United Soccer League
|Other club(s) from||Canada|
|Founded||September 8, 2010|
|Number of teams||29|
|Level on pyramid||3 (US) 3 (CAN)|
|Domestic cup(s)||U.S. Open Cup|
|Current champions||Rochester Rhinos (2015)|
|Current Regular Season Title||Rochester Rhinos (2015)|
|Most championships||Orlando City (2 titles)|
|Most Regular Season Titles||Orlando City (3 titles)|
|TV partners||ESPN; YouTube|
|2016 USL season|
The United Soccer League (USL), formerly known as USL Pro, is a professional men's soccer league in the United States and Canada that began its inaugural season in 2011. USL is sanctioned as a Division III Professional League by United States Soccer Federation (U.S. Soccer), placing it under Major League Soccer (Division I) and the North American Soccer League (Division II) in the hierarchy.
The league is owned and operated by United Soccer Leagues (USL) and was formed as result of the organization's merger of the old USL First and Second Divisions, following the controversial 2010 season which saw neither the USL First Division nor the North American Soccer League (NASL) receive sanctioning from the USSF, resulting in the temporary USSF Division 2 Pro League. The merger is meant to consolidate USL's position within the American professional soccer landscape and focus on stability, commercial growth and the professional development of soccer in four main regions throughout the United States and Canada.
In January 2013, USL and MLS reached an agreement to integrate USL Pro league competition with the MLS Reserve League, primarily to improve player development in North America, strengthen league competition and build ties between divisions in the American soccer pyramid. This multi-year deal encourages MLS and USL Pro team affiliations and player loans, and it will lead to more games for teams and developing players.
- 1 Competition format
- 2 Media coverage
- 3 Clubs
- 4 History
- 5 Champions
- 6 USL club honors
- 7 Attendance
- 8 Staff
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
USL Pro's scheduling format changed for the 2015 season to accommodate the expansion that took place during the 2014-2015 off-season, and the league's resulting need to divide teams into conferences – which has eliminated the single table.
All teams will play 28 regular-season matches stretching from March to September. This will include a 22-game, double-round-robin schedule that will pit each team against all its conference opponents at home and on the road. The remaining six fixtures will be played against regional rivals, which will lead to some inter-conference regular season matches. The top six finishers in each conference will go through to the October playoffs, which will continue to be a series of single-game knockout rounds. After three rounds of intra-conference play, the two conference champions will meet in the championship match, to be hosted by the team with the better regular-season record.
The league featured national broadcast coverage on Fox Soccer Channel in 2011. In 2014 and 2015, the league broadcast all matches on YouTube. On April 22, 2016 the USL announced a partnership with ESPN, bringing 20 matches to ESPN 3 and the championship match to an ESPN network The remainder of matches will continue to be broadcast on YouTube.
|Team||City||Stadium||Capacity||Founded||First season||Head coach||MLS Affiliate(s)|
|Planned Expansion Teams|
|Austin Aztex||Austin, Texas||TBA||2011||2015 (On hiatus for 2016 season)||TBA|
|Reno 1868 FC||Reno, Nevada||Greater Nevada Field[iii]||9,013||2015||2017||TBA||San Jose Earthquakes|
|Nashville FC||Nashville, Tennessee||TBA||2016||2018||TBA|
On September 8, 2010, the United Soccer Leagues formally announced the creation of USL Pro in a press release. Prior to the official announcement of the new league, on August 11, 2010, the Dayton Dutch Lions FC revealed they would be joining the "USL-Pro Championship Division (former USL-2)" at a press conference, revealing the name of the new league before its official announcement. With this disclosure, the Dutch Lions were the first confirmed team in USL Pro for its inaugural 2011 season. Alongside the announcement of the new league, the Richmond Kickers revealed they would be moving to USL Pro for 2011. With the departure of the Portland Timbers to MLS in 2011 and the defection of the Puerto Rico Islanders to the NASL from the USL First Division, the Austin Aztex were the lone First Division team left to fold into USL Pro.
On September 22, 2010, the "Caribbean Division" of USL Pro was announced, with teams from Puerto Rico and Antigua and Barbuda signing on to compete in the league. With the addition of Puerto Rico United to the league and "Caribbean Division", league representatives expressed their intent to see expansion in the region continue, with an eventual 8-team "Caribbean Conference". With the inclusion of a team from Los Angeles, this division eventually became the International Division. On September 22, 2010, USL announced that Sevilla FC Puerto Rico and River Plate Puerto Rico would be joining USL Pro in 2011 alongside Antigua Barracuda FC as part of the building blocks of a Caribbean division. On September 28, 2010, USL announced that one of their flagship clubs and reigning 2010 USL Second Division Champions, the Charleston Battery, would be joining USL Pro for its launch in 2011. On September 30, 2010, nearly two months following the team's own announcement of a "USL Pro Championship Division" move, the USL formally announced Dayton Dutch Lions FC would join USL Pro. On October 4 and 7, 2010, the USL revealed two Second Division clubs, the Charlotte Eagles and the Harrisburg City Islanders, would be making the jump to USL Pro for 2011.
The Pittsburgh Riverhounds were added as the 9th official team on October 22, 2010. October 25, 2010 saw the addition of the Rochester Rhinos who had previously committed to the NASL, along with expansion team Orlando City SC (formerly the Austin Aztex FC of USL First Division) after new ownership secured and moved the team from Texas to Florida.
On November 9, 2010, former USL-2 Division side Wilmington Hammerheads officially joined the league as the 12th team, followed on November 17, 2010 by F.C. New York. The expected number of teams to launch league play in 2011 was announced as 18–20, alongside the announcement of the Wilmington Hammerheads joining the league.
The Los Angeles Blues, associated with the successful women's Pali Blues organization, were added on December 7, 2010 with a message of future "Western Conference" growth into 2012. The "Caribbean Division" of USL Pro grew to four teams on December 9, 2010 with the addition of Puerto Rico United to the league, marking the last of the 15 teams that would compete in USL Pro in its inaugural 2011 season.
On September 14, 2010, USL President Tim Holt expressed the desired structure for the league to launch with 14–18 teams across 4 specific geographic areas in 2011, expansion to 22–26 teams by 2013, and 28–32 teams by 2015.
Following USL Pro's first annual general meeting, the league confirmed it would debut with 16 teams playing a 24-game regular season schedule in 2011, with planned growth for 20–24 teams to start the 2012 season.
Play begins (2011–2012)
|2011||15→12||–||Puerto Rico United
River Plate P. Rico
Sevilla FC P. Rico
|2012||11||–||F.C. New York|
VSI Tampa Bay FC
|2014||14||Arizona United SC acquired rights to the Phoenix FC franchise|
|LA Galaxy II
Oklahoma City Energy FC
Sacramento Republic FC
VSI Tampa Bay FC
|2015||24||Charlotte Independence acquired rights to Charlotte Eagles franchise
Louisville City purchased rights to Orlando City franchise
Colorado Springs Switchbacks FC
New York Red Bulls II
Portland Timbers 2
Saint Louis FC
Seattle Sounders FC 2
Toronto FC II
Tulsa Roughnecks FC
Whitecaps FC 2
|Dayton Dutch Lions|
Bethlehem Steel FC
Orlando City B
Rio Grande Valley FC Toros
Swope Park Rangers
San Antonio FC
On hiatus for 2016
|2017||31||Reno 1868 FC
USL Pro debuted in 2011, starting with 15 teams playing a 24-game regular season schedule. American and National Division teams played a home-and-away series against all opponents from the two divisions (totaling 18 games), 2 additional regional rivalry matches, with each team making an additional trip to either Los Angeles or the Caribbean to play two games while hosting International Division competition for two games. International Division teams played each team in their division four times (twice home, twice away, totaling 16 games) while traveling to face American or National Division opponents in four games and hosting those opponents for four games.
The original playoff format saw eight teams compete in a one-game quarterfinal. Both the American and National Divisions saw their top three teams advance for an inter-divisional playoff, while the top 2 teams in the International Division played-off against each other to reach the semi-finals. The four remaining teams were re-seeded for a single semi-final match, again with the higher seed hosting, leading up to a single match for the USL Pro Championship. In all playoff matches the highest seeded team hosted.
On May 10, 2011, early in the league's inaugural season, the USL announced that it was dropping the three Puerto Rican clubs from the USL PRO schedule. The PRSL clubs were dropped due to economic and ownership issues. The two remaining International Division teams – Antigua Barracuda FC and Los Angeles Blues – were re-aligned into the American and National Divisions. Due to the removal of the International Division, the revised playoff format featured the top four teams in each of the two divisions. The two division playoff winners met in the USL Pro Championship at the home venue of the team with the better record.
Following the 2011 season, USL Pro announced with the release of the 2012 season schedule that F.C. New York would not be returning to play, with the former National and American Divisions being dissolved to form a single, eleven team league table. With F.C. New York withdrawing in January 2012, the league announced an eleven team single-table schedule for the 2012 season.
Beginnings of MLS partnership (2013–2014)
On January 23, 2013 USL Pro and MLS announced a multi-year agreement to integrate MLS Reserve League play with USL Pro teams, first through team affiliations and "interleague" play, but eventually fully merging MLS Reserves into the USL Pro structure. The stated goals of this partnership are to improve North American player development, strengthen league competition, build long-term ties between the leagues and expand the audience for both the leagues and developing players.
While the 2013 season would feature partnered competitions between USL Pro and MLS Reserve teams, four Major League Soccer clubs opted to affiliate with an existing USL Pro team, agreeing to loan at least four MLS players to their affiliate: Sporting Kansas City with Orlando City, the Philadelphia Union with the Harrisburg City Islanders, D.C. United with the Richmond Kickers and the New England Revolution with the Rochester Rhinos. Each MLS club will eventually be expected to either affiliate with a USL Pro team or operate an independent reserve team in the league. The Houston Dynamo announced that they will be partnering with the Pittsburgh Riverhounds in 2014. However, this partnership between the Riverhounds and Dynamo was dissolved after just one year. Following the conclusion of the 2013 season, VSI Tampa Bay folded after only one season, along with founding league member Antigua.
In December 2012, Sacramento announced it would begin play in 2014 as an expansion team, and in July 2014, USL announced that Oklahoma City would also join USL in 2014. Orlando City announced that it would leave USL after the 2014 season to join MLS as an expansion team for the 2015 season. The Los Angeles Blues were rebranded as Orange County Blues FC on February 5, 2014. The Phoenix FC franchise was revoked and replaced with Arizona United SC on March 13, 2014.
In what would become a major trend, on January 29, 2014, the LA Galaxy announced the creation of LA Galaxy II, a reserve team within the club's existing development structure. The Galaxy purchased a USL Pro expansion franchise and became the first MLS club to enter its reserve team into the USL Pro.
Expansion of MLS partnership and rebranding (2015–)
USL Pro nearly doubled the number of teams in the league for 2015 in large part due to MLS franchises following the path taken by the LA Galaxy II. Seven MLS clubs announced the purchase of a USL Pro franchise for their reserve team. These MLS franchises joined 4 independent expansion teams that were previously announced for Colorado Springs, St. Louis, Tulsa and Austin. Additionally, Orlando City sold its franchise rights to Louisville interests, which unveiled Louisville City FC on June 3, 2014 as an affiliate of the new MLS side, and the USL announced that the Charlotte Eagles would drop to the Premier Development League (PDL) while selling their franchise rights to another Charlotte group which formed the Charlotte Independence for play beginning in 2015. Finally, on December 11, 2014, the Dayton Dutch Lions self-relegated to play in the PDL starting in 2015.
During 2014 and early 2015, the various MLS clubs in conjunction with the USL announced seven new franchises that would be owned by (or controlled by) MLS team ownership and would all begin play in 2015. On September 10, 2014, Real Salt Lake revealed the name of their previously announced USL Pro affiliate team would be called Real Monarchs and confirmed that the team would begin play in 2015. A new stadium to be built in West Valley City was announced with the team playing at Rio Tinto Stadium until it is built. Both the Portland Timbers and Seattle Sounders FC created their own USL Pro squads, Portland Timbers 2 and Seattle Sounders FC 2 on October 14, 2014. The Montreal Impact announced that it would field a USL Pro team in September 2014. On November 18, 2014, FC Montréal officially joined the league. On November 20, 2014, Toronto FC announced that it would also field a team, subsequently named Toronto FC II, for the 2015 season. Whitecaps FC 2 joined USL Pro the next day. After discussing plans for a USL Pro team in 2015, then postponing those plans in September, the New York Red Bulls reversed themselves again and announced that their USL Pro team, New York Red Bulls II would begin play in 2015.
MLS affiliations were announced for the remaining MLS teams that did not have an affiliation in 2014 and did not elect to purchase a USL Pro franchise. On September 18, 2014 the Colorado Rapids announced an affiliation partnership with the Charlotte Independence. On January 16, 2015 New York City FC announced that it would have an affiliate relationship with the Wilmington Hammerheads and the Chicago Fire announced their affiliation with St Louis. On February 9, 2015, FC Dallas announced it would add Arizona United SC as its USL Pro affiliate. As a result, all 20 MLS teams for the 2015 season were either fielding their own team in the USL Pro or were affiliated with an independent USL Pro club.
The USL also announced in 2015 that the league would be divided into two conferences. Teams would play a 28-game schedule with 22 games against all the teams in their conference, and the teams would be further assigned to four-club subdivisions for the other six games with an eye towards geographic rivalries between clubs.
On February 10, 2015, the league announced a branding change, with the league now called the "United Soccer League" or "USL" for short. They introduced a new logo and branding, and stated their intention to re-apply for Division II status within the United States Soccer Federation hierarchy.
On July 15, 2015, USL announced that the 25th franchise in the league was awarded to Lone Star, LLC and the team would be named Rio Grande Valley FC. Alec Papadakis, USL President stated that the club already had a "10,000-seat soccer-specific stadium" under construction. In a first for the USL, the team will have a "hybrid" affiliation with the Houston Dynamo who would be responsible for the tactical part of the club, while the ownership group, Lone Star, would be responsible for operations and management.
On August 12, 2015, USL announced FC Cincinnati as the 26th franchise in the league. The ownership group would be led by Carl H. Lindner III of American Financial Group. Jeff Berding announced that John Harkes, who holds 90 caps with US National team and was an assistant coach with the New York Red Bulls, would be the head coach.
The Austin Aztex announced that they would go on hiatus for the 2016 USL season on October 2, 2015. Floods damaging House Park midway through the 2015 season forced the team to relocate to a high school facility. The team will return in 2017, pending construction of a new, soccer-specific stadium.
On May 19, 2016, the USL awarded an expansion franchise to DMD Soccer, a Nashville-based ownership group, to own and operate a team, USL Nashville 2018, beginning with the 2018 USL season. In addition, the ownership group has confirmed that it will host a public event in mid-June to roll out its overall vision for the new team.
Possible future teams
In a telephone interview on July 23, 2015, USL President Jake Edwards indicated that although the teams have not been announced, the league has decided which teams will start in 2016, "The deals are done and the plans are finalized." In addition to Rio Grande Valley FC and FC Cincinnati, Cincinnati mayor John Cranley stated that the USL now has 29 teams. News reports indicate the additional teams that are likely to be added .
News reports also suggest that USL is already planning additional teams for 2017.
- FC Dallas: In August 2014, management stated they intend to have a USL team for the 2016 season; however, there has been no further news regarding their intentions and they have been left off news reports regarding the 2016 USL season.
Investors in Detroit made a plan public of getting a USL franchise to make the jump to MLS by 2020.
On June 4, 2016, Portland Timbers 2 played a home match in Boise, Idaho to a capacity crowd of 5,000, prompting questions about that city getting a team.
San Diego could be an option as there are a number of stadium options coming to a vote this November 2016.
Current clubs Future clubs Club moved to MLS Club moved to PDL Former clubs
‡Puerto Rico Clubs Puerto Rico United, River Plate Puerto Rico, and Sevilla Puerto Rico began play in the league, but in May 2011 United Soccer Leagues announced that the teams would not finish the season due to financial difficulties.
|Team||City||Stadium||Years active in USL|
|Antigua Barracuda FC||St. John's, Antigua||Stanford Cricket Ground (5,000)||2011–2013|
|Charlotte Eagles||Charlotte, North Carolina||Dickson Field (5,000)||2011–2014|
|Dayton Dutch Lions||West Carrollton, Ohio||DOC Stadium (3,000)||2011–2014|
|F.C. New York||Queens, New York||Belson Stadium (5,000)||2011|
|Orlando City||Lake Buena Vista, Florida||ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex (5,500)||2011–2014|
|Phoenix FC||Tempe, Arizona||Sun Devil Soccer Stadium (3,400)||2013|
|Puerto Rico United||Aguada, Puerto Rico||Aguada Stadium (4,000)||2011|
|River Plate Puerto Rico||Fajardo, Puerto Rico||Roberto Clemente Stadium (12,500)||2011|
|Sevilla Puerto Rico||Juncos, Puerto Rico||Josué Elevadito González Stadium (2,500)||2011|
|VSI Tampa Bay FC||Plant City, Florida||Plant City Stadium (6,700)||2013|
|Team||USL trophy||Year(s) won||Regular season cup||Year(s) won||USL
|Orlando City||2||2011, 2013||3||2011, 2012, 2014||4|
USL Championship results
|2011||Orlando City||2–2 †||Harrisburg City Islanders||Citrus Bowl||11,220||Orlando won 3–2 on PSO|
|2012||Charleston Battery||1–0||Wilmington Hammerheads||Blackbaud Stadium||4,963|
|2013||Orlando City||7–4||Charlotte Eagles||Citrus Bowl||20,886||USL PRO attendance record|
|2014||Sacramento Republic||2–0||Harrisburg City Islanders||Bonney Field||8,000|
|2015||Rochester Rhinos||2–1 *||LA Galaxy II||Sahlen's Stadium||5,247|
|†||Match decided by a penalty shootout after extra time|
|*||Match decided in extra time|
USL club honors
Current through completed 2015 USL Season; Order based on major honors (championships).
|Team||Seasons||USL Playoffs||USL Regular Season||Domestic
(USOC, ACC, CFUCC)
|Total Honors||Major Honors / Championships|
|Winner||Runner-up||Winner||Runner-up||Winner||Furthest USL Entry|
|Orlando City SC||4||2||-||3||1||-||1||7||5|
|Rochester Rhinos||5||1||-||1||1||1 (pre-USL)||1||5||3|
|Richmond Kickers||5||-||-||1||-||1 (pre-USL)||1||3||2|
|Harrisburg City Islanders||5||-||2||-||-||-||1||3||0|
|LA Galaxy II||2||-||1||-||-||-||-||1||0|
|Louisville City FC||1||-||-||-||1||-||-||1||0|
|Season||Teams||League Avg.||Playoff Avg.||Highest Teams||Lowest Teams||Ref|
|2011||12||2,274||5,555||5,330 (Orlando City)
|410 (Los Angeles Blues)
|2012||11||2,777||4,252||6,606 (Orlando City)
|666 (Los Angeles Blues)
|2013||13||2,611||6,989||8,056 (Orlando City)
|378 (Tampa Bay)
718 (Los Angeles Blues)
597 (LA Galaxy II)
6,765 (Louisville City)
|313 (FC Montréal)
479 (Toronto FC ll)
FC Cincinnati played before a record crowd of 20,497 at Nippert Stadium on April 16, 2016. This broke the USL Pro's previous record for attendance at a regular-season match of 20,231 set by Sacramento Republic in its home debut on April 26, 2014 at Hughes Stadium. Cincinnati broke the record again on May 14, 2016, with a new all-time high of 23,375.
- Rob Hoskins - chairman
- Alec Papadakis - chief executive officer/managing partner
- Jake Edwards - president
- Brad Freeman - chief financial officer
- Justin Papadakis - chief operating officer
- Tom Veit - chief revenue officer
- Ed Austin - executive vice president
- Perry Van der Beck - vice president, competition & operations
- Steven Short - vice president, business development
- John Griffin - senior director, communications
- Lizzie Seedhouse - director, digital media
- John Cochol - director, club services
- Garrison Mason - general counsel
- "USL Restructures Professional Division". www.uslsoccer.com. September 8, 2010. Archived from the original on October 11, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
- "MLS, USL Pro reach deal on restructured Reserve League". www.mlssoccer.com. January 23, 2013. Retrieved January 27, 2013.
- "USL PRO & MLS Announce Partnership". www.uslpro.uslsoccer.com. January 23, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
- Hollingsworth, Chad (December 15, 2014). "USL PRO announces conference alignment, structure for 2015". RecklessChallenge.com. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
- "USL Pro 2015 Standings". USLSoccer.com. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
- "Expanded USL PRO Unveils 2015 Format". USLSoccer.com. January 21, 2015. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
- "Hammerheads Return for 2011". www.uslsoccer.com. November 9, 2010. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- "USL Pro partners with YouTube to provide free live streaming". Soccer By Ives (sbisoccer.com). January 17, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- "USL Announces Partnership with ESPN". USL. April 22, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
- "United Soccer Leagues (USL)". uslsoccer.com.
- Expanded USL PRO announces new league alignment, competition format for 2015 season (January 21, 2015). MLSSoccer.com.
- "Austin Aztex on hiatus for 2016 season, eyes 2017 USL return". Alamo Soccer. 2 October 2015.
- Kevin Reichard (July 28, 2015). "Aces Look To Add Pro Soccer In 2017". Ballpark Digest.
- "DDL FC will play USL next season". www.dutchlionsfc.com. August 11, 2010. Retrieved September 10, 2010.
- "Kickers Join USL Pro". www.richmondkickers.com. September 8, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- "Puerto Rico Islanders Join NASL". www.carolinarailhawks.com. September 9, 2010. Retrieved September 15, 2010.
- "Sevilla, River Plate Join USL Pro". www.uslsoccer.com. September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
- "Puerto Rico United Joins USL Pro". www.uslsoccer.com. December 9, 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- "Battery To Play in USL Pro". www.uslsoccer.com. September 28, 2010. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
- "Dutch Lions Join USL Pro". www.uslsoccer.com. September 30, 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
- "Charlotte Joins USL Pro". www.uslsoccer.com. October 4, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
- "City Islanders Join USL Pro". www.uslsoccer.com. October 7, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
- "Riverhounds Join USL Pro". www.uslsoccer.com. October 22, 2010. Retrieved October 25, 2010.
- "Rochester Rhinos Back in USL". www.uslsoccer.com. October 25, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- "Orlando City Joins USL Pro". www.uslsoccer.com. October 25, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- "FC New York set for USL Pro". www.uslsoccer.com. November 17, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
- "LA Blues Set to Play in USL Pro". www.uslsoccer.com. December 7, 2010. Retrieved December 7, 2010.
- "USL Pro League seeks to embrace regional model". www.potomacsoccerwire.com. September 14, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- "USL Pro Concludes Successful AGM". www.uslsoccer.com. November 23, 2010. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- "USL Pro Schedule Released". www.uslsoccer.com. January 14, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
- "Shaping the USL Pro Schedule". www.uslsoccer.com. January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
- USL Pro Postseason Format Unveiled, www.uslsoccer.com, January 24, 2011, retrieved January 27, 2011
- "USL Reforms Agreement with PRSL". www.uslsoccer.com. May 10, 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "USL PRO 2012 Schedule Released". www.uslsoccer.com. January 11, 2012. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "Phoenix to Join USL PRO in 2013". United Soccer Leagues (USL). July 2, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- "Phoenix Announces Name and Logo". United Soccer Leagues (USL). September 7, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "VisionPro Academy Headed to Tampa". United Soccer Leagues (USL). November 16, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
- Doyle, Matthew (January 23, 2013), MLS, USL Pro reach deal on restructured Reserve League, MLSsoccer.com
- Lovell, Darrell. "USL PRO side Pittsburgh Riverhounds "a great place to send our players to develop" for Houston Dynamo". mlsssoccer.com. Major League Soccer. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- Meyer, Craig. "Riverhounds hire new president, head coach". Pittsburgh Post Gazette. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- "USL PRO to see teams fold; MLS to field squads; new team partnership | ODFCnews.com". odfcnews.com. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "Sacramento lands minor league soccer franchise". Sacramento Bee. December 3, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2012.
- "Oklahoma City to Join USL PRO in 2014". USLSoccer.com. July 2, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "MAJOR LEAGUE SOCCER AWARDS EXPANSION TEAM TO ORLANDO". orlandocitysoccer.com. Orlando City Soccer Club. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- Schmitz, Brian (November 19, 2013). "MLS officially awards Orlando soccer franchise". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- Wiebe, Andrew (November 19, 2013). "Orlando City SC fans, owners see years of hard work bear fruit, but promise there's plenty more to come". mlssoccer.com. Major League Soccer. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- "Orange County Blues Set For New Era". United Soccer Leagues (USL). February 5, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- "Ownership Change, Rebrand in Phoenix". United Soccer Leagues (USL). March 13, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "LA Galaxy announce USL PRO team LA Galaxy II". LA Galaxy.
- Linter, Jonathan (June 3, 2014). "Louisville pro soccer club to be unveiled Wednesday". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
- "USL PRO Welcomes Independence". USL Pro Men's Soccer.
- "Dayton Dutch Lions FC To Compete in PDL in 2015". Dayton Dutch Lions. December 11, 2014. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
- "Real Salt Lake announce that new USL PRO team will be called Real Monarchs". Major League Soccer (MLS). September 10, 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- "Real Salt Lake Announces USL PRO Team". United Soccer Leagues. November 3, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
- Originally, the Monarchs planned to play at the Utah State Fairpark; however, the State of Utah did not extend the lease on the Fairgrounds, a requirement for the downtown stadium. So Del Loy Hansen announced plans to build a stadium in West Valley City in February 2015.
- Lee, Jasen (March 3, 2015). "Real Monarchs reveal new stadium proposal in West Valley". ksl.com. KSL Broadcasting.
- "Portland & Seattle Launch USL PRO Teams". United Soccer Leagues (USL). October 14, 2014. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
- "Montreal Impact to field USL PRO team to ease transition to MLS for young players". MLSSoccer.com. September 4, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
- "A new USL Pro team". Montreal Impact. September 4, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
- "Montreal Impact to Field USL PRO Team". United Soccer Leagues (USL). November 18, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
- "Toronto FC announces USL PRO team". Toronto FC. November 20, 2014. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
- "Whitecaps FC launch USL PRO team, provide update on National Soccer Development Centre at UBC". Vancouver Whitecaps. November 21, 2014. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
- "New York Red Bulls ready to launch USL PRO side in 2015: "We see it as a big, big advantage"". MLSsoccer.com.
- Mike Petke regrets but understands New York Red Bulls decision not to field USL PRO team in 2015 (September 16, 2014). MLSSoccer.com.
- Red Bulls will field USL Pro team in 2015, may play in New York City (January 8, 2015). Empire of Soccer. Last accessed January 19, 2015.
- Toronto FC. "Toronto FC, NY Red Bulls unveil USL Pro franchises". SI.com. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- "Colorado Rapids' Pablo Mastroeni ecstatic about USL PRO partnership with Charlotte Independence". mlssoccer.com. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
- NYCFC Announce Affiliation with Wilmington Hammerheads (January 16, 2015). NYCFC.com.
- Chicago Fire announce affiliation with USL PRO side in St. Louis (January 16, 2015). MLSSoccer.com.
- "Arizona United Soccer Club Affiliates With Major League Soccer's FC Dallas". Arizona United SC. February 9, 2015. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- "FC Dallas announces USL PRO affiliation with Arizona United SC". FC Dallas. February 9, 2015. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- "USL Rising". USLSoccer.com. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- USL Awards Expansion Club to Rio Grande Valley (Press Release), United Soccer League, July 15, 2015.
- Houston Dynamo reach affiliate agreement to start USL club: "It's an important and necessary step", MLSoccer.com, July 15, 2015.
- RGVFC awarded the USL's newest franchise, Houston Dyanamo, July 15, 2015.
- FC Cincinnati Introduction Media Event. YouTube. August 12, 2015.
- Hollingsworth, Chad. "USL to Expand to Cincinnati in 2016". Scratching the Pitch. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Philadelphia Union planning to create own USL team for 2016: "It's been a missing rung in the ladder", MLS, July 14, 2015
- Philadelphia Union Announce 2016 USL Expansion Team, philadelphiaunion.com, August 18, 2015.
- "USL Announces 2017 Expansion Club in Reno". www.uslsoccer.com. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
- "USL Welcomes Back Orlando City SC for 2016". United Soccer League. October 15, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
- "USL expands to Kansas City in 2016 with debut of Swope Park Rangers". Retrieved October 22, 2015.
- "Spurs Sports & Entertainment Closes in on USL Club". www.uslsoccer.com. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
- "Austin Aztex Will Not Participate in 2016 Season". United Soccer League (USL). October 2, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- "Expansion Annoucement". USL Soccer.
- FC Cincinnati Introduction Media Event. YouTube. August 12, 2015.
- USL Roundup: Board of Governors meets in Denver, SoccerAmerica.com, July 29, 2015
- FC Dallas planning USL PRO affiliate partnership for 2015, hope to field own team in 2016 (August 14, 2014). MLSSocccer.com.
- Sipple, George (8 May 2016). "Investors dedicated to dream of Detroit MLS franchise". Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- "Colorado Springs Switchbacks Rony Argueta makes USL team of the week". Colorado Springs Gazette. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
- Togerson, Derek. "Major Pro Soccer League Looking to Expand in San Diego". Retrieved June 9, 2016.
- "USL reforms Agreement with PRSL". United Soccer Leagues. May 10, 2011. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "current 2011 attendance - USL Discussions". usldiscussions.com. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "2012 USL-Pro Attendance". Doherty Soccer.
- "Taking Attendance 9/13/2013: Final USL Pro Numbers". kenn.com.
- "2014 USL-Pro Season Attendance Log". Doherty Soccer.
- "USL 2015 Stat Leaders - United Soccer League". uslsoccer.com.
- Staff, James Leggate, WCPO. "FC Cincinnati crowd sets league attendance record". WCPO. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- "Republic FC loses home opener before sellout crowd at Hughes Stadium", Sacramento Bee, April 27, 2014.
- Brennan, Patrick. "Another record crowd turns out to watch FC Cincy win". Cincinnati.com. Retrieved May 14, 2016.
- "USL Executives". USLSoccer.com.