United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom
|Ambassador of the United States of America to the United Kingdom
Ambassador of the United States to the Court of St James's
Seal of the United States Department of State
|U.S. Department of State
Embassy of the United States, London
|Style||His Excellency (Formal)
Mr. Ambassador (Informal)
|Reports to||U.S. Secretary of State|
|Seat||London, United Kingdom|
with the advice and consent of the Senate
|Term length||At the pleasure of the President
No fixed term
|Inaugural holder||John Adams
as Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's
Daniel James Lawton
(As Deputy Chief of Mission is currently serving as Chargé d'affaires a.i.)
|Website||US Embassy – London|
The United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom (known formally in the United Kingdom as Ambassador of the United States to the Court of St James's) is the official representative of the President and the Government of the United States of America to the Queen and Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The position is regarded as one of the most prestigious positions in the United States Foreign Service due to the so-called "Special Relationship". The ambassadorship has been held by various notable politicians, including five who would later become presidents: John Adams, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Martin Van Buren and James Buchanan. However, the modern tendency of American presidents (of both parties) is to appoint keen political fundraisers from previous presidential campaigns, despite the importance and prestige of the office.
The post of ambassador is currently vacant; however, President Trump has nominated Woody Johnson as his choice for the post. On June 26, 2017, Johnson's name was referred to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Lewis Lukens is currently serving as Chargé d'affaires ad interim until Johnson is approved by the Senate. The most recent Ambassador was Matthew Barzun.
The ambassador's main duty is to present U.S. policies to the Government of the United Kingdom and people and to report British policies and views to the Federal government of the United States. He serves as a primary channel of communication between the two nations and plays an important role in treaty negotiations.
The ambassador is the head of the United States's consular service in the United Kingdom. As well as directing diplomatic activity in support of trade, he is ultimately responsible for visa services and for the provision of consular support to American citizens in the UK. He also oversees cultural relations between the two countries.
Ambassadors who later became U.S. presidents
- John Adams (1785–1788)
- James Monroe (1803–1807)
- John Quincy Adams (1814–1817)
- Martin Van Buren (1831–1832)
- James Buchanan (1853–1856)
List of U.S. Chiefs of Mission to the Court of St. James
|Adams, JohnJohn Adams||February 24, 1785||June 1, 1785||February 20, 1788||Congress||Left post [a]|
|Pinckney, ThomasThomas Pinckney||January 12, 1792||August 9, 1792||July 27, 1796||Washington, GeorgeGeorge Washington||Left post|
|King, RufusRufus King||May 20, 1796||July 27, 1796||May 16, 1803||Left post|
|Monroe, JamesJames Monroe||1803||August 17, 1803||October 7, 1807||Jefferson, ThomasThomas Jefferson||Left post|
|Pinkney, WilliamWilliam Pinkney||February 26, 1808||April 27, 1808||May 7, 1811||Left post|
|Russell, JonathanJonathan Russell||July 27, 1811||November 15, 1811||June 18, 1812||Madison, JamesJames Madison||Left post [b]|
Diplomatic relations with Great Britain were restored after the War of 1812. The Congress of Vienna (1815) established a uniform system of diplomatic rank. As a republic, the United States maintained diplomatic relations with Great Britain at the second-highest rank of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. The rank was colloquially known as Minister, and the position continued to be referred to as "United States Minister to Great Britain."
|Adams, John QuincyJohn Quincy Adams||April 28, 1814||June 8, 1815||May 14, 1817||Madison, JamesJames Madison||Left post|
|Rush, RichardRichard Rush||1817||February 12, 1818||April 27, 1825||Monroe, JamesJames Monroe||Left post|
|King, RufusRufus King||May 5, 1825||November 11, 1825||June 16, 1826||Adams, John QuincyJohn Quincy Adams||Left post|
|Gallatin, AlbertAlbert Gallatin||May 10, 1826||September 1, 1826||October 4, 1827||Left post|
|Barbour, JamesJames Barbour||May 23, 1828||November 24, 1828||October 1, 1829||Left post|
|McLane, LouisLouis McLane||1829||October 12, 1829||June 13, 1831||Jackson, AndrewAndrew Jackson||Left post|
|Van Buren, MartinMartin Van Buren||August 8, 1831||September 21, 1831||March 19, 1832||Left post|
|Vail, AaronAaron Vail||July 13, 1832||July 13, 1836||Left post [c]|
|Stevenson, AndrewAndrew Stevenson||March 16, 1836||July 13, 1836||October 21, 1841||Left post|
|Everett, EdwardEdward Everett||1841||December 16, 1841||August 8, 1845||Harrison, William HenryWilliam Henry Harrison||Left post|
|McLane, LouisLouis McLane||1845||August 8, 1845||August 18, 1846||Polk, James K.James K. Polk||Left post|
|Bancroft, GeorgeGeorge Bancroft||September 9, 1846||November 12, 1846||August 31, 1849||Left post|
|Lawrence, AbbottAbbott Lawrence||August 20, 1849||October 20, 1849||October 12, 1852||Taylor, ZacharyZachary Taylor||Left post|
|Ingersoll, Joseph R.Joseph R. Ingersoll||August 21, 1852||October 16, 1852||August 23, 1853||Fillmore, MillardMillard Fillmore||Left post|
|Buchanan, JamesJames Buchanan||August 20, 1849||August 23, 1853||March 15, 1856||Pierce, FranklinFranklin Pierce||Left post|
|Dallas, George M.George M. Dallas||February 4, 1856||April 4, 1856||May 16, 1861||Left post|
|Adams Sr., Charles FrancisCharles Francis Adams Sr.||March 20, 1861||May 16, 1861||May 13, 1868||Lincoln, AbrahamAbraham Lincoln||Left post|
|Johnson, ReverdyReverdy Johnson||June 12, 1868||September 14, 1868||May 13, 1869||Johnson, AndrewAndrew Johnson||Left post|
|Motley, John LothropJohn Lothrop Motley||April 13, 1869||June 18, 1869||December 6, 1870||Grant, Ulysses S.Ulysses S. Grant||Left post|
|Schenck, Robert C.Robert C. Schenck||December 22, 1870||June 23, 1871||March 3, 1876||Left post|
|Pierrepont, EdwardsEdwards Pierrepont||May 22, 1876||July 11, 1876||December 22, 1877||Left post|
|Welsh, JohnJohn Welsh||November 9, 1877||December 22, 1877||August 14, 1879||Hayes, Rutherford B.Rutherford B. Hayes||Left post|
|Lowell, James RussellJames Russell Lowell||January 26, 1880||March 11, 1880||May 19, 1885||Left post|
|Phelps, Edward JohnEdward John Phelps||March 23, 1885||May 19, 1885||January 31, 1889||Cleveland, GroverGrover Cleveland||Left post|
|Lincoln, Robert ToddRobert Todd Lincoln||March 30, 1889||May 25, 1889||May 4, 1893||Harrison, BenjaminBenjamin Harrison||Left post|
Although France became a republic in 1870, the country continued to exchange ambassadors with other Great Powers. In 1893, the United States followed the French precedent and upgraded its relations with other Great Powers to the ambassadorial level. The United States Legation in London became the United States Embassy, and the United States Minister to Great Britain became the United States Ambassador to Great Britain.
|Bayard, Thomas F.Thomas F. Bayard||1893||June 22, 1893||March 17, 1897||Cleveland, GroverGrover Cleveland||Left post|
|Hay, JohnJohn Hay||1897||May 3, 1897||September 12, 1898||McKinley, WilliamWilliam McKinley||Left post|
|Choate, Joseph HodgesJoseph Hodges Choate||January 19, 1899||March 6, 1899||May 23, 1905||Left post|
|Reid, WhitelawWhitelaw Reid||March 8, 1905||June 5, 1905||December 15, 1912||Roosevelt, TheodoreTheodore Roosevelt||Died in office|
|Page, Walter HinesWalter Hines Page||April 21, 1913||May 30, 1913||October 3, 1918||Wilson, WoodrowWoodrow Wilson||Left post|
|Davis, John W.John W. Davis||November 21, 1918||December 18, 1918||March 9, 1921||Left post|
|Harvey, George Brinton McClellanGeorge Brinton McClellan Harvey||April 16, 1921||May 12, 1921||November 3, 1923||Harding, Warren G.Warren G. Harding||Left post|
|Kellogg, Frank B.Frank B. Kellogg||1924||January 14, 1924||February 10, 1925||Coolidge, CalvinCalvin Coolidge||Left post|
|Houghton, Alanson B.Alanson B. Houghton||February 24, 1925||April 27, 1925||March 28, 1929||Left post|
|Dawes, Charles G.Charles G. Dawes||April 16, 1929||June 15, 1929||December 30, 1931||Hoover, HerbertHerbert Hoover||Left post|
|Mellon, Andrew W.Andrew W. Mellon||February 5, 1932||April 9, 1932||March 17, 1933||Left post|
|Bingham, Robert WorthRobert Worth Bingham||March 23, 1933||May 23, 1933||November 19, 1937||Roosevelt, Franklin D.Franklin D. Roosevelt||Left post|
|Kennedy, Joseph P.Joseph P. Kennedy||January 17, 1938||March 8, 1938||October 22, 1940||Left post|
|Winant, John G.John G. Winant||February 11, 1941||March 1, 1941||April 10, 1946||Left post|
|Harriman, W. AverellW. Averell Harriman||April 2, 1946||April 30, 1946||October 1, 1946||Truman, Harry S.Harry S. Truman||Left post|
|Douglas, Lewis W.Lewis W. Douglas||March 6, 1947||March 25, 1947||November 16, 1950||Left post|
|Gifford, Walter S.Walter S. Gifford||December 12, 1950||December 21, 1950||January 23, 1953||Left post|
|Aldrich, Winthrop W.Winthrop W. Aldrich||February 2, 1953||February 20, 1953||February 1, 1957||Eisenhower, Dwight D.Dwight D. Eisenhower||Left post|
|Whitney, John HayJohn Hay Whitney||February 11, 1957||February 28, 1957||January 14, 1961||Left post|
|Bruce, David K. E.David K. E. Bruce||February 22, 1961||March 17, 1961||March 20, 1969||Kennedy, John F.John F. Kennedy||Left post|
|Annenberg, WalterWalter Annenberg||March 14, 1969||April 29, 1969||October 30, 1974||Nixon, RichardRichard Nixon||Left post|
|Richardson, ElliotElliot Richardson||February 20, 1975||March 21, 1975||January 16, 1976||Ford, GeraldGerald Ford||Left post|
|Armstrong, AnneAnne Armstrong||January 29, 1976||March 17, 1976||March 3, 1977||Left post|
|Brewster, Jr., KingmanKingman Brewster, Jr.||April 29, 1977||June 3, 1977||February 23, 1981||Carter, JimmyJimmy Carter||Left post|
|Louis, Jr., John J.John J. Louis, Jr.||May 7, 1981||May 27, 1981||November 7, 1983||Reagan, RonaldRonald Reagan||Left post|
|Price II, Charles H.Charles H. Price II||November 11, 1983||December 20, 1983||February 28, 1989||Left post|
|Catto, Jr., Henry E.Henry E. Catto, Jr.||April 14, 1989||May 17, 1989||March 13, 1991||Bush, George H. W.George H. W. Bush||Left post|
|Seitz, Raymond G. H.Raymond G. H. Seitz||April 25, 1991||June 25, 1991||May 10, 1994||Left post|
|Crowe, Jr., William J.William J. Crowe, Jr.||May 13, 1994||June 2, 1994||September 20, 1997||Clinton, BillBill Clinton||Left post|
|Lader, PhilipPhilip Lader||August 1, 1997||September 22, 1997||February 28, 2001||Left post|
|Farish III, William S.William S. Farish III||July 12, 2001||August 1, 2001||June 11, 2004||Bush, George W.George W. Bush||Left post|
|Tuttle, Robert H.Robert H. Tuttle||July 9, 2005||October 19, 2005||February 6, 2009||Left post|
|Susman, LouisLouis Susman||July 13, 2009||October 13, 2009||April 3, 2013||Obama, BarackBarack Obama||Left post|
|Barzun, MatthewMatthew Barzun||August 6, 2013||December 4, 2013||January 18, 2017||Left post. Lewis Lukens became the chargé d'affaires.|
|Woody Johnson||January 19, 2017||Awaiting Senate confirmation|
- Ambassadors of the United States
- British Embassy, Washington, D.C.
- Foreign relations of the United Kingdom
- List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to the United States
- United Kingdom – United States relations
- John Adams became so frustrated with his cool reception at the court that he closed the legation in 1788 and the post remained vacant for four years.
- From 1811 to the outbreak of the War of 1812, chargé d'affaires Johnathan Russell was the chief United States officer in London. The United States severed relations with the United Kingdom on the outbreak of the War of 1812 – Normal relations were restored in 1815.
- Chargé d'affaires
- Collier, Peter; Horowitz, David (2002). The Kennedys: An American Drama. p. 6.
- Borger, Julian (January 19, 2016). "New York Jets owner Woody Johnson to be US ambassador to UK". The Guardian. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- "Tracking how many key positions Trump has filled so far". Washington Post. July 14, 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- "United Kingdom". Diplomatic History of the United States. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 30, 2011.
- "Biography of Ambassador Matthew W. Barzun". U.S. Embassy & Consulates in the United Kingdom. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
- Davis, Julie Hirschfeld (5 January 2017). "In Break With Precedent, Obama Envoys Are Denied Extensions Past Inauguration Day". The New York Times.
- "Who is Woody Johnson, Trump's new ambassador to the UK?". RT International. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- United States Department of State: Background notes on the United Kingdom
- This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm (Background Notes).
- Alison R. Holmes and J. Simon Rofe, The Embassy in Grosvenor Square: American Ambassadors to the United Kingdom, 1938–2008. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.