala Lumpur P119 Titiwangsa Johari Abdul Ghani
 Negeri Sembilan P126 Jelebu Jalaluddin Alias
P127 Jempol Shamshulkahar Mohd. Deli
P129 Kuala Pilah Adnan Abu Hassan
P131 Rembau Mohammad Hasan
P133 Tampin Mohd Isam Isa
 Johor P147 Parit Sulong Noraini Ahmad
P151 Simpang Renggam Hasni Mohammad
P153 Sembrong Hishammuddin Hussein
P155 Tenggara Manndzri Nasib
P156 Kota Tinggi Mohamed Khaled Nordin
P157 Pengerang Azalina Othman Said
P164 Pontian Ahmad Maslan
 Sabah P173 Putatan Shahelmey Yahya
P176 Kimanis Mohamad Alamin
P177 Beaufort Siti Aminah Anching
P184 Libaran Suhaimi Nasir
P187 Kinabatangan Bung Moktar Radin
P191 Kalabakan Andi Muhammad Suryady Bandy
Total Perak (2), Pahang (5), F.T. Kuala Lumpur (1), Negeri Sembilan (5), Johor (7), Sabah (6)

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)[edit]

State No. Parliament Constituency No. State Constituency Member
 Kedah P11 Pendang N19 Sungai Tiang Suraya Yaacob
P18 Kulim-Bandar Baharu N36 Bandar Baharu Norsabrina Mohd. Noor
 Kelantan P26 Ketereh N25 Kok Lanas Md. Alwi Che Ahmad
P27 Tanah Merah N27 Gual Ipoh Bakri Mustapha
P30 Jeli N36 Bukit Bunga Mohd. Adhan Kechik
N38 Kuala Balah Abd Aziz Derashid
P32 Gua Musang N43 Nenggiri Ab. Aziz Yusoff
N44 Paloh Amran Ariffin
N45 Galas Mohd. Syahbuddin Hashim
 Terengganu P33 Besut N1 Kuala Besut Tengku Zaihan Che Ku Abd. Raham
N3 Jertih Muhammad Pehimi Yusof
N4 Hulu Besut Nawi Mohamad
P34 Setiu N6 Permaisuri Abd Halim Jusoh
N7 Langkap Sabri Mohd. Noor
N8 Batu Rakit Bazlan Abd Rahman
P35 Kuala Nerus N11 Seberang Takir Ahmad Razif Abdul Rahman
N12 Telemung Rozi Mamat
P39 Dungun N25 Bukit Besi Roslee Daud
P40 Kemaman N30 Kijal Ahmad Said
 Penang P42 Tasek Gelugor N4 Permatang Berangan Nor Hafizah Othman
N5 Sungai Dua Muhamad Yusoff Mohd Noor
 Perak P54 Gerik N1 Pengkalan Hulu Aznel Ibrahim
N2 Temenggor Salbiah Mohamed
P55 Lenggong N3 Kenering Mohd Tarmizi Idris
N4 Kota Tampan Saarani Mohammad
P56 Larut N7 Batu Kurau Muhammad Amin Zakaria
P58 Bagan Serai N10 Alor Pangsu Sham Mat Sahat
N12 Selinsing Mohamad Noor Dawoo
P59 Bukit Gantang N13 Kuala Sepetang Mohd Kamaruddin Abu Bakar
N14 Changkat Jering Ahmad Saidi Mohamad Daud
N15 Trong Jamilah Zakaria
P61 Padang Rengas N19 Chenderoh Zainun Mat Noor
N20 Lubok Merbau Jurij Jalaluddin
P62 Sungai Siput N21 Lintang Mohd Zolkafly Harun
P67 Kuala Kangsar N34 Bukit Chandan Maslin Sham Razman
N35 Manong Mohamed Zuraimi Razali
P68 Beruas N36 Pengkalan Baharu Abdul Manaf Hashim
P69 Parit N39 Belanja Khairudin Abu Hanipah
N40 Bota Khairul Shahril Mohamed
P72 Tapah N48 Ayer Kuning Samsudin Abu Hassan
P73 Pasir Salak N50 Kampong Gajah Wan Norashikin Wan Noordin
P74 Lumut N52 Pangkor Zambry Abdul Kadir
P75 Bagan Datuk N53 Rungkup Shahrul Zaman Yahya
N54 Hutan Melintang Khairuddin Tarmizi
P76 Teluk Intan N56 Changkat Jong Mohd Azhar Jamaluddin
P77 Tanjong Malim N58 Slim Mohd Zaidi Aziz
 Pahang P78 Cameron Highlands N2 Jelai Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail
P79 Lipis N3 Padang Tengku Mustapa Long
N5 Benta Mohd. Soffi Abd. Razak
P80 Raub N6 Batu Talam Abd. Aziz Mat Kiram
N8 Dong Shahiruddin Ab Moin
P81 Jerantut N11 Pulau Tawar Nazri Ngah
P83 Kuantan N16 Inderapura Shafik Fauzan Sharif
P84 Paya Besar N17 Sungai Lembing Md. Sohaimi Mohamed Shah
N18 Lepar Abdul Rahim Muda
P85 Pekan N20 Pulau Manis Khairuddin Mahmud
N21 Peramu Jaya Sh. Mohamed Puzi Sh. Ali
N22 Bebar Mohd. Fakhruddin Mohd. Arif
N23 Chini Mohd Sharim Md Zain
P86 Maran N25 Kuala Sentul Shahaniza Shamsuddin
N27 Jenderak Mohamed Jaafar
P87 Kuala Krau N28 Kerdau Syed Ibrahim Syed Ahmad
P88 Temerloh N31 Lanchang Mohd Sharkar Shamsudin
N32 Kuala Semantan Nor Azmi Mat Ludin
P89 Bentong N36 Pelangai Adnan Yaakob
P90 Bera N37 Guai Norol Azali Sulaiman
N39 Kemayan Mohd. Fadil Osman
P91 Rompin N40 Bukit Ibam Samsiah Arshad
N41 Muadzam Shah Razali Kassim
N42 Tioman Mohd. Johari Hussain
 Selangor P92 Sabak Bernam N1 Sungai Air Tawar Rizam Ismail
P93 Sungai Besar N3 Sungai Panjang Mohd Imran Tamrin
P94 Hulu Selangor N5 Hulu Bernam Rosni Sohar
P95 Tanjong Karang N8 Sungai Burong Mohd Shamsudin Lias
P101 Hulu Langat N24 Semenyih Zakaria Hanafi
 Negeri Sembilan P126 Jelebu N2 Pertang Noor Azmi Yusuf
N3 Sungai Lui Mohd Razi Mohd Ali
P127 Jempol N5 Serting Shamshulkahar Mohd. Deli
N6 Palong Mustafa Nagoor
P129 Kuala Pilah N15 Juasseh Ismail Lasim
N16 Seri Menanti Abdul Samad Ibrahim
N17 Senaling Adnan Abu Hasan
N19 Johol Saiful Yazan Sulaiman
P131 Rembau N26 Chembong Zaifulbahri Idris
N27 Rantau Mohamad Hasan
N28 Kota Awaludin Said
P132 Port Dickson N31 Bagan Pinang Tun Hairuddin Abu Bakar
N32 Linggi Abdul Rahman Mohd. Redza
P133 Tampin N34 Gemas Abdul Razak Said
N35 Gemencheh Mohd. Isam Mohd. Isa
 Malacca P134 Masjid Tanah N1 Kuala Linggi Rosli Abdullah
N2 Tanjung Bidara Ab Rauf Yusoh
N3 Ayer Limau Hameed Basheer
N4 Lendu Sulaiman Md Ali
N5 Taboh Naning Zulkiflee Mohd Zin
P135 Alor Gajah N6 Rembia Muhammad Jailani Khamis
N9 Durian Tunggal Zahari Kalil
N10 Asahan Fairul Nizam Roslan
P136 Tangga Batu N12 Pantai Kundor Tuminah Kadi @ Mohd Hashim
N13 Paya Rumput Rais Yasin
P137 Hang Tuah Jaya N15 Pengkalan Batu Kalsom Noordin
N18 Ayer Molek Rahmad Mariman
P138 Kota Melaka N21 Duyong Mohd Noor Helmy Abu Halen
N23 Telok Mas Abdul Razak Abdul Rahman
P139 Jasin N25 Rim Khaidhirah Abu Zahar
N26 Serkam Zaidi Attan
N27 Merlimau Muhamad Akmal Saleh
N28 Sungai Rambai Siti Faizah Abdul Azis
 Johor P140 Segamat N01 Buloh Kasap Zahari Sarip
P141 Sekijang N03 Pemanis Anuar Abdul Manap
P142 Labis N05 Tenang Haslinda Salleh
P143 Pagoh N08 Bukit Pasir Mohamad Fazli Mohamad Salleh
P144 Ledang N9 Gambir Sahrihan Jani
N11 Serom Khairin Nisa Ismail
P145 Bakri N14 Bukit Naning Fuad Tukirin
P146 Muar N16 Sungai Balang Selamat Takim
P147 Parit Sulong N17 Semerah Mohd Fared Mohd Khalid
N18 Sri Medan Zulkurnain Kamisan
P148 Ayer Hitam N20 Semarang Samsol Bari Jamali
P149 Sri Gading N21 Parit Yaani Mohd Najib Samuri
N22 Pasir Raja Nor Rashidah Ramli
P150 Batu Pahat N24 Senggarang Mohd Yusla Ismail
N25 Rengit Mohd Puad Zarkashi
P151 Simpang Renggam N26 Machap Onn Hafiz Ghazi
N27 Layang-Layang Abd Mutalip Abd Rahim
P152 Kluang N29 Mahkota Sharifah Azizah Syed Zain
P155 Tenggara N34 Panti Hahasrin Hashim
N35 Pasir Raja Rashidah Ismail
P156 Kota Tinggi N36 Sedili Muszaidi Makmor
N37 Johor Lama Norlizah Noh
P157 Pengerang N38 Penawar Fauziah Misri
N39 Tanjung Suarat Aznan Tamin
P158 Tebrau N40 Tiram Azizul Bachok
P159 Pasir Gudang N43 Permas Baharudin Mohd Taib
P160 Johor Bahru N44 Larkin Mohd Hairi Mad Shah
P161 Pulai N47 Kempas Ramlee Bohani
P162 Iskandar Puteri N49 Kota Iskandar Pandak Ahmad
P163 Kulai N50 Bukit Permai Mohd Jafni Md Shukor
P164 Pontian N53 Benut Hasni Mohammad
N54 Pulai Sebatang Hasrunizah Hassan
P165 Tanjung Piai N56 Kukup Jefridin Atan
 Sabah P167 Kudat N2 Bengkoka Harun Durabi
P169 Kota Belud N9 Tempasuk Mohd Arsad Bistari
N10 Usukan Salleh Said Keruak
P170 Tuaran N13 Pantai Dalit Jasnih Daya
P171 Sepanggar N16 Karambunai Yakubah Khan
P173 Putatan N24 Tanjung Keramat Shahelmey Yahya
P175 Papar N29 Pantai Manis Mohd Tamin @ Tamin Zainal
P178 Sipitang N35 Sinduim Yusof Yacob
P183 Beluran N48 Sugut James Ratib
P184 Libaran N51 Sungai Manila Mokran Ingkat
N52 Sungai Sibuga Mohamad Hamsan Awang Supain
P187 Kinabatangan N58 Lamag Bung Mokhtar Radin
N59 Sukau Jafry Ariffin
P190 Tawau N67 Balung Hamild @ Hamid Awang
P191 Kalabakan N71 Tanjong Batu Andi Muhammad Suryady Bandy
- Nominated Member Raime Unggi
Nominated Member Suhaimi Nasir
Total Perlis (9), Kedah (2), Kelantan (7), Terengganu (10), Penang (2), Perak (25), Pahang (24), Selangor (5), Negeri Sembilan (15), Malacca (18), Johor (33), Sabah (17)

UMNO state governments[edit]

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Johor Menteri Besar Onn Hafiz Ghazi UMNO Machap
 Malacca Chief Minister Sulaiman Md Ali UMNO Lendu
 Pahang Menteri Besar Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail UMNO Jelai
 Perak Menteri Besar Saarani Mohammad UMNO Kota Tampan

General election results[edit]

Election Total seats won Seats contested Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
1955
34 / 52
28 589,933 58.90% Increase34 seats; Governing coalition
(Alliance Party)
Tunku Abdul Rahman
1959
52 / 104
70 553,160 35.75% Increase18 seats; Governing coalition
(Alliance Party)
Tunku Abdul Rahman
1964
59 / 104
70 458,854 38.10% Increase7 seats; Governing coalition
(Alliance Party)
Tunku Abdul Rahman
1969
52 / 144
70 Decrease7 seats; Governing coalition
(Alliance Party)
Tunku Abdul Rahman
1974
62 / 144
80 Increase10 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Abdul Razak Hussein
1978
70 / 154
80 Increase8 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Hussein Onn
1982
70 / 154
100 Steady; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Mahathir Mohamad
1986
83 / 177
100 1,474,063 31.06% Increase13 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Mahathir Mohamad
1990
71 / 180
100 Decrease12 seat; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Mahathir Mohamad
1995
89 / 192
100 Increase18 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Mahathir Mohamad
1999
72 / 193
120 Decrease17 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Mahathir Mohamad
2004
109 / 219
120 2,483,249 35.9% Increase37 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
2008
79 / 222
120 2,381,725 29.33% Decrease30 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
2013
88 / 222
120 3,252,484 29.45% Increase9 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Najib Razak
2018
54 / 222
120 2,548,251 21.10% Decrease34 seats; Opposition coalition,
later Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Najib Razak
2022
26 / 222
119 2,549,341 16.43% Decrease28 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Ahmad Zahid Hamidi

State election results[edit]

State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis Kedah Kelantan Terengganu Penang Perak Pahang Selangor Negeri Sembilan Malacca Johor Sabah Total won / Total contested
2/3 majority
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
1959
10 / 12
18 / 24
1 / 30
5 / 24
10 / 24
21 / 40
17 / 24
14 / 28
11 / 24
13 / 20
20 / 32
1964
9 / 12
18 / 24
8 / 30
20 / 24
10 / 24
22 / 40
17 / 24
13 / 28
14 / 24
13 / 20
20 / 32
1969
9 / 12
12 / 24
10 / 30
12 / 24
4 / 24
18 / 40
16 / 24
12 / 28
11 / 24
11 / 20
19 / 32
54 / 68
1974
8 / 12
12 / 26
13 / 36
18 / 28
9 / 27
22 / 42
23 / 32
19 / 33
15 / 24
13 / 20
20 / 32
1978
10 / 12
14 / 26
22 / 36
27 / 28
9 / 27
23 / 42
24 / 32
19 / 33
15 / 24
13 / 20
20 / 32
1982
9 / 12
19 / 26
22 / 36
22 / 28
10 / 27
24 / 42
24 / 32
20 / 33
15 / 24
13 / 20
20 / 32
1986
12 / 14
20 / 28
28 / 39
29 / 32
12 / 33
26 / 46
25 / 33
26 / 42
18 / 28
12 / 20
22 / 36
1990
12 / 14
22 / 28
0 / 39
22 / 32
12 / 33
27 / 46
25 / 33
26 / 42
18 / 28
12 / 20
21 / 36
1994
19 / 48
19 / 31
1995
13 / 15
26 / 36
6 / 43
24 / 32
12 / 33
30 / 52
28 / 38
30 / 48
20 / 32
16 / 25
25 / 40
1999
10 / 15
16 / 36
2 / 43
4 / 32
10 / 33
26 / 52
21 / 38
26 / 48
20 / 32
16 / 25
25 / 40
24 / 48
2004
12 / 15
23 / 36
21 / 45
27 / 32
14 / 40
34 / 59
31 / 42
35 / 56
22 / 36
18 / 28
33 / 56
32 / 60
2008
12 / 15
12 / 36
6 / 45
23 / 32
11 / 40
27 / 59
29 / 42
18 / 56
19 / 36
18 / 28
32 / 56
32 / 60
2013
12 / 15
19 / 36
12 / 45
17 / 32
10 / 40
30 / 59
28 / 42
12 / 56
21 / 36
17 / 28
32 / 56
31 / 60
2018
9 / 15
3 / 36
8 / 45
10 / 32
2 / 40
25 / 59
24 / 42
4 / 56
15 / 36
13 / 28
14 / 56
17 / 60
145 / 587
2020
14 / 73
14 / 31
2021
18 / 28
18 / 20
2022
33 / 56
33 / 37
2022
0 / 15
8 / 59
16 / 41
0 / 85

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 1972, the investment arm of UMNO bought out the Malaysian operations of Straits Times Press, which included Berita Harian. The bought over publications were placed under the management of the New Straits Times Press, which is also the name of its main publication [1]
  2. ^ belongs to the same parent company as Berita Harian.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Edge 2004, p. 185.
  2. ^ "Umno has over three million members, says secretary-general". New Straits Times. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  3. ^ Helen Ting. "The Politics of National Identity in West Malaysia: Continued Mutation or Critical Transition? [The Politics of Ambiguity]" (PDF). Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University. J-Stage. p. 3/21 [33] and 5/21 [35]. UMNO came into being in 1946 under the impetus of the Anti-Malayan Union Movement based on this ideological understanding of ketuanan Melayu. Its founding president, Dato’ Onn Jaafar, once said that the UMNO movement did not adhere to any ideology other than Melayuisme, defined by scholar Ariffin Omar as “the belief that the interests of the bangsa Melayu must be upheld over all else”. Malay political dominance is a fundamental reality of Malaysian politics, notwithstanding the fact that the governing coalition since independence, the Alliance [subsequently expanded to form the Barisan Nasional or literally, the “National Front”], is multiethnic in its composition.
  4. ^ Jinna Tay; Graeme Turner (24 July 2015). Television Histories in Asia: Issues and Contexts. Routledge. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-1-135-00807-9.
  5. ^ Jan Senkyr (2013). "Political Awakening in Malaysia". KAS International Reports (7): 73–74. the UMNO can be described as a national conservative Islamic party
  6. ^ Yee, Choong Pui (2 March 2012). "Malaysia's Right Wing Problem". thediplomat.com. The Diplomat. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  7. ^ "Umno assembly grand old party dominant in all ways". The Straits Times. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  8. ^ UMNO Online. UMNO's Constitution: Foundation and Goals. From: "UMNO Online - Perlembagaan". Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  9. ^ UMNO Online. UMNO's Constitution: Goal 3.5. From:"UMNO Online - Perlembagaan". Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  10. ^ UMNO Online. UMNO's Constitution: Goal 3.3. From:"UMNO Online - Perlembagaan". Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  11. ^ "Umno elections historic, ensure party remains relevant, says Zahid – Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  12. ^ "Malaysia : History | The Commonwealth".
  13. ^ Adam, Ramlah binti, Samuri, Abdul Hakim bin & Fadzil, Muslimin bin (2004). Sejarah Tingkatan 3, pp. 60–65, 75. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. ISBN 983-62-8285-8.
  14. ^ Joseph M. Fernando (18 June 2007). "The rebel in Onn Jaafar". The Star. The Malaysian Bar. Retrieved 19 June 2007.
  15. ^ Keat Gin Ooi, ed. (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 138. ISBN 9781576077702.
  16. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, p. 124, 135.
  17. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, pp. 137–140.
  18. ^ "About MIC: History" Archived 20 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 28 January 2006.
  19. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, p. 140.
  20. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, p. 103–107.
  21. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, pp. 148, 151.
  22. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, p. 153–155.
  23. ^ Ooi, Jeff (2005). "Social Contract: 'Utusan got the context wrong'" Archived 30 October 2005 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 11 November 2005.
  24. ^ Goh, Cheng Teik (1994). Malaysia: Beyond Communal Politics, p. 18. Pelanduk Publications. ISBN 967-978-475-4.
  25. ^ Shuid, Mahdi & Yunus, Mohd. Fauzi (2001). Malaysian Studies, p. 29. Longman. ISBN 983-74-2024-3.
  26. ^ Shuid & Yunus, p. 31.
  27. ^ Mathews, Philip (February 2014). Chronicle of Malaysia: Fifty Years of Headline News, 1963–2013. Editions Didier Millet. p. 29. ISBN 978-967-10617-4-9.
  28. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, pp. 214, 217, 220, 222, 223.
  29. ^ Rahman, Tunku Abdul (1965). "A dream shattered" Archived 8 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 5 February 2006.
  30. ^ Ooi, Jeff (2005). "Perils of the sitting duck" Archived 28 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 11 November 2005.
  31. ^ Means, Gordon P. (1991). Malaysian Politics: The Second Generation, pp. 3, 5, 29. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-588988-6.
  32. ^ Means, p. 6, 7.
  33. ^ Means, p. 8.
  34. ^ Means, pp. 11, 12.
  35. ^ Means, pp. 20, 21.
  36. ^ Means, pp. 20–22.
  37. ^ Means, pp. 22, 23.
  38. ^ Means, pp. 23–27.
  39. ^ Means, pp. 29, 30.
  40. ^ Means, p. 31.
  41. ^ "The story behind some of Malaysia's biggest street rallies". 27 August 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  42. ^ Means, pp. 36, 37.
  43. ^ Means, pp. 39, 40.
  44. ^ Means, pp. 41, 42.
  45. ^ Means, p. 201.
  46. ^ a b Means, p. 202.
  47. ^ Means, p. 204.
  48. ^ a b Means, p. 206.
  49. ^ Means, p. 205.
  50. ^ a b Means, pp. 218, 219.
  51. ^ Means, pp. 224, 225.
  52. ^ "Terus fokus menyatukan Melayu". Utusan Online. 1 December 2012. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  53. ^ Means, pp. 224, 225, 230......
  54. ^ Hanipa Maidin (19 April 2018). "Umno – apa selepas hari ini, 19 Apr 2018?" (in Malay). Malaysiakini. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  55. ^ a b Auto, Hermes (19 May 2018). "Malaysia's Umno party elections to be held by April 2019 but dissent over top posts | The Straits Times". www.straitstimes.com. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  56. ^ "Malaysia election: Opposition scores historic victory". BBC News. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  57. ^ "Three Johor Umno reps jump to Pribumi". The Star. 12 May 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  58. ^ "Kelantan Wanita Umno info chief, 50 others, jump to Pribumi". The Star. 13 May 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  59. ^ "Sabah Umno exodus sees nine of 10 Aduns, five of six MPs leave". The Star. 12 December 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  60. ^ "Former Malaysia PM Najib Razak steps down as Umno president and Barisan Nasional chairman". The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  61. ^ "Zahid to contest Umno president's post, Negeri Sembilan chief eyes deputy's seat". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  62. ^ "What's next for Piagam Muafakat Nasional?". The Malaysian Reserve. 18 September 2019.
  63. ^ "MCA's future in Muafakat Nasional remains unclear". New Straits Times. 30 November 2019.
  64. ^ Reme Ahmad (5 December 2019). "Calls in Umno for Barisan Nasional to 'migrate' to Muafakat Nasional". The Straits Times.
  65. ^ Adib Povera (4 March 202). "Perikatan Nasional coalition to set up joint secretariat". New Straits Times.
  66. ^ Yiswaree Palansamy (23 February 2020). "Azmin arrives at Sheraton Hotel, first sighting since rumoured new coalition". Malay Mail. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  67. ^ Sadho Ram (23 February 2020). "PAS, UMNO, Bersatu, Amanah And 10 PKR MPs Said To Be Forming A New Coalition Govt". SAYS. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  68. ^ Ratcliffe, Rebecca (24 February 2020). "Malaysia's PM Mahathir Mohamad resigns amid political turmoil". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  69. ^ "Muhyiddin Yassin is Malaysia's next prime minister: Palace statement". CNA (TV network). 29 February 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  70. ^ "Muhyiddin Yassin sworn in as Malaysian PM". CNA (TV network). 1 March 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  71. ^ Tan, Vincent (8 July 2021). "UMNO withdraws support for Muhyiddin Yassin's government, urges the Malaysian PM to step down". CNA (TV network). Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  72. ^ Tan, Vincent; Tho, Xin Yi (3 August 2021). "Ahmad Zahid claims sufficient UMNO MPs have withdrawn support for PM Muhyiddin; energy minister quits Cabinet". CNA (TV network). Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  73. ^ Anand, Ram (8 July 2021). "Umno withdraws support for Malaysia PM Muhyiddin, calls for his resignation | The Straits Times". The Straits Times. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  74. ^ "Ismail Sabri sworn in as Malaysia's ninth Prime Minister". The Star (Malaysia). 21 August 2021. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  75. ^ a b "'End of an era' for Malaysia's Barisan Nasional, after corruption issues hurt candidates at GE15: Analysts". 20 November 2022. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  76. ^ "PRU15: Nama besar antara yang tewas". 20 November 2022. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  77. ^ "PRU15: BN kecundang di Tanjong Karang". 20 November 2022. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  78. ^ "[Rasmi] Azeez Rahim kalah kepada calon PN di Baling". 20 November 2022. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  79. ^ "PN brings BN to its knees in Perlis". 20 November 2022. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  80. ^ "GE15: Zahid retains Bagan Datuk with slim majority". 20 November 2022. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  81. ^ Singh, Daljit; Smith, Anthony (2002). Southeast Asian Affairs 2002. ISBN 9789812301628.
  82. ^ "Anti ICERD rally: So, what's the estimate?". New Straits Times. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  83. ^ "PAS and Umno to hold anti-Icerd rally in KL on Dec 8 - Malaysiakini". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  84. ^ "Govt not ratifying ICERD - The Star Online". The Star Online. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  85. ^ "Govt not ratifying ICERD - The Star Online". The Star Online. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  86. ^ "Rave reviews for 12MP, but Ismail Sabri's Bumi focus splits opinions". The Vibes. 28 September 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  87. ^ Anand, Ram (29 September 2021). "Malaysian PM Ismail's push on bumiputera equity faces criticism in country". The Straits Times. ISSN 0585-3923. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  88. ^ "The 12th Malaysia Plan and what people think of it". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
  89. ^ "Former minister calls govt's Bumi equity safety net 'suicidal', claims Malay businessmen not keen". malaysia.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  90. ^ "History of Wanita UMNO". UMNO Malaysia. 19 June 2019. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  91. ^ "History of UMNO Youth". UMNO Malaysia. 19 June 2019. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  92. ^ "History of Puteri UMNO". UMNO Malaysia. 19 June 2019. Retrieved 17 June 2021.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]