United States Ambassador to Switzerland and Liechtenstein
|Ambassador of the United States to Switzerland and Liechtenstein|
Seal of the United States Department of State
|Nominator||The President of the United States|
|Inaugural holder||Theodore Sedgwick Fay
as Minister Resident
|Formation||March 16, 1853|
Since 1997, the U.S. ambassador to Switzerland has also been accredited to the Principality of Liechtenstein. Appointed on February 10, 1997, Ambassador Madeleine M. Kunin served as the first United States Ambassador to Liechtenstein. She presented her credentials to Liechtenstein on March 14, 1997, which marked the beginning of the United States' diplomatic relations with the country. (Although the United States executed its first treaty with Liechtenstein in 1926, at the time Liechtenstein was represented by Switzerland).
Before 1997 it was understood that the rights of a U.S.–Swiss agreement also extended to citizens of Liechtenstein because it had yielded control of its foreign affairs to Switzerland. At the end of the 20th century, however, it "began pursuing independent membership in international organizations".
The position is generally held by a political appointee rather than a career Foreign Service Officer (FSO); in the United States ambassadors are nominated by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate. According to the American Foreign Service Association, only two career FSOs since 1960 have been appointed to the Swiss and Liechtenstein ambassadorship (both times were in the 1970s), whereas the remaining twenty ambassadors were political appointees, typically those known as "campaign bundlers" who raise large sums of money for presidential campaigns.
List of ambassadors
|Name||State of residency||Background||Title||Appointment||Presentation of credentials||Termination of mission|
|Theodore Sedgwick Fay||Massachusetts||Minister Resident||Mar 16, 1853||Jun 29, 1853||Presented recall, Jul 1, 1861|
|George G. Fogg||New Hampshire||Minister Resident||Mar 28, 1861||Jul 1, 1861||Presented recall, Oct 16, 1865|
|George Harrington||Georgia||Minister Resident||Jul 7, 1865||Oct 16, 1865||Presented recall, Jul 20, 1869|
|Horace Rublee||Wisconsin||Minister Resident||Apr 20, 1869||Jul 20, 1869||Presented recall, Sep 7, 1876|
|Horace Rublee||Wisconsin||Chargé d'affaires||Aug 15, 1876||Sep 7, 1876||Left post Oct 1, 1876|
|George Schneider||Illinois||Chargé d'affaires||May 1, 1877|
|Nicholas Fish II||New York||Chargé d'affaires||Jun 20, 1877||Aug 7, 1877||Presented recall, Aug 24, 1881|
|Michael J. Cramer||Kentucky||Chargé d'affaires||May 11, 1881||Aug 25, 1881||Promoted to Minister Resident/Consul General|
|Michael J. Cramer||Kentucky||Minister Resident/Consul General||Jul 13, 1882||Aug 14, 1882||Presented recall, Jul 9, 1885|
|Boyd Winchester||Kentucky||Minister Resident/Consul General||May 7, 1885||Jul 9, 1885||Presented recall, May 24, 1889|
|John D. Washburn||Massachusetts||Minister Resident/Consul General||Mar 12, 1889||May 24, 1889||Promoted to Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary|
|John D. Washburn||Massachusetts||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Jul 30, 1890||Dec 13, 1890||Left post Aug 10, 1892|
|Person Colby Cheney||New Hampshire||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Dec 13, 1892||Jan 26, 1893||Presented recall, Jan 29, 1893|
|James Broadhead||Missouri||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Apr 7, 1893||Jul 5, 1893||Appointment terminated, Nov 1, 1895|
|John L. Peak||Missouri||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Nov 18, 1895||Feb 15, 1896||Presented recall, Aug 9, 1897|
|John George Alexander Leishman||Pennsylvania||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Jun 9, 1897||Aug 9, 1897||Presented recall, Feb 20, 1901|
|Arthur Sherburne Hardy||New Hampshire||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Dec 20, 1900||Apr 3, 1901||Presented recall, Jan 29, 1903|
|Charles Page Bryan||Illinois||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Sep 26, 1902|
|Charles Page Bryan||Illinois||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Dec 8, 1902|
|David Jayne Hill||New York||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Jan 7, 1903||Feb 24, 1903||Presented recall, Jul 1, 1905|
|Brutus J. Clay II||Kentucky||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Mar 8, 1905||Jul 1, 1905||Superseded, Mar 1, 1910|
|Laurits S. Swenson||Minnesota||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Dec 21, 1909||Mar 1, 1910||Presented recall, May 15, 1911|
|Henry Sherman Boutell||Illinois||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Apr 24, 1911||May 23, 1911||Presented recall, Jul 31, 1913|
|Pleasant A. Stovall||Georgia||Non-career appointee||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Jun 21, 1913||Aug 23, 1913||Left post Dec 14, 1919|
|Hampson Gary||Texas||Non-career appointee||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Apr 7, 1920||Jun 3, 1920||Left post about Mar 4, 1921|
|Joseph Grew||Massachusetts||Foreign Service Officer||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Sep 24, 1921||Nov 1, 1921||Left post Mar 22, 1924|
|Hugh S. Gibson||California||Foreign Service officer||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Mar 18, 1924||May 19, 1924||Presented recall, Apr 29, 1927|
|Hugh R. Wilson||Illinois||Foreign Service officer||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Feb 26, 1927||Jun 11, 1927||Left post Jul 8, 1937|
|Leland B. Harrison||Illinois||Foreign Service officer||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Jul 13, 1937||Sep 10, 1937||Left post Oct 14, 1947|
|John Carter Vincent||Georgia||Foreign Service officer||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Jul 24, 1947||Oct 21, 1947||Left post Jun 9, 1951|
|Richard Cunningham Patterson, Jr.||New York||Non-career appointee||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||Mar 22, 1951||Jun 27, 1951||Left post Apr 14, 1953|
|Frances E. Willis||California||Foreign Service officer||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Jul 20, 1953||Oct 9, 1953||Left post May 5, 1957|
|Henry J. Taylor||Virginia||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||May 9, 1957||May 31, 1957||Left post Feb 28, 1961|
|Robert M. McKinney||New Mexico||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Jun 22, 1961||Jul 25, 1961||Left post Sep 8, 1963|
|W. True Davis, Jr.||Missouri||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Oct 2, 1963||Nov 29, 1963||Left post Sep 3, 1965|
|John S. Hayes||Maryland||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Sep 19, 1966||Nov 18, 1966||Left post May 20, 1969|
|Shelby Cullom Davis||New York||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||May 13, 1969||Jul 17, 1969||Left post Apr 10, 1975|
|Peter H. Dominick||Colorado||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Feb 20, 1975||Apr 25, 1975||Left post Jul 10, 1975|
|Nathaniel Davis||New Jersey||Foreign Service officer||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Nov 20, 1975||Jan 9, 1976||Left post Jul 31, 1977|
|Marvin L. Warner||Ohio||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Jul 11, 1977||Sep 13, 1977||Left post Jul 10, 1979|
|Richard David Vine||California||Foreign Service officer||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Sep 20, 1979||Oct 19, 1979||Left post Sep 1, 1981|
|Faith Whittlesey||Pennsylvania||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Sep 28, 1981||Oct 23, 1981||Left post Feb 28, 1983|
|John Davis Lodge||Connecticut||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Mar 18, 1983||May 19, 1983||Left post Apr 30, 1985|
|Faith Whittlesey||Pennsylvania||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Apr 4, 1985||May 31, 1985||Left post Jun 14, 1988|
|Philip D. Winn||Colorado||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Jul 11, 1988||Aug 19, 1988||Left post Aug 5, 1989|
|Joseph Bernard Gildenhorn||District of Columbia||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Aug 3, 1989||Aug 23, 1989||Left post Mar 1, 1993|
|The following officers served as Chargés d'affaires ad interim (1993–94): John E. Hall (Mar–Aug 1993), Brian M. Flora (Aug–Dec 1993), Michael C. Polt (Dec 1993–Mar 1994), and Jeffrey R. Cellars (July 22, 2013 - June 2, 2014)|
|M. Larry Lawrence||California||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Feb 9, 1994||Mar 21, 1994||Died at post Jan 9, 1996|
|Madeleine M. Kunin||Vermont||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Aug 8, 1996||Aug 19, 1996||Left post Aug 16, 1999|
|J. Richard Fredericks||California||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Oct 29, 1999||Dec 2, 1999||Left post Jul 6, 2001|
|Mercer Reynolds||Ohio||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Aug 3, 2001||Sep 11, 2001||Left post Mar 29, 2003|
|Pamela Willeford||Texas||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Oct 7, 2003||Nov 25, 2003||Left post May 6, 2006|
|Peter R. Coneway||Texas||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||Sept 6, 2006||Oct 19, 2006||Dec 7, 2008|
|Donald S. Beyer, Jr.||Virginia||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||August 5, 2009||August 15, 2009||May 29, 2013|
|Suzan G. LeVine||Washington||Non-career appointee||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||June 2, 2014||July 1, 2014||January 20, 2017 |
The following were commissioned during a Senate recess and thus were recommissioned after their post-recess confirmations.
- George Harrington (confirmed January 22, 1866)
- Nicholas Fish II (confirmed October 30, 1877)
- Boyd Winchester (confirmed January 21, 1866)
- John L. Peak (confirmed December 21, 1866)
- Charles Page Bryan (twice commissioned during recess but did not serve under either)
Theodore Sedgwick Fay was nominated to be Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary on February 25, 1856, but his nomination was withdrawn before the Senate acted on it. George Schneider was commissioned during a Senate recess and he took the oath of office but did not proceed to post.
- "History: The U.S. Ambassadors in Switzerland". Embassy of the United States Bern, Switzerland. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- "Kunin To Add Liechtenstein to Diplomatic Portfolio". Associated Press. 14 January 1997.
- "Madeleine May Kunin (1933–)". U.S. State Department Office of the Historian. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- "A Guide to the United States' History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, Since 1776: Liechtenstein". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- United States U.S. Senate – Powers & Procedure Senate.gov Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- Brunner, Jim (6 February 2014). "Obama fundraiser Suzi LeVine nominated as envoy to Switzerland". The Seattle Times.
- Ambassadors of the United States
- Foreign relations of Liechtenstein
- Foreign relations of Switzerland
- Liechtenstein–United States relations
- Switzerland–United States relations
- Swiss Ambassador to the United States
- United States Department of State: Background notes on Switzerland
- United States Department of State: Background notes on Liechtenstein
- This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm (Background Notes).