United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
UNODC headquarters in Vienna
|Executive Director Yuri Fedotov|
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (in French Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and was renamed the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in 2002.
- 1 Organizational structure
- 2 Aims and functions
- 3 The World Drug Report
- 4 Treaties
- 5 Campaigns
- 6 Criticism
- 7 Controversy
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
|This section requires expansion. (October 2014)|
The agency, employing about 1,500 people worldwide, has its headquarters in Vienna (Austria), with 21 field offices and two liaison offices in Brussels and in New York City. The United Nations Secretary-General appoints the agency's Executive Director. Yuri Fedotov, the former Russian Ambassador to the United Kingdom, has held this position since his appointment in 2010, when he succeeded Antonio Maria Costa in this capacity, and also as Director-General of the United Nations Office at Vienna.
The office aims long-term to better equip governments to handle drug-, crime-, terrorism-, and corruption-related issues, to maximise knowledge on these issues among governmental institutions and agencies, and also to maximise awareness of said matters in public opinion, globally, nationally and at community level. Approximately 90% of the Office's funding comes from voluntary contributions, mainly from governments.
Aims and functions
UNODC was established to assist the UN in better addressing a coordinated, comprehensive response to the interrelated issues of illicit trafficking in and abuse of drugs, crime prevention and criminal justice, international terrorism, and political corruption. These goals are pursued through three primary functions: research, guidance and support to governments in the adoption and implementation of various crime-, drug-, terrorism-, and corruption-related conventions, treaties and protocols, as well as technical/financial assistance to said governments to face their respective situations and challenges in these fields.
These are the main themes that UNODC deals with: Alternative Development, Corruption, Criminal Justice, Prison Reform and Crime Prevention, Drug Prevention, -Treatment and Care, HIV and AIDS, Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling, Money Laundering, Organized Crime, Piracy, Terrorism Prevention.
The World Drug Report
The World Drug Report is a yearly publication that presents a comprehensive assessment of the international drug problem, with detailed information on the illicit drug situation. It provides estimates and information on trends in the production, trafficking and use of opium/heroin, coca/cocaine, cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants. The Report, based on data and estimates collected or prepared by Governments, UNODC and other international institutions, attempts to identify trends in the evolution of global illicit drug markets.
Through the World Drug Report, UNODC aims to enhance Member States' understanding of global illicit drug trends and increase their awareness of the need for the more systematic collection and reporting of data relating to illicit drugs.
United Nations Conventions and their related Protocols underpin all the operational work of UNODC.
United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto
The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime is a legally binding instrument that entered into force on 29 September 2003, through which States parties commit to taking a series of measures against transnational organized crime. States that ratify the convention has the duty of creation of domestic offences to combat the problem, the adoption of new, sweeping frameworks for mutual legal assistance, extradition, law enforcement ayub cooperation and technical assistance, and training. The convention signifies an important stage in dealing with transnational crime by recognizing the seriousness of the problem that the crime poses, and gaining understanding from the member states of the importance of a cooperative measure. The convention is complemented by three different protocols:
- the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children;
- the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air; and
- the Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition.
The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children aims to provide a convergence in the states' domestic offences in the investigation and the persecution process. Another objective of the protocol is to protect the victims of trafficking in persons with full respect.
The Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air is concerned with the aggravating problem of organized crime groups for smuggling persons. The protocol aims to combat and prevent transnational smuggling as well as to promote cooperative measures for enhancing protective measures for victims.
The Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition was adopted to prevent and provide a cooperative measure for illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms, their parts and components and ammunition. By adopting the protocol, the member states commit to adopt domestic criminal offences for illegal manufacturing, providing governmental licensing ammunition, and keeping track of the ammunition.
United Nations Convention against Corruption
In its resolution 55/61, the General Assembly recognized that an effective international legal instrument against corruption, independent of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime was desirable. The text of the Convention was negotiated during seven sessions held between 21 January 2002 and 1 October 2003. The Convention was adopted by the General Assembly on 31 October 2003. In 2003, the United Nations adopted the UN Convention against Corruption (UNCAC). This entered into force in December 2005. As of 9 November 2012, 140 countries had signed and 164 countries (States Parties) had ratified the UNCAC. UNODC serves as the Secretariat for the Conference of the States Parties (CoSP) to the UNCAC.
UNODC, as the custodian of UNCAC, is also one of the main initiators of the establishment of the International Anti-Corruption Academy (IACA), whose main function is to, inter alia, facilitate more effective implementation of the UNCAC.
There are three drug related treaties that guide UNODC's drug related programs. These are: The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol ; the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988.
These three major international drug control treaties are mutually supportive and complementary. An important purpose of the first two treaties is to codify internationally applicable control measures in order to ensure the availability of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances for medical and scientific purposes, and to prevent their diversion into illicit channels. They also include general provisions on trafficking and drug abuse.
UNODC launches campaigns to raise awareness of drugs and crime problems. On 26 June every year, UNODC marks the International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. On 9 December every year, UNODC commemorates the International Anti-Corruption Day.
“Do Drugs control your life”? – World Drug Campaign
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) started this international campaign to raise awareness about the major challenge that illicit drugs represent to society as a whole, and especially to the young. The goal of the campaign is to mobilize support and to inspire people to act against drug abuse and trafficking. The campaign encourages young people to put their health first and not to take drugs.
“Your No Counts” – International Anti-Corruption Campaign
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has teamed up with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) to run this campaign as a focus on how corruption hinders efforts to achieve the internationally agreed upon MDGs, undermines democracy and the rule of law, leads to human rights violations, distorts markets, erodes quality of life and allows organized crime, terrorism and other threats to human security to flourish.
“Think AIDS” – World AIDS Campaign
Young people aged 15 to 24 account for an estimated 40 per cent of new adult (15+) HIV infections worldwide. In some parts of the world, and in some marginalized sub-groups, the most frequent modes of HIV transmission for these young people are unsafe injecting drug use and unsafe sexual activities.
Because young people are also often more likely to use drugs, The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) targets this population with a campaign to raise awareness about drug use and its connection to the spread of HIV and AIDS. The slogan: "Think Before You Start ... Before You Shoot ... Before You Share" is used to provoke young people to consider the implications of using drugs, and particularly injecting drugs.
Blue Heart Campaign Against Human Trafficking
The Blue Heart Campaign seeks to encourage involvement and action to help stop trafficking in persons. The campaign also allows people to show solidarity with the victims of human trafficking by wearing the Blue Heart. The use of the blue UN colour demonstrates the commitment of the United Nations to combat this crime.
In 2007, the five largest donors to UNODC's budget in descending order were: European Union, Canada, United States, the UN itself, and Sweden. Sweden and the United States are proponents of a zero tolerance drug policy. According to the Transnational Institute this explains why, until recently, UNODC did not promote harm reduction policies like needle exchange and Heroin-assisted treatment. (This despite the actions of United Nations bodies (i.e. WHO and UNAIDS), who support these policies.) UNODC promotes other methods for drug use prevention, treatment and care that UNODC sees as "based on scientific evidence and on ethical standards". The UNDOC has been criticized by human rights organizations such as Amnesty international for not promoting the inclusion of adherence to international human rights standards within its project in Iran. Amnesty states that in Iran there are "serious concerns regarding unfair trials and executions of those suspected of drug offences in Iran.
Philosophical libertarians criticize the role of government as drug prohibitionist, disbelieving that there is are legitimate historical, philosophical, economic, and legal precedents for transferring non-WMD (non "Weapon of Mass Destruction") private property to prohibited status. This belief system stems from the following domains:
Law - common law outlaws actions that are found by a jury to possess a valid "corpus delicti" consisting of "injury to a specific, named party" combined with "intent to injure that same, specific, named party." This requirement of the common law was intended to prevent the criminalization of inherently non-criminal actions, such as the ownership of drugs or firearms. The hallmark is a feature of the long-term trend toward respect for self-ownership and self-determination (abolition of slavery) and social toleration. Further, it is noted that jury trial must be corrupted in order for the statistically reliable prosecution of drug offenses. Jury Randomness must be interfered with by the procedure known as "voir dire," in order for there to be a statistical likelihood of conviction for drug offenses, due to the large number of people who disobey the "vice" ("victimless crime laws") statutes in every society on Earth. Lysander Spooner's Voluntaryist Legal Philosophy The Bill of Rights also requires that "punishments fit the crime," or be deemed "cruel and unusual" by the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The common law requirement of a valid "corpus" is a more fundamental law than Constitutional Law, and is referenced by the Constitution as a local precondition to the Constitutional hierarchical framework. Common Law is descended from the English leveller uprising (1600s England), Magna Carta (1215), and the jury trial of the Greek City States (760 A.D.)
History - The methods used to outlaw drugs have historically all been predatory political organization against voting minorities too comprised of individuals too weak to defend themselves from police force, and too small to defend themselves politically, via the vote. The Harrison Narcotics Act was racist law passed by making overtly racist claims in an openly-racist white voting-majority society of early 1900s USA. The government had previously claimed the non-existing right to regulate personal drug and medicine production, consumption, and sales with the Pure Food and Drug Act.
Economics - Hayekian "Spontaneous order," localized pricing knowledge, Milton Friedman's "law of unintended consequences," laws that criminalize actions without intent and injury engender widespread noncompliance. The fact that drugs were initially outlawed in the USA and the British Empire because they allowed state actors to steal from minorities, and subjugate them politically should cause us to rethink drug prohibition. Philosophically consistent libertarians believe that all drugs should be immediately legalized.
All of the prior sub-domains are united as subsets of the larger domain of "Political Science" and "Cybernetics." Cybernetics (and the sub-system of free-market or "Austrian School economics") argues that decentralized control systems are frequently more intelligent, efficient, and optimal than "command and control" or "centralized"systems.
|“||"The Islamic Republic of Iran will pay for anybody who can research and find one single Zionist who is an addict. They do not exist," he said. "This is the proof of their involvement in drugs trade."||”|
Rahimi was widely condemned for his controversial remarks:
- EU Foreign Policy chief Catherine Ashton called his remarks "unacceptable" and reaffirmed the European Union's "absolute commitment to combating racism and anti-Semitism." Ashton went on to say that "the High Representative is deeply disturbed by racist and anti-Semitic statements made by Iranian First Vice President Mohammed Reza Rahimi at the U.N. International Day against Drug Abuse".
- The UN Secretary Ban Ki-moon issued a statement saying that he had "...on many occasions called on Iranian officials to refrain from these kinds of anti-Semitic statements...[and] believes it is the responsibility of leaders to promote harmony and understanding and he deeply regrets expressions of hatred and religious intolerance."
- The Minister for Middle East in the UK Alastair Burt said "We condemn utterly the baseless comments from Iran's Vice-President Rahimi about the Talmud and the Jewish faith, made at a United Nations drugs control event in Tehran this week. Racism and anti-semitism are unacceptable in any circumstance, let alone at an event sponsored by the United Nations. We call upon Iran to correct this scandalous statement, and to ensure that its officials respect the proper international norms and standards in the future."
- Israeli Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman said that "Israel would not allow any Jew to be harmed".
- European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction EMCDDA
- Blue Heart Campaign Against Human Trafficking
- CARICC, |Central Asian Regional Information and Coordination Centre
- Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 2000
- Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971
- International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)
- Not For Sale, official anthem
- Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking in Firearms
- Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, 2004
- Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, 2003
- Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961
- United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988
- United Nations General Assembly Session 51 Document 950. Renewing the United Nations: A Program for Reform A/51/950 page 49. 14 July 1997. Retrieved 2007-11-16.
- "UNDG Members". UNDG.
- United Nations Secretariat Secretary-General's Bulletin Organization of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime ST/SGB/2004/6 page 1. 15 March 2004. Retrieved 2007-11-16.
- "About Us". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. UNODC. 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-28.
The Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is the key United Nations entity with the mandate and expertise to deliver counter-terrorism legal technical assistance to Member States for the ratification, legislative incorporation and implementation of the international legal instruments against terrorism. [...] Since 2003, the Branch administers the Global Project on Strengthening the Legal Regime against Terrorism which provides the operational framework for UNODC's specialized legal and capacity building assistance related to terrorism.
- "World Drug Report - Global Illicit Drug Trends". UNODC.
- "United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto,2000". UNODC.
- "Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961". INCB.
- "Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971". INCB.
- "United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988". UNODC.
- "About the World Drug Campaign". UNODC.
- "ACT Against Corruption: About the Campaign". UNODC.
- "What is Think AIDS?". UNODC.
- "What is the Blue Heart Campaign?". UNODC.
- "Svensk bedömning av multilaterala organisationer - FN:s organ mot brott och narkotika, UNODC" [Swedish assessment of multilateral organizations - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, UNODC] (in Swedish). Ministry of Foreign Affairs Sweden. 2008. p. 2.
- "The United Nations and Harm Reduction Overview and Links". TNI.
- "Drug use prevention, treatment and care". UNODC.
- "Addicted to death: Executions for drug offenses in Iran". Amnesty International. 2011.
- Template:Cite = videohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DtcltD8mOPw
- Harrison Narcotics Tax Act
- "Israel accuses Iran of anti-Semitism after drug speech", 'Reuters', 27 June 2012
- "UK condemns Iranian vice president for anti-semitic remarks", 'The Guardian', 28 June 2012
- "Iran’s Vice President Makes Anti-Semitic Speech at Forum", 'The Washington Post', 26 June 2012
- "Iranian VP's Anti-Semitic Tirade Bombs with EU", 'CBN News', 28 June 2012
- "Britain condemns anti-semitic remarks by Iran's vice-president", 'The Independent', 28 June 2012
- Official website
- About Us, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
- International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)
- United Nations Rule of Law: The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, on the rule of law work conducted by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
- Organization of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Secretary-General's bulletin, ST/SGB/2004/6, 15 March 2004.
- World Drug Report
- Asia & Pacific Amphetamine-Type Stimulants Information Centre – an extensive information source on Amphetamine-Type Stimulants in Asia managed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
- UNODC Field Offices