|Lok Sabha leader||Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury|
|Founded||2004 (18 years ago)|
|Seats in Lok Sabha|
110 / 543
|Seats in Rajya Sabha|
64 / 245
|Seats in State Legislative Assemblies|
1,140 / 4,036
|Number of states and union territories in government|
6 / 31
The United Progressive Alliance (UPA) (IAST: Saṃyukt Pragatishīl Gaṭhabandhan) is a centre-left political alliance in India led by the Indian National Congress (INC). It was formed after the 2004 general election with support from left-leaning political parties when no single party got the majority. The UPA subsequently governed India from 2004 until 2014 before losing power to their main rivals, the Bharatiya Janata Party led National Democratic Alliance (NDA). The UPA currently rules six states of India.
UPA was formed soon after the 2004 Lok Sabha election when no party had won a majority. The then ruling Bharatiya Janata Party-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) won 181 seats of 544, as opposed to the UPA's tally of 218 seats.
The Left Front with 59 MPs (excluding the speaker of the Lok Sabha), the Samajwadi Party with 39 MPs and the Bahujan Samaj Party with 19 MPs were other significant blocks that supported UPA at various times. UPA did not achieve a majority, rather it relied on external support, similar to the formula adopted by the previous minority governments of the United Front, the NDA, the Congress government of P. V. Narasimha Rao, and earlier governments of V. P. Singh and Chandra Shekhar.
An informal alliance had existed prior to the elections as several of the constituent parties had developed seat-sharing agreements in many states. After the election the results of negotiations between parties were announced. The UPA government's policies were initially guided by a common minimum programme that the alliance hammered out with consultations with Jyoti Basu and Harkishan Singh Surjeet of the 59-member Left Front. Hence, government policies were generally perceived as centre-left, reflecting the centrist policies of the INC.
On 22 July 2008, the UPA survived a vote of confidence in the parliament brought on by the Left Front withdrawing their support in protest at the India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement. The Congress party and its leaders along with then Samajwadi Party leader Amar Singh were accused of a "cash for vote" scam as part of the cash-for-votes scandal, in which they were accused of buying votes in Lok Sabha to save the government. During UPA I, the economy saw steady economic growth and many people (100 million+) escaped poverty.
In the 2009 Lok Sabha election, the UPA won 262 seats, of which the INC accounted for 206. During UPA II, the alliance was broiled in scams. This ranged from the 2G spectrum case to the Coalgate scam. These scams impacted UPA's image nationwide and the approval rating for the govt fell. In addition, many members left for YSRCP. This started a domino effect with members leaving to form their own parties and parties such as DMK leaving the alliance altogether. During this time UPA struggled with state election and leadership stability. The alliance suffered a defeat in 2014 Lok Sabha election as it won only 60 seats. In addition, UPA won only one state election and got wiped out from Andhra Pradesh where they previously had 150+ MLA.
From 2014 to 2017, UPA won only 3 state elections. This was blamed on the alliance's failed leadership and weakness compared to the NDA. In addition the party lost power in states where they had once won state elections as in Bihar. In 2017 the alliance lost again. In 2018 UPA had a phenomenal comeback in the state elections as the party won important in Karnataka, Rajasthan and others. More parties joined the alliance and it was stronger than ever.
In 2019 Lok Sabha election the UPA won only 91 seats in the general election and INC won 52 seats, thus failed to secure 10% seats required for the leader of opposition post. The alliance lost another state to BJP with the party winning by-polls and pushing the UPA into the minority.
Towards the end of 2019, the alliance made huge gains in Haryana, won in Jharkhand and formed a state-level alliance called Maha Vikas Aghadi to form the government in Maharashtra with Uddhav Thackeray of Shiv Sena leading the ministry. Shiv Sena had been a member of NDA for twenty five years. It left NDA and joined MVA in 2019.
Since 2020, more parties joined the alliance. The alliance lost the Bihar election that everyone expected it to win but in 2022, ruling party JD(U) left National Democratic Alliance and rejoined Mahagathbandhan to form government in Bihar.
In addition UPA only won 1 out of the 5 state elections in 2021. However the alliance made significant gain in a number of MLA races. MVA lost control of Maharashtra due to crisis and split in Shiv Sena. However, UPA won the state election in Himachal Pradesh.
List of chief ministers from UPA
|1.||Bihar||Nitish Kumar||Nitish VIII|
|2.||Chhattisgarh||Bhupesh Baghel||Baghel I|
|3.||Himachal Pradesh||Sukhvinder Singh Sukhu||Sukhu I|
|4.||Jharkhand||Hemant Soren||Soren II|
|5.||Rajasthan||Ashok Gehlot||Gehlot III|
|6.||Tamil Nadu||M. K. Stalin||Stalin I|
List of deputy chief ministers from UPA
|1.||Bihar||Tejashwi Yadav||Nitish VIII|
|2.||Himachal Pradesh||Mukesh Agnihotri||Sukhu I|
List of UPA state governments
|S.No||State/UT||UPA Govt since||Chief Minister||Alliance Partners||Seats||
|1||Bihar||10 August 2022||Nitish Kumar||JD(U)||45||10 August 2022||RJD (79)||165/243||28 October – 7 November 2020|
|2||Chhattisgarh||17 December 2018||Bhupesh Baghel||INC||71||17 December 2018||None||71/90||11 December 2018|
|3||Himachal Pradesh||11 December 2022||Sukhvinder Singh Sukhu||INC||40||11 December 2022||IND (3)||43/68||9 November 2022|
|4||Jharkhand||28 December 2019||Hemant Soren||JMM||30||28 December 2019||INC (17)||50/81||23 December 2019|
|5||Rajasthan||17 December 2018||Ashok Gehlot||INC||109||17 December 2018||RLD (1)||123/200||11 December 2018|
|6||Tamil Nadu||7 May 2021||M. K. Stalin||DMK||125||7 May 2021||INC (17)||165/243||6 April 2021|
Strength in legislative assemblies
|State/UT||MLA seats||INC||INC+||Overall seats||Chief minister party||Ref(s)|
0 / 175
4 / 60
28 / 126
165 / 243
71 / 90
4 / 40
17 / 182
30 / 90
|Himachal Pradesh||68||40||IND (3)||
43 / 68
50 / 81
70 / 224
41 / 140
96 / 230
117 / 288
6 / 60
0 / 60
5 / 40
0 / 60
10 / 147
19 / 117
123 / 200
0 / 32
|Tamil Nadu||234||17||DMK (133)||
158 / 234
5 / 119
1 / 60
2 / 403
19 / 70
0 / 294
0 / 70
|Jammu and Kashmir||90||NA|||
8 / 33
1,092 / 4,036
|Party||State||Date||Reason for withdrawal|
|All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhgam||Tamil Nadu||2004||Allied with the BJP.|
|Telangana Rashtra Samithi||Telangana||2006||Differences over proposed statehood for Telangana|
|Bahujan Samaj Party||National Party||2008||Congress opposed the UP government where the BSP was the ruling party|
|Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party||Jammu and Kashmir||2009||Congress decided to support National Conference Government in Jammu and Kashmir|
|Pattali Makkal Katchi||Tamil Nadu||2009||PMK declared that it would join the AIADMK led front|
|All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen||Telangana||2012||Accused Congress led State Government of Communalism|
|All India Trinamool Congress||National Party||2012||TMC's demands on rollbacks and reforms not met, including the governments decision to allow FDI in retail and hike in the prices of railway tickets.|
|Socialist Janata (Democratic)||Kerala||2014||It merged with Janata Dal (United) on 29 December 2014.|
|Rashtriya Lok Dal||Uttar Pradesh||2014||Decided to leave after 2014 election performance.|
|Janata Dal (Secular)||Karnataka||2019||After JD(S)-INC alliance govt fell in Karnataka, two parties decided to end alliance.|
|Rashtriya Lok Samta Party||Bihar||2020||Withdrawn support before Bihar Assembly Election 2020 & Allied with BSP+ on 29 September 2020.|
|Vikassheel Insaan Party||Bihar||2020||Withdrawn support before Bihar Assembly Election 2020 & Allied with NDA|
|Kerala Congress (M)||Kerala||2020||Decided to join LDF|
|Bodoland People's Front||Assam||2021||Withdrew due to performance in 2021 Assam election.|
|All India United Democratic Front||Assam||2021||Party was expelled from the alliance.|
|Sr.no||Party||Seats Won||Seat Change||Vote%|
|1.||Indian National Congress||145||32||26.7%|
|2.||Rashtriya Janata Dal||21||12||2.2%|
|3.||Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||16||4||1.8%|
|4.||Nationalist Congress Party||9||1||1.8%|
|5.||Lok Janshakti Party||4||0.6%|
|6.||Telangana Rashtra Samithi||2||0.6%|
|7.||Pattali Makkal Katchi||6||1||0.5%|
|8.||Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||5||0.5%|
|9.||Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||4||0.4%|
|10.||Indian Union Muslim League||1||1||0.2%|
|11.||Republican Party of India (Athawale)||1||0.1%|
|12.||Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party||1||0.1%|
|Sr.no||Party||Seats Won||Seat Change|
|1.||Indian National Congress||206||61|
|2.||Rashtriya Janata Dal||4||17|
|3.||Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||18||2|
|4.||Nationalist Congress Party||9||1|
|5.||All India Trinamool Congress||19||18|
|6.||Jammu & Kashmir National Conference||3||3|
|7.||Bodoland People's Front||1||1|
|8.||Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||3|
|9.||All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen||1||1|
|10.||Indian Union Muslim League||2||1|
|11.||Kerala Congress (Mani)||1||1|
List of presidents and vice presidents
Note that it refers to nomination by alliance, as the offices of President and Vice President are apolitical.
|Term of office
Time in office
|Previous post||Vice president||Party|
|25 July 2007||25 July 2012||Governor of Rajasthan||Bhairon Singh Shekhawat (2007)
Mohammad Hamid Ansari (2007–12)
|Indian National Congress|
|5 years, 0 days|
|25 July 2012||25 July 2017||Union Minister of Finance||Mohammad Hamid Ansari (2012–17)|
|5 years, 0 days|
|Took office||Left office||Term||President(s)||Party|
|12||Mohammad Hamid Ansari
|11 August 2007||10 August 2012||10 years, 0 days||Pratibha Patil||Indian National Congress|
|11 August 2012||10 August 2017||Pranab Mukherjee|
List of prime ministers
|No.||Prime ministers||Portrait||Term in office||Lok Sabha||Government||Cabinet||Constituency|
|14||Manmohan Singh||22 May 2004||22 May 2009||10 years, 4 days||14th||UPA I||Manmohan Singh I||Rajya Sabha MP From Assam|
|22 May 2009||26 May 2014||15th||UPA II||Manmohan Singh II|
Timeline of the UPA and other regional alliances formed by the Congress Party
- UPA had its worst performance to date in the 2014 general election and ended up losing the power.
- The JKNC left the alliance due to INC deciding to contest in all the seats by itself.
- The Socialist Janata (Democratic) had left the alliance after it had merged with Janata Dal (United).
- UPA lost state election in Telangana, Odisha, Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Haryana.
- UPA managed to win 1 state election and that was in Arunachal Pradesh.
- UPA won state elections in Puducherry.
- UPA lost state elections in Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Assam, Kerala.
- Janata Dal (United) quit the MGB alliance and joined NDA giving Bihar power from UPA to NDA.
- UPA won in state election of Punjab.
- UPA lost in state election of Uttar Pradesh, Manipur, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Gujarat.
- In addition UPA lost the presidential election to NDA's Ram Nath Kovind.
- MDMK (state party in TN) left NDA and joined UPA.
- VCK (State party in TN) joined UPA in 2014.
- In 2018 Janata Dal (Secular) formed alliance with Congress to help form government in Karnataka.
- UPA lost election in state election of Telangana, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura.
- UPA won in the state elections of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka.
- RJD rejoined UPA.
- UPA created a sub-alliance called "Maha Kutami" with TDP, TJS, CPI for the Telangana election however the alliance lost and was ended after the election.
- Telangana Jana Samithi (party in Telangana) joined UPA.
- UPA lost in the 2019 Indian general election to NDA.
- UPA lost state elections in Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha, Sikkim, Haryana.
- UPA won in state election in Jharkhand
- MVA alliance formed after 2019 Maharashtra Legislative Assembly election results. MVA formed government in Maharashtra.
- In 2019 Congress - JD(S) alliance lost power in Karnataka due to crisis and the by-polls gave majority to NDA and pushed UPA to minority.
- Janata Dal (Secular) left the alliance after the fall of Karnataka govt.
- AIUDF joined UPA after UPA invited as it was against the implementation of CAA-NRC, and JKNC rejoined UPA back at national level after a break-up in 2014.
- UPA lost state election in Delhi, Bihar.
- The KC(M) was expelled by INC from the alliance due to the factions forming in the party.
- In 2020 UPA lost power in Madhya Pradesh due to crisis and the by-polls gave majority to NDA and pushed UPA to minority.
- 3 MLA resigned from UPA in Puducherry causing the government to go from majority to minority, and during the no trust confidence UPA fail to prove majority causing the government to fall.
- BPF (left NDA) and joined the alliance ahead of the 2021 Assam election.
- UPA lost state election in Assam, Kerala, Puducherry and West Bengal.
- SPA won state election in Tamil Nadu.
- Goa Forward Party joined UPA.
- UPA cut all ties with Indian Secular Front after defeat in West Bengal elections and the Sanjukta Morcha alliance was disbanded.
- Bodoland People's Front left the alliance due to poor performance in the 2021 Assam election.
- AIUDF was expelled from UPA.
- RJD left the alliance due to seat sharing disagreements for 2024 Lok Sabha Elections.
- Assam Jatiya Parishad joined UPA.
- UPA lost election in Punjab, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Goa, Manipur.
- MVA Government falls in Maharashtra due to crisis and split in Shiv Sena.
- JDU rejoined MGB. MGB formed government in Bihar.
- UPA lost state election in Gujarat.
- UPA won state election in Himachal Pradesh.
The winter session of parliament in October 2008 came under intense criticism from the Left parties and the BJP to demand a full-fledged winter session instead of what was seen as the UPA to having "scuttled the voice of Parliament" by bringing down the sittings to a record low of 30 days in the year. The tensions between the UPA and the opposition parties became evident at an all-party meeting convened by Lok Sabha speaker Somnath Chatterjee when the leader of opposition, LK Advani questioned the status, timing and schedule of the current session of parliament.
The second one was "establishment of a credible and independent international commission of investigation in a time-bound manner into the allegations of war crimes, crimes against humanity, violations of international human rights law, violations of international humanitarian law and crime of genocide against the Tamils". Karunanidhi said Parliament should adopt the resolution incorporating these two amendments.
The UPA was criticised for its alleged involvement scams such as the Commonwealth Games Scam of 2010, the 2G spectrum case, and the Coalgate scam. Apart from the above-mentioned scams, the UPA has been under intense fire for the alleged doles handed out to the son-in-law of the Gandhi family, Robert Vadra, by UPA-run state governments.
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- Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Assam Legislative Assembly
- Bihar Legislative Assembly
- Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly
- Goa Legislative Assembly
- Gujarat Legislative Assembly
- Haryana Legislative Assembly
- Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Jharkhand Legislative Assembly
- Karnataka Legislative Assembly
- Kerala Legislature
- Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Maharashtra Legislative Assembly
- Manipur Legislative Assembly
- Meghalaya Legislative Assembly
- Mizoram Legislative Assembly
- Nagaland Legislative Assembly
- Odisha Legislative Assembly
- Punjab Legislative Assembly
- Rajasthan Legislative Assembly
- Sikkim Legislative Assembly
- Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
- Telangana Legislative Assembly
- Tripura Legislative Assembly
- Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly
- West Bengal Legislative Assembly
- Delhi Legislative Assembly
- Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly
- Puducherry Legislative Assembly
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