United Nations Conference on International Organization
The United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO) was a convention of delegates from 50 Allied nations that took place from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, United States. At this convention, the delegates reviewed and rewrote the Dumbarton Oaks agreements. The convention resulted in the creation of the United Nations Charter, which was opened for signature on 26 June. The conference was held at various locations, primarily the War Memorial Opera House, with the Charter being signed on 26 June at the Herbst Theatre in Civic Center. The conference was chaired by U.S. diplomat Alger Hiss.
A square in downtown San Francisco, called "UN Plaza," commemorates the conference, and is located adjacent to the city's Civic Center.
The basic framework for the proposed United Nations was framed as part of the vision of U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt of a future in which the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and China would lead the postwar international order. It would be these countries, with the addition of France, who would assume the permanent seats on the Security Council. At the conference in Malta, it was proposed that the permanent members have veto power. This proposal was adopted at the Yalta conference. At the same conference, they began sending invitations to the conference. 46 countries were invited to San Francisco. They had declared war on Germany and Japan, having signed the Declaration by United Nations.
The conference directly invited four additional countries: Denmark (newly liberated from Nazi occupation), Argentina and the Soviet republics of Belarus and Ukraine. The participation of these countries was not without controversy. The decision on the participation of Argentina was troubled because of Soviet opposition to Argentina membership, arguing that Argentina had supported the Axis Powers during the war. Several Latin American countries opposed the inclusion of Belarus and Ukraine unless Argentina was admitted. In the end, Argentina was admitted to the conference with support from the United States and the desire for the participation of the Soviet Union at the conference was maintained.
The participation of Belarus and Ukraine at the conference was given to Stalin by Churchill and Roosevelt's concession. Stalin had originally requested that all republics of the Soviet Union have membership in the United Nations, but the US government launched a counterproposal in which all US states obtain membership in the United Nations. This counterproposal encouraged Stalin to the Yalta conference, accepted that Ukraine and Belarus were admitted to the United Nations. This treatment made to ensure a degree of balance in the general assembly, which, in the opinion of the Soviets, was unbalanced in favor of the Western countries. For this purpose, modifications were made to the constitutions of the two republics in question, so that Belarus and Ukraine's international legal subjects were limited, while they were still part of the Soviet Union.
Poland, despite having signed the Declaration by United Nations, did not attend the conference because there was no consensus on the formation of the postwar Polish government. Therefore, a space was left blank for the Polish signature. The new Polish government was formed after the conference (June 28) and signed the United Nations Charter on 15 October, which made Poland one of the founding countries of the United Nations.
850 delegates, along with advisors, employees and staff of the secretariat, totalled to 3,500 attendees. In addition, the conference was attended by 2,500 representatives of the media and observers from numerous organizations and societies.
As President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who was supposed to host the conference, had died on April 12, 1945, the delegates held a commemorative ceremony on May 19 among the tall Redwood trees in Muir Woods National Monument Cathedral Grove, where a dedication plaque was placed in his honor.
A steering committee, composed of heads of delegations, was formed. This committee decided on all important matters relating to principles and rules. Although each country had one representative, the membership was too much for the detailed work. Therefore, it commissioned an executive committee of 14 heads of delegation, to submit recommendations to the steering committee.
The draft of the United Nations Charter was divided into 4 sections, each of which was studied by a commission. The first of these took over the organization's purposes, principles, membership, secretariat and the question of amendments to the Charter. The second considered loas functions of the General Assembly. The third took over as regards the Security Council. The fourth dealt with the assessment of the draft Statute of the International Court of Justice. This statute had been drafted by a team of legal experts from 44 countries, meeting in Washington in April 1945.
At the conference, delegates reviewed and sometimes rewrote the text agreed at the Dumbarton Oaks conference. The delegations agreed on a role for regional organizations under the "umbrella" of the United Nations. The delineation of the responsibilities of the Secretary General, as well as the creation of the Economic and Social Council and the Trusteeship Council was also agreed.
The issue of the veto power of the permanent members of the Security Council proved to be an obstacle to reach agreement on the United Nations Charter. Several countries feared that if one of the "big five" assumed a behavior that threatened peace, the Security Council would be helpless to intervene, whereas in the case of a conflict between two countries that are permanent members of the Council, they could proceed arbitrarily. Therefore, they wanted to reduce the scope of the veto. But the great powers insisted that this provision was vital, stressing the fact that the United Nations was for the greater responsibility in maintaining world peace. Finally, these countries gave way.
On June 25, delegates met for the last time in plenary at the San Francisco Opera. The session was chaired by Lord Halifax (head of the British delegation). As he submitted the final text of the Charter to the assembly, he said: "The question we are about to solve with our vote is the most important thing that can happen in our lives". Therefore, he proposed to vote not by show of hands, but rather by having those in favor stand. In the event, each of the delegations stood and remained standing, as did the crowd gathered there. There was then a standing ovation when Lord Halifax announced that the Charter had been adopted unanimously.
The next day, in the auditorium of the Veterans Memorial Hall, the delegates signed the Charter. China signed first, as it had been the first victim of an Axis power. President Truman in his closing speech said:
The Charter of the United Nations which you have just signed is a solid structure upon which we can build a better world. History will honor you for it. Between the victory in Europe and the final victory, in this most destructive of all wars, you have won a victory against war itself. . . . With this Charter the world can begin to look forward to the time when all worthy human beings may be permitted to live decently as free people.
Then President Truman pointed out that the Charter would work only if the peoples of the world were determined to make it work:
If we fail to use it, we shall betray all those who have died so that we might meet here in freedom and safety to create it. If we seek to use it selfishly - for the advantage of any one nation or any small group of nations — we shall be equally guilty of that betrayal. 
The United Nations did not instantly come into being with the signing of the Charter, since in many countries the Charter had to be subjected to parliamentary approval. It had been agreed that the Charter would come into effect when ratified by the governments of China, France, Britain, the Soviet Union, the United States, and a majority of the other signatory countries; and when they had notified the United States Department of State of their ratifications. This happened on October 24, 1945.
- "The United States and the Founding of the United Nations, August 1941 – October 1945". Washington: U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian. October 2005. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- Who was Alger Hiss? The Alger Hiss Story: Search for the Truth
- "1945: The San Francisco Conference". United Nations. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- Schlesinger, Stephen E. (2004). Act of Creation: the Founding of the United Nations: A Story of Superpowers, Secret Agents, Wartime Allies and Enemies, and Their Quest for a Peaceful World. Cambridge, MA: Westview, Perseus Books Group. ISBN 0-8133-3275-3.
- Sound recordings of the United Nations Conference on International Organization (1945 : San Francisco, Calif.) Proceedings, 1945
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- East and West from Political and External Affairs by F.L.W. Wood (Official history of New Zealand in World War II)
- San Francisco Conference