United States Army Futures Command

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United States Army Futures Command
Army Futures Command SSI.svg
Founded24 August 2018[2]
Country United States
Branch United States Army
TypeArmy command
Garrison/HQAustin, Texas
Motto(s)"Forge the future"[1]
Commanding general[5]GEN James E. Rainey[3]
Deputy Commanding Generals[5]LTG Richard R. Coffman
LTG Thomas H. Todd III
LTG D. Scott McKean[4]
Command Sergeant Major[5]CSM Brian A. Hester
Distinctive unit insignia[1]
Army Futures Command Distinctive Unit Insignia.png
Beret flash
US Army Futures Command Beret Flash.svg

The United States Army Futures Command (AFC) is a United States Army command, designed as a public-private initiative, that runs modernization projects for the Army. It is headquartered in Austin, Texas, and was first commanded by General John Murray,[6] formerly the Army's G-8; the second and current commander was formerly the Army's G-3/5/7.[a]

As of 2018 Futures Command was focused on six priorities:[Note 1] 1) Long-range precision fires, 2) Next Generation Combat Vehicle, 3) Future Vertical Lift platforms, 4) a mobile & expeditionary Army network, 5) air and missile defense capabilities,[7] and 6) soldier lethality. AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs) are Futures Command's vehicle for sustainable reform of the acquisition process for the future.[8][9] By October 2021, the 40th Chief of Staff of the Army was able to project that 24 of the top 35 priority programs for modernization would be fielded in fiscal year 2023 (FY2023).[b][c]

Overmatch of the capability of a competitor or adversary is one of the goals of AFC. More specifically, the imposition of multiple simultaneous dilemmas upon a competitor or adversary is a goal of the US Army: to get into a position of relative advantage.[10] By 2021, Army leadership recognized that new Army formations (the multi-domain operations task force —MDTF)[11] had the ability to simultaneously compete with, and also threaten an adversary, with its new capability, across domains (space, cyber, disinformation) of the conflict continuum.[12]: min 30:45 [d] By 2022 or 2023, a new concept for command and control (JADC2) will have been largely prototyped.[13] In 2023 a new CFT was stood up for Contested Logistics.[14]


U.S. Army Futures Command was activated in the summer of 2018. The Decker-Wagner report on the 2010 Army Acquisition Review (Jan 2011) listed numerous changes to the acquisition process;[15] the recommendation to disestablish RDECOM was not followed.[16] Instead a unitary Futures Command, to unify development over the life cycle was moved forward by an Acting Secretary of the Army (Ryan McCarthy), and the 36th Vice Chief of Staff of the Army (James McConville), who established a task force for modernization in 2016-2017 using cross-functional teams of subject matter experts to drive initial actions.See § Need for modernization reform

AFC declared its full operational capability in July 2019,[17][18] after an initial one-year period.[19] The FY2020 military budget allocated $30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over the next five years.[20] The $30 billion came from $8 billion in cost avoidance and $22 billion in terminations.[20][21] Over 30 projects[22][23] are envisioned to become the materiel basis needed for overmatching any potential competitors in the 'continuum of conflict' over the next ten years,[24][25] in multi-domain operations (MDO).[26] By 2018 a fundamental strategy was formulated, involving simultaneous integrated operations across domains.[27][28] This strategy involves pushing adversaries to standoff,[e] [31][30] by presenting them with multiple simultaneous dilemmas.[32][33][d] By 2028, the ability to project rapid, responsive power across domains will have become apparent to potential adversaries.[34][35][f] See Power projection

From an initial 12 people at its headquarters in 2018, AFC grew to 24,000 across 25 states and 15 countries in 2019.[36] The apparent rapid expansion came by research facilities and personnel (including ARCIC and RDECOM) migrated from other commands and parts of the Army such as the United States Army Research Laboratory.[37] The AFC was created in 2018 as a peer of Forces Command (FORSCOM), Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), and Army Materiel Command (AMC), the Army commands that provide forces, training and doctrine, and materiel respectively.[38][39] The other Army commands focus on their readiness to "fight tonight" when called upon. In contrast, AFC is focused on future readiness[40] for competition with near-peers, who have updated their capabilities.[10][41] The command is supported by United States Army Reserve Innovation Command (aka. 75th Innovation Command).[42] See §Army of 2040

Transition to multi-domain operations (MDO)[edit]

Multi-domain operations (MDO): Friendly forces (denoted in black)[43] operating in multi-domains (gray, yellow, light blue, dark gray, and dark blue)—Space, Cyber, Air, Land, and Maritime respectively—cooperate across domains,[g] working as an integrated force against adversaries (denoted in red). These operations will disrupt these adversaries, and present them multiple simultaneous dilemmas,[d] to encourage adversaries to return to competition rather than continue a conflict.[26][44][45]

According to the 24th Secretary of the Army Ryan McCarthy, the three elements in Futures Command are to be:[46]

  1. Futures and Concepts: assess gaps (needs versus opportunities,[47] given a threat).[46] Concepts for realizable future systems (with readily harvestable content)[48][49]: for definitions of terms, such as '6.3'  will flow into TRADOC doctrine, manuals, and training programs.[a]
  2. Combat Development: stabilized concepts.[48][49] Balance the current state of technology and the cash-flow requirements of the defense contractors providing the technology, that they become deliverable experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes, in an iterative process of acquisition.[50][b][c] (See Value stream)
  3. Combat Systems: experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes.[51] Transition to the acquisition, production, and sustainment programs of AMC.[52][h][g]

23rd Secretary of the Army, Mark Esper emphasized that the 2018 administrative infrastructure for the Futures and Concepts Center (formerly ARCIC) and United States Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC, now called DEVCOM, (formerly RDECOM)) remains in place at their existing locations.[56] What has changed or will change is the layers of command (operational control, or OPCON)[57] needed to make a decision.[56] He said, "You've got to remain open to change, you've got to remain flexible, you've [got] to remain accessible. That is the purpose of this command."[56][58] See § Army of 2040

Cross-Functional Teams (CFTs)[edit]

When he was 33rd Under Secretary of the Army, Ryan McCarthy characterized a Cross-Functional Team (CFT) as a team of teams, led by a requirements leader, program manager, sustainer and tester.[59] Each CFT must strike a balance for itself amid constraints: the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment. A balance is needed in order for a CFT in order to produce a realizable concept before a competitor achieves it.[60] The Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC) itself serves as a kind of CFT,[a] operating at a higher level[61][62][63][64][65][66] as response to Congressional oversight, budgeting, funding, policy, and authorization for action.[48][49][67][68][69][70][71] CFTs for materiel and capabilities were first structured in a task force, in order to de-layer the Army Commands.[60][72] Each CFT addresses a capability gap, which the Army must now match for its future: there can be a Capability Development Integration Directorate (CDID), for each CFT.[Note 1] Initially, the CFTs were placed as needed; eventually they might each co-locate at a Center of Excellence (CoE) listed below. For example, the Aviation CoE at Fort Rucker, in coordination with the Aviation Program Executive Officer (PEO), also contains the Vertical Lift CFT and the Aviation CDID. Modernization reform is the priority for AFC, in order to achieve readiness for the future.

The CFTs will be involved in all three of AFC's elements: Futures and concepts, Combat development, and Combat systems.[73] "We were never above probably a total of eight people" —BG Wally Rugen, Aviation CFT.[74] Four of the eight CFT leads have now shifted from dual-hat jobs to full-time status. Each CFT lead is mentored by a 4-star general.[74]

Although AFC and the CFTs are a top priority of the Department of the Army, as AFC and the CFTs are expected to unify control of the $30 billion-dollar modernization budget,[75][18] "The new command will not tolerate a zero-defects mentality. 'But if you fail, we'd like you to fail early and fail cheap,' because progress and success often builds on failure." —Ryan McCarthy[76] Holland notes that prototyping applies to the conceptual realm ('harvestable content') as much as prototyping applies to the hardware realm.[48][49]

A 2019 Government Accountability Office (GAO) report[77] cautions that lessons learned from the CFT pilot[60] are yet to be applied; Holland notes that this organizational critique applies to prototyping hardware, a different realm than concept refinement ("scientific research is a fundamentally different activity than technology development").[48][49] Also in 2019 the GAO recommended that the government establish a process to ensure that CFTs implement their intended business reforms; however by 2021 the office of the Chief Management officer (CMO) had been disestablished.[78][79]

Joint collaboration on modernization[edit]

Multi-domain operations (MDO)[g] span multiple domains: cislunar space, land, air, maritime, cyber, and populations.[80]: minute 17:45 [81][82][83] Echelons above brigade (division, corps, and theater army) engage in a continuum of conflict. —This illustration is from The MDO Concept, TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1.[j]

The Secretaries of the Army, Air Force, and Navy meet regularly to take advantage of overlap in their programs:[86][87]

  • Hypersonic: The US Army (August 2018) has no tested countermeasure for intercepting maneuverable hypersonic weapons platforms,[88][89][41] and in this case the problem is being addressed in a joint program of the entire Department of Defense.[90] The Army is participating in a joint program with the Navy and Air Force, to develop a hypersonic glide body,[91] by mutual agreement between the respective secretaries[91][92] In order to rapidly develop this capability, a dedicated program office was established,[93][94][95][96] in behalf of the joint services.[97] A division of responsibility was agreed upon, with researchers who demonstrated hypersonic capability in 2011, teaching industrial vendors, to transfer the technology.[98] Joint programs in hypersonic are informed by Army work;[99][100] however, at the strategic level, the bulk of the hypersonic work remains at the Joint level.[101][102][92][103][98] Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF) is an Army priority, and also a DoD joint effort.[100] The Army and Navy's Common Hypersonic Glide Body (C-HGB) had a successful test of a prototype in March 2020.[104] After the US realized that a catch-up effort was needed, billions of dollars were expended by 2020.[103] A wind tunnel for testing hypersonic vehicles is being built at the Texas A&M University System' RELLIS Campus in Bryan, Texas (2019).[105] The Army's Land-based Hypersonic Missile "is intended to have a range of 1,400 miles".[97]: p.6 [98] By adding rocket propulsion to a shell or glide body, the joint effort shaved five years off the likely fielding time for hypersonic weapon systems.[86][106]
    • Countermeasures against hypersonic[107][108][109] will require sensor data fusion: both radar and infrared sensor tracking data will be required to capture the signature of a hypersonic vehicle in the atmosphere.[110][111][112][113] In 2021 the GAO counted 70 separate hypersonic projects, in both offense and defensive categories overseen by DoD's Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, which oversees only research and development, and not DoD's Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment —DoD's acquisition and sustainment office, which do not need oversight until the hypersonic projects are ready for the acquisition phase.[114][115]
    • By 2021, the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) realized that it almost had a countermeasure to hypersonic boost-glide weapons, by using existing data on the adversary hypersonic systems which were gathered from existing US satellite and ground-based sensors.[116] MDA then fed this data into its existing systems models, and concluded that the adversary hypersonic weapon's glide phase offered the best chance for MDA to intercept it.[117] MDA next proffered a request for information (RFI) from the defense community for building interceptors (denoted the GPI —glide phase interceptor) against the glide phase of that hypersonic weapon.[117] GPIs would be guided by Hypersonic and Ballistic Tracking Space Sensors (HBTSS).[110][118] These GPI interceptors could first be offered to the Navy for Aegis to intercept using the C2BMC,[119][120] and later to the Army for THAAD to intercept using §IBCS.[117][121][122][120]
Multi-Domain Operations (MDO); Joint warfighting concept (JADC2)
  • Multi-Domain Operations (MDO):[g][j][28][123][124][125] Joint planning and operations are also part of the impending DoD emphasis on multi-domain operations.[10][126][127][128][129] Multi-domain battalions,[k] first stood up in 2019,[130][131] comprise a single unit[132][133] for air, land,[134] space,[135][136][110][137]—and cyber[138][139] domains.[140][86][139] A hypersonic-based battery similar to a THAAD battery is under consideration for this type of battalion,[93][104] possibly denoted a strategic fires battalion[141][142][143] (however I2CEWS support would likely be needed),[k] depending on the theater. In 2019, as part of a series of globally integrated exercises, these capabilities were analyzed.[27][144][145] Using massive simulation[124][146] the need for a §new kind of command and control (now denoted JADC2) to integrate this firepower was explored.[134][98]
    • The ability to punch-through any standoff defense of a near-peer competitor is the goal which Futures Command is seeking.[29][30][147][148] For example, the combination of F-35-based targeting coordinates, Long range precision fires, and Low-earth-orbit satellite[149] capability overmatches the competition, according to Lt. Gen. Wesley.[150] [d] Critical decisions to meet this goal will be decided by data from the results of the Army's ongoing tests of the prototypes under development.[147][96]
    • For example, in Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF), the director of the LRPF CFT envisions one application as an anti-access/area denial (A2AD) probe; this spares resources from the other services;[151] by firing a munition with a thousand-mile range at an adversary, LRPF would force an adversary to respond, which exposes the locations of its countermeasures, and might even expose the location of an adversary force's headquarters. In that situation an adversary's headquarters would not survive for long, and the adversary's forces would be subject to defeat in detail. But LRPF is only one part of the strategy of overmatch by a Combatant commander.
    • In August–September 2020. at Yuma Proving Ground, the US Army engaged in a five-week exercise to rapidly merge capabilities in multiple-domains. The exercise prototyped a ground tactical Network, pushing it to its limits of robustness[152] (as of 2020, 36 miles on the ground, and demonstrated 1500-mile capability above the ground, with kill chains measured in seconds) in the effort to penetrate anti-access/area denial (A2AD) with long-range fires. Longer-range fires are under development, ranging from hundreds of miles to over 1000 miles, with yearly iterations of Project Convergence being planned.[153]
      • MDO (multi-domain operations) and JADC2 (joint all-domain command and control) thus entails: [d]
        1. Penetrate phase: satellites detect enemy shooters
        2. Dis-integrate phase: airborne assets remove enemy long range fires
        3. Kinetic effect phase: Army shooters, using targeting data from aircraft and other sensors, fire on enemy targets.[154]
      • Army Chief of Staff Gen. James C. McConville will discuss the combination of MDO[j] and JADC2 with Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. Charles Q. Brown.[152] In October 2020 the Chiefs agreed that Futures Command, and the Air Force's A5 office will lead a two-year collaboration 'at the most "basic levels" by defining mutual standards for data sharing and service interfacing' in the development of Combined Joint All-Domain Command and Control (CJADC2).[155]
        • The ability of the joint services to send data from machine to machine was exercised in front of several of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in April 2021; this is a prerequisite capability for Convergence of MDO and JADC2.[156][157][158]
  • In July 2022 the 7th ASA(ALT) Doug Bush called for the formation of a large office on the scale of the Joint Counter-small UAS office, but for JADC2.[159] This would coordinate,[160] and eventually reconcile requirements for JADC2 for Army's Project Convergence, the Navy's Project Overmatch and the Air Force's Advanced Battle Management System.[159][161][162][13] See CDAO
  • In July 2022 Army Test and Evaluation Command called for more digital twinning and modeling and simulation,[163] as end-to-end tests become more comprehensive, expensive, and larger-scale;[159] as the scale of an exercise increases, a Synthetic Training Environment (STE) can be used to cut costs.[164]


Project Convergence is a campaign of learning to aggressively pursue an Artificial Intelligence and machine learning-enabled battlefield management system.[i]

AFC is actively seeking partners outside the military,[165] including research funding to over 300 colleges and universities,[18] but with one-year program cycles.[166] "We will come to you. You don't have to come to us. —General Mike Murray, 24 August 2018"[19]: minute 6:07  Multiple incubator tech hubs are available in Austin,[167] especially Capital Factory, with offices of Defense Innovation Unit (DIU) and AFWERX (USAF tech hub).[168] Gen. Murray will stand up an Army Applications Lab[Note 2] there to accelerate acquisition and deployment of materiel to the soldiers, using artificial intelligence (AI) [169] as one acceleration technique;[170] Murray will hire a chief technology officer for AFC.[171][172] Gen. Murray, in seeking to globalize AFC,[173] has embedded U.S. military allies into some of the CFTs.[174][18] For the US, and its allies and partners,[f] the basis of global surveillance and target acquisition is the US National Defense Space Architecture (NDSA) as realized by layered constellations of Earth satellites and Earth stations (such as TITAN).[175][176][177] It will take machine learning (ML) and AI to handle the scale of data flows needed for MDO.[i]

  • § Robotic combat vehicles (RCVs) have an updated guideline —DoDD 3000.09 (2023).[178]
  • Disinformation at scale appears to be AI-generated, in 2021.[179][180][f]
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) Modernization[181][182]—The 23rd Secretary of the Army directed the establishment of an Army AI Task Force (A-AI TF) to support the DoD Joint AI center. The execution order will be drafted and staffed by Futures Command:[169][183]
  • The Army Applications Laboratory[Note 2] was established in 2018, along with the stand-up of the Army Futures Command, to act as a concierge service across the Army's Future Force Modernization Enterprise and the broader commercial marketplace of ideas.
    • Army AI task force[184][185] (its relationship with the CFTs is cross-cutting, in the same sense as the Assured Position, Navigation, Timing (A-PNT) CFT and the Synthetic Training Environment (STE) CFT are also cross-cutting) will use the resources of the Army to establish scalable machine learning projects at Carnegie Mellon University
    • the Army CIO/G-6 will create an Identity, Credential, and Access Management system to efficiently issue and verify credentials to non-person entities (AI agents and machines)[186]
    • DCS G-2 will coordinate with CG AFC, and director of A-AI TF, to provide intelligence for Long-Range Precision Fires
    • CG AMC will provide functional expertise and systems for maintenance of materiel with AI
    • AFC and A-AI TF will establish an AI test bed for experimentation, training, deployment, and testing of machine learning capabilities and workflows.[187][188] Funding will be assured for the Fiscal Year 2019.[86][189]
      • A Global Network to counter cyber attacks, much like Five Eyes, is the recommendation for multi-domain operations (MDO), which is unified to present a synoptic view of any cyber operation to all the combatant commands simultaneously.[190][139][191][145] 'Decision dominance' is a tenet of the 'Joint warfighting concept'.[192][27][193]
        • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) AlphaDogfight: Trials of eight AI teams, which began learning how to fly in September 2019. In August 2020 the eight AI agents faced each other, in a series of simulated fights. The simulations included the g-forces which limit a human (accelerations greater than 9 g's will cause most forward-facing human pilots to black out— AI agents are not subject to these human constraints). The champion AI agent eventually met a human General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon fighter pilot in simulated combat on 20 August 2020.[194] On 20 August 2020, the champion AI agent consistently defeated a human F-16 pilot in a series of dogfights.[195]
        • DoD's Joint AI Center (JAIC) is providing a Joint Common Foundation, a cloud-based AI toolkit for any DoD organization (viz., Futures Command) to use.[196] JAIC is seeking to curate the flood of data at DoD[197][48] to allow systematic, reliable datasets which are usable for machine learning.[198]
        • Adaptive Distributed Allocation of Probabilistic Tasks (ADAPT) is a DARPA model for testing AI-to-human communication in a toy environment.[199]
  • In 2021 DoD is requesting 600 separate AI efforts for FY2022 ($874 million) as opposed to 400 AI efforts for FY2021.[200] The Army is using machine learning to extract targeting data from satellite sensors for its JADC2 effort.[200][201]
    • In 2022 DEVCOM Analysis Center (DAC) signed a cooperative agreement with Northeastern University's Kostas Research Institute (KRI) to build on KRI's analytic framework, with six other universities on artificial intelligence and assistive automation (AI/AA), to further Army sub-goals ("mission effectiveness analysis, ontology for decision making, automatic target recognition, human systems integration, cyber resilience/electronic warfare threat defense, and assessing autonomous maneuver/mobility").[202]
  • By 2023 the Department of Defense was seeking a Technical Baseline which remains vendor-free, in order to exploit the Large language model (LLM) of AI.[203][204]

Futures Command will stand up Army Software Factory in August 2021, to immerse Soldiers and Army civilians of all ranks in modern software development, in Austin.[205][206][207][208][209] Similar in spirit to the Training with industry program, participants are expected to take these practices back with them, to influence other Army people in their future assignments, and to build up the Army's capability in software development. The training program lasts three years, and will produce skill sets for trainees as product managers, user experience and user interface designers, software engineers, or platform engineers.[205] The Al Work Force Development program and this Software Factory will complement the Artificial Intelligence Task Force.[206][210]

  • Tapping in to its personnel system, the Army has identified soldiers who can already code at Ph.D.-level, but who are in unexpected MOSs.[211] A Senate bill to formalize and recognize skills such as "computer programming skills, which include technical and nontechnical skills related to artificial intelligence and coding" was introduced in March 2023.[212]
  • In March 2023 the Marine Corps co-located its software factory with the Army software factory in Austin, Texas.[213]

AFC is seeking to design signature systems in a relevant time frame according to priorities[Note 1] of the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA).[73] AFC will partner with other organizations such as Defense Innovation Unit Experimental (DIUx) as needed.[99][214] If a team from industry presents a viable program idea to a CFT, that CFT connects to the Army's requirements developers, Secretary Esper said, and the program prototype is then put on a fast track.[53] The Secretary of the Army has approved an Intellectual Property Management Policy, to protect both the Army and the entrepreneur or innovator.[215][216]


For example, the Network CFT and the Program Executive Office Command, Control, Communications—Tactical (PEO C3T) hosted a forum on 1 August 2018 for vendors to learn what might function as a testable/deployable[217] in the near future.[218][138][219] A few of the hundreds of white papers from the vendors, adjudged to be 'very mature ideas', were passed to the Army's acquisition community, while many others were passed to United States Army Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) for continuation in the Army's effort to modernize the network for combat.[220] Although some test requirements were inappropriately applied, the Command post computing environment (CPCE) has passed a hurdle.[221][222][223]

While seeking information, the Army is especially interested in ideas that accelerate an acquisition program —in for example the Future Vertical Lift Requests for Information (RFIs): "provide a detailed description of tailored, alternative or innovative approaches that streamlines the acquisition process to accelerate the program as much as possible" (4 April 2019);[224] in January 2020 the current Optionally manned fighting vehicle (OMFV) solicitation was cancelled when the OMFV's requirements added up to an unobtainable project;[225] in February 2020 Futures command was soliciting the industry for do-able ideas for an OMFV,[225] whereas in August 2022 Army Network modernization was the target for being speeded-up.[226]

Search for capabilities

In the Army's search for capabilities, 6th ASA(ALT) Bruce Jette initiated xTechsearch to reward private innovators.[227] The program is ongoing.[l]

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered the Army to run an xTechsearch Ventilator Challenge; entrants can submit their ideas online for immediate consideration and a possible cash prize to encourage participation for a $100,000 prize and possible Army contract.[229] In 1964 Henrik H. Straub of Harry Diamond Labs, a predecessor to CCDC Army Research Laboratory, invented the Army Emergency Respirator (now termed a 'ventilator' in current terminology).[230] This ventilator is one application of the fluidic amplifier (a 1957 Harry Diamond Labs invention), which allows the labored breathing of the patient to control the flow from an externally purified air stream, to augment the air flow into a patient's lungs.[230]

TRX Systems won an xTechsearch award for technology which allows navigation in a GPS-denied environment, an A-PNT priority. The award was delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic, which allowed the company more time for business development.[231]

Air-launched effects (ALEs)

Air-launched effects (ALEs) are drones which are launched from the Army's helicopters.[232] In swarms, ALEs promise to multiply the combat effectiveness of the Army's helicopters;[232] single ground-launched drones have already been used in combat during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. ALEs have been used as munitions, as in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflicts.[233][234] From 1 May to 18 May 2023 at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) the Aviation CFT made progress in its effort to share data with its partners; the event concentrated on the data-sharing necessary to support JADC2 at the scale needed to support the distances encountered in the Indo-Pacom theater; this extends the reach of the Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA).[235]

Robotic combat vehicles (RCVs)
Robotic combat vehicle (RCV)
Project Origin unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), at Joint Multinational Readiness Center, Hohenfels, Germany[236][237][238]

In 2021 candidate Robotic combat vehicles (RCVs), both medium and light RCVs, along with surrogate heavy RCVs (modified M-113s) and proxy manned control vehicles (MET-Ds) were to marshal at Camp Grayling MI to test a company-sized tele-operated / unmanned formation.[239] The light RCVs had their autonomous driving software installed in November and December 2020.[239] The robotic vehicle formation begins a shakeout in April 2021. The RCVs (and the software, which is common to all 18 vehicles) enters ATEC (Army Test and Evaluation Command) safety testing through May 2022.[239] Live-fire drills are scheduled to conclude in August 2022.[239][147] By October 2021 experiments with RCVs, in concert with drones for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR), were underway.[240][238][234]

By June 2022 Army RCVs had demonstrated some of their disruptive capabilities,[236] in preparation for Project Convergence 2022. Autonomous capabilities, for example in resupply by unmanned helicopters, by the US, Australia, and UK were demonstrated at PC22.[241]: min 25:30 [242][243][244]

In May 2023 Army Futures Command disclosed concepts for Robotic combat platoons,[245] akin to the Collaborative combat aircraft of the Air Force. These robotics concepts integrate the ethics policies[246][247] of the Defense Department as part of mission command. See §Internet of Military Things

AFC events[edit]

By 13 October 2021 the 40th Chief of Staff of the Army could announce that the majority of the Army's Futures Command's 31 signature systems,[248] and the four rapid capability projects of the § Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office would be fielded by fiscal year 2023 (FY2023).[249][b][c]

By 2022, Futures Command was conducting the third annual iteration of Project Convergence (PC22), experiments and joint tests of 300 technologies by the Department of Defense and its allies and partners.[13][263][264] The next Project Convergence is likely to be PC24 at the earliest.[265][266]


See United States Army Acquisition Corps
DoD (2007) Acquisition process denoting Milestones A, B, C along a timeline. When a milestone has been met, the triangle then points downward, at this time. Otherwise the milestone is planned, but not yet met at this time.

Futures Command partners with the ASA(ALT),[267][9] who, in the role of the Army Acquisition Executive (AAE),[268] has milestone decision authority (MDA)[51][269] at multiple points in a Materiel development decision (MDD).[270] Thus, from the perspective of AFC, which seeks to modernize, they consolidate the relevant expertise into the relevant CFT. The CFT balances the constraints needed to realize a prototype, beginning with realizable requirements, science and technology, test, etc. before entering the acquisition process (typically the Army prototypes on its own and, as of 2019, initiates acquisition at Milestone B in order to have the Acquisition Executive, with the concurrence of the Army Chief of Staff, decide on production as a Program of Record at Milestone C).[271] Next, refine the prototype to address the factors needed to pass the Milestone decisions A, B, and C which require Milestone decision authority (MDA) in an acquisition process.[271] This consolidation of expertise thus reduces the risks in a Materiel development decision (MDD), for the Army to admit a prototype into a program of record.) The existing processes (as of April 2018) for a Materiel development decision (MDD) have been updated to clarify their place in the Life Cycle of a program of record:[268][270][48] over 1200 programs/projects were reviewed;[272] by October 2019, over 600 programs of record have been moved from the acquisition (development for modernization) phase to the sustainment phase (for mature projects, to continue their manufacture and fielding to the brigades).[272] An additional life cycle management action is underway, to re-examine which of these projects/programs should be divested.[272] (Surplus materiel might well go to the Security Assistance Command, perhaps to Foreign Military Sales.)

The emphasis remains with Futures Command, which selects programs to develop.[272] In order to achieve its mission of achieving overmatch,[273][123][47] each Futures Command CFT partners with the acquisition community.[274] This community (the Army acquisition workforce (AAW)) includes an entire Army branch (the Acquisition Corps),[275][276][277][278][279] U.S. Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC), Army Contracting Command, .[270] The Principal Military Deputy to the ASA(ALT) is also deputy commanding general for Combat Systems, Army Futures Command,[268] and leads the Program Executive Officers (PEO); he has directed each PEO who does not have a CFT to coordinate with, to immediately form one, at least informally.[280]

The current acquisition system has pieces all throughout the Army. ... There's chunks of it in TRADOC and chunks of it in AMC and then other pieces. So really all we're trying to do is get them all lined up under a single command…..from concept, S&T, RDT&E, through the requirements process, through the beginnings of the acquisition system—Milestone A, B, and C....aligned under that same commander. ... We will finally achieve… unity of command —Secretary Esper.[46]

The PEOs work closely with their respective CFTs.[274] The list of CFTs and PEOs below is incomplete.[Note 1] Operationally, the CFTs offer "de-layering" (fewer degrees of separation between the echelons of the Army—Rugen estimates two degrees of separation),[74] and provide a point of contact (POC) for Army reformers[47] interested in adding value in the midst of constraints to be balanced while modernizing.[74] "... and if we're really good, we'll continue to adapt. Year over year over year." —Secretary Esper[19]: minute 19:00 [281] (See Value stream.)

Prototyping and experimentation[edit]

"Our new approach is really to prototype as much as we can to help us identify requirements, so our reach doesn't exceed our grasp. ... A good example is Future Vertical Lift: The prototyping has been exceptional." —Secretary of the Army Mark Esper.[282][c] The development process will be cyclic,[283] consisting of prototype, demonstration/testing, and evaluation,[53] in an iterative process designed to unearth unrealistic requirements early, before prematurely including that requirement in a program of record.[18][269]

AFC activities include at least one Cross-functional team, its Capability development integration directorate (CDID),[284]: Para. 2b  and the associated Battle Lab,[284]: Para. 2b  for each (Army Center of Excellence (CoE)) respectively. Each CDID and associated Battle Lab work with their CFT[58] to develop operational experiments and prototypes to test.

ASA(ALT), in coordination with AFC, has dotted-line relationships between its PEOs and the CFTs. In particular, the Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office of ASA(ALT) has a PEO who is charged with developing experimental prototype 'units of action' for rapid fielding to the Soldiers. The prototypes are currently for Long range hypersonic weapons, High energy laser defense, and Space, as of June 2019,[285][94][286] Speed and range are the Army capabilities which are being augmented,[90][106][142][287] with spending on these capabilities tripling between 2017 and 2019.[288]

Tests are run by JMC and White Sands Missile Range, which hosts ATEC.[289] As United States Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) reports directly to the Army Chief of Staff,[39] the test support level from ATEC[290] is to be specified by the CFT,[58] or PEO.[291] Fort Bliss and WSMR together cover 3.06 million acres, large enough to test every non-nuclear weapon system in the Army inventory.[292]: minute 1:26:00  JMC runs live developmental experiments to test and assess MDO concepts or capabilities that support the Army's six modernization priorities which are then analyzed by The Research and Analysis Center, denoted TRAC based out of Fort Leavenworth,[58] or AMSAA, denoted the Data Analysis Center at APG. CCDC, now called DEVCOM (formerly RDECOM, at APG) includes the several Army research laboratory locations (ARLs),[293] as well as research, development and engineering centers (RDECs) listed:[284][58][281]

In internal partnerships, CCDC, now called DEVCOM (formerly RDECOM) has taken Long range precision fires (LRPF) as its focus in aligning its organizations (the six research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)); as of September 2018, RDECOM's 'concept of operation' is first to support the LRPF CFT,[294] with ARDEC. AMRDEC is looking to improve the energetics and efficiency of projectiles. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Center is working on high-voltage components for Extended range cannon artillery (ERCA) that save on size and weight.[294] Two dedicated RDECOM people support the LRPF CFT, with reachback support from two dozen more at RDECOM.[295] In January 2019 RDECOM was reflagged as CCDC; General Mike Murray noted that CCDC will have to support more Soldier feedback, and that prototyping and testing will have to begin before a project ever becomes a program of record.[296][281]

Although the Army Research Laboratory has not changed its name, Secretary Esper notes that the CCDC objectives supersede the activities of the Laboratory;[58][48][49] the Laboratory remains in its support role for the top-six priorities for modernizing combat capabilities.[Note 1]

Acquisition specialists are being encouraged to accept lateral transfers to the several research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), where their skills are needed: Ground vehicle systems center (formerly TARDEC, at Detroit Arsenal. Michigan), Aviation and missile center (formerly AMRDEC, at Redstone Arsenal), C5ISR center (formerly CERDEC, at Aberdeen Proving Ground), Soldier center (formerly NSRDEC, Natick, MA), and Armaments center (formerly ARDEC, at Picatinny Arsenal) listed below.[297]

AFC branch locations[edit]

A simulation used to put leadership teams in a situation akin to a Combat Training Center rotation, "an intellectually and emotionally challenging environment that forgives the mistakes of the participants"[298][299] In a role-playing session; a trainer (not seen) must tell the virtual Soldier what the Soldier is not doing correctly. Trainers using this program show a 40% increase in their knowledge of the Sexual Harassment/Assault Response & Prevention policy.[300] These simulations are created at Army Research Laboratory (ARL) West, and ICT, Playa Vista, CA
CCDC Army Research Laboratory Neuroscience Big Data: over ten years of EEG data, comprising over 1,000 recording sessions (The Cognition and Neuroergonomics Collaborative Technology Alliance)[301]

The following activities for Futures Command are at 23 locations.[302] (A US Army center of excellence (CoE), or TRADOC Center of Excellence, can be co-located near a CFT, along with the associated Capability Development Integration Directorate (CDID) and "Battle Lab") The interrelation between AFC and TRADOC can be seen by the role of a TRADOC Capability manager, who is responsible for DOTMLPF, and reports to the TRADOC commander.[m]

Need for modernization reform[edit]

Between 1995 and 2009, $32 billion was expended on programs such as the Future Combat System[348] (2003-2009), with no harvestable content by the time of its cancellation.[349] As of 2021, the Army had not fielded a new combat system in decades.[350][128][351][352][24][269]

23rd Secretary of the Army Mark Esper has remarked that AFC will provide the unity of command and purpose needed to reduce the requirements definition phase from 60 months to 12 months.[353][40][57] A simple statement of a problem (rather than a full-blown requirements definition) that the Army is trying to address may suffice for a surprising, usable solution. —General Mike Murray, paraphrasing Trae Stephens[354]: minute 41:50 [355] (One task will be to quantify the lead time for identifying a requirement; the next task would then be to learn how to reduce that lead time.—Gap analysis )[19]: minute 11:00 [356][357][281] Process changes are expected.[356][48] The development process will be cyclic, consisting of prototype, demonstration/testing, and evaluation, in an iterative process designed to unearth unrealistic requirements early, before prematurely including that requirement in a program of record. The 6th ASA(ALT) Bruce Jette[274] has cautioned the acquisition community to 'call-out' unrealistic processes which commit a program to a drawn-out failure,[358] rather than failing early, and seeking another solution.[359]

Secretary Esper scrubbed through 800[360] modernization programs to reprioritize funding[361] for the top six modernization priorities,[75] which will consume 80% of the modernization funding,[362] of eighteen systems.[362] IVAS was slowed during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine in March 2022.[n] Secretary McCarthy had cautioned that a stopgap 2019 Continuing resolution (CR) would halt development of some of the critical modernization projects.[382][383] Realistically, budget considerations will restrict the fielding of new materiel to one Armor BCT per year;[384] at that rate, updates would take decades.[384][375] The Budget Control Act (BCA) expires in 2022.[385][386] The "night court" budget review process realigned $2.4 billion for modernization away from programs which were not tied to modernization or to the 2018 National Defense Strategy.[387] The total FY2021 budget request of $178 billion is $2 billion less than the enacted FY2020 budget of $180 billion.[387][388]

The CIO/G6 has targeted Futures Command (Austin) in 2019 as the first pilot for "enterprise IT-as-a-service"-style service contracts; General Murray now (July 2019) has a sensitive compartmented information facility in his headquarters, as a result of this pilot.[17] Two other locations are to be announced for 2019. Six to eight other pilots are envisioned for 2020. However, 288 other enterprise network locations remain to be migrated away from the previous "big bang" migration concept from several years ago, as they are vulnerable to near-peer cyber threats.[389][292]: minute 16:50  The CIO/G6 emphasizes that this enterprise migration is not the tactical network espoused in the top six priorities (a 'mobile & expeditionary Army network').[389][390]

  1. After AFC, the following G6 service contracts are high priority:[389]
  2. The Combat Training Centers (Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, and Grafenwöhr)
  3. TRADOC and its Centers of Excellence (CoEs)
  4. The power projection bases from which deployments spring

By February 2020 the 37th Vice Chief of Staff could assess that Army modernization was perceptibly speeding up.[391]


Chief Milley noted that AFC would actively reach out into the community in order to learn,[18] and that Senator John McCain's frank criticism of the acquisition process was instrumental for modernization reform at Futures command.[19]: minute 7:30 [40] In fact, AFC soldiers would blend into Austin by not wearing their uniforms [to work side by side with civilians in the tech hubs],[18][392] Milley noted on 24 August 2018 press conference.[19]: minute 6:20  Secretary Esper said he expected failures during the process of learning how to reform the acquisition and modernization process;[19]: minute 18:20  the Network CFT and PEO have detected a process failure in the DOT&E[393] requirements process: some test requirements were inappropriately applied.[221][394]

In the Department of Defense, the materiel supply process was underwritten by the acquisition, logistics, and technology directorate of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), with a deputy secretary of defense (DSD) to oversee five areas, one of them being acquisition, logistics, and technology (ALT).[395] ALT is overseen by an under secretary of defense (USD).[396] (Each of the echelons at the level of DSD and USD serve at the pleasure of the president, as does the secretary of defense (SECDEF).) The Defense Acquisition University (DAU) trains acquisition professionals for the Army as well.

In 2016 when RDECOM reported to AMC (instead of to AFC, as it does as of 2018), AMC instituted Life cycle management command (LCMC)[274] of three of RDECOM's centers for aviation and missiles, electronics, and tanks:[397] AMRDEC,[398] CERDEC,[399][400] and TARDEC[401] respectively, as well as the three contracting[402] functions for the three centers.[358]

This Life Cycle Management (formulated in 2004)[403][404] was intended to exert the kind of operational control (OPCON)[57] needed just for the sustainment function (AMC's need for Readiness today),[358] rather than for its relevance to modernization for the future, which is the focus of AFC. AFC now serves as the deciding authority when moving a project in its Life Cycle, out of the Acquisition phase and into the Sustainment phase.[272][269][a]

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Acquisition Executive, and the AFC commander created a COVID-19 task force to try to project supplier problems 30, 60, and 90 days out; they are respectively tracking 800 programs, and 35 priorities on a daily basis.[405]

Relevance for modernization[edit]

The CFTs,[Note 1] as prioritized 1 through 6 by the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA), each have to consider constraints: a balance of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment.[60][59]

The Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership and education, Personnel and Facilities (DOTMLPF) method of mission planning was instituted to quantify tradeoffs in joint planning.[57] TRADOC's Mission Command CoE uses DOTMLPF.[406] DOTMLPF will be used for modernization of the Army beyond materiel alone, which (as of 2019) is the current focus of the CFTs.[407][311] The updated modernization strategy, to move from concept to doctrine as well, will be unveiled by summer 2019.[407] DOTMLPF (doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities) itself is planned as a driver for modernization.[40][407] The plan is to have an MDO-capable Army by 2028,[f] and an MDO-ready Army by 2035.[407][127]

TRADOC, ASA (ALT), and AFC are tied together in this process, according to 36th Vice Chief McConville.[408] AFC will have to be "a little bit disruptive [but not upsetting to the existing order]" in order to institute reforms within budget in a timely way.[409]

The Assistant Secretary of the Army for acquisition, logistics, and technology —ASA (ALT)— is the civilian executive overseeing both the acquisition and the sustainment processes of the Department of the Army (as of 2018: Dr. Bruce Jette was 6th ASA(ALT)). The ASA(ALT) will coordinate the acquisition portion of modernization reform with AFC.[284]: Para. 1c [9][269]

Congress has given the Army Other Transaction Authority (OTA),[410][Note 2] which allows the PEOs to enter into Full Rate Production quicker by permitting the services to control their own programs of record, rather than DoD.[280] This strips out one layer of bureaucracy as of 2018.[280][411][98] MTA (middle tier acquisition authority) is another tool available to Program Managers and Contracting Officers.[412][413]

Besides the AFC CFTS, the Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC)[414][415][416] could also play a part in acquisition reform;[417][418] as of September 2018 the Deputy Chief of Staff G-8 (DCS G-8), who leads AROC and JROC (Joint Requirements Oversight Council) has aligned with the priorities of AFC.[419] The DCS G-8 is principal military advisor to the ASA (FM&C).[268]

In addition, the Program Executive Officers (PEOs) of ASA (ALT) are to maintain a dotted-line relationship[Note 1] (i.e., coordination) with Futures Command.[274][46]

There is now a PEO for Rapid Capabilities, to get rapid turnaround. The Rapid Capabilities Office (RCO)'s PEO gets two program managers, one for rapid prototyping, and one for rapid acquisition, of a capability.[420] The Rapid capabilities office (RCO) does not develop its own requirements; rather, the RCO gets the requirements from the Cross-functional team (CFT).[421] Rapid Capabilities (RCO) was headed by Tanya Skeen as PEO RCO[274] but Skeen moved to DoD, in late 2018.[422] In 2019 RCO became the Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (RCCTO)[423] Redstone Arsenal, headed by LTG L. Neil Thurgood,[94] lately of ASA (ALT)'s Army Hypersonics office.[286][93]

Progress toward MDO[edit]

Then-CG of Army Futures Command (AFC) Gen. Murray announced full operational capability (FOC) 31 July 2019.[424] By 2021 the Army's 40th Chief of Staff could lay out Waypoint 2028, and Aimpoint 2035 for the Army.[34][35]

At Picatinny Arsenal in September 2020 a XM1299 Extended Range Cannon Artillery self-propelled howitzer with an AI kill chain used a hypervelocity munition to intercept a cruise missile surrogate.[425]

The Army G8 is monitoring just how producible (Milestone C) the upcoming materiel will be; for the moment, the G8 is funding the materiel.[23][269] Follow-up on Modernization reviews is forthcoming, on a regular basis, according to the G8.[426][427][428]

The progress in the top six priorities (long-range precision fires, Next Generation Combat Vehicle, Future Vertical Lift platforms, a mobile & expeditionary Army network, air & missile defense capabilities,[o] and soldier lethality) being:[Note 1][52][h][24][53][54][30][29]

Long Range Precision Fires[edit]

According to AFC, the mission of the Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF) CFT is to "deliver cutting-edge surface-to-surface (SSM) fires systems that will significantly increase range and effects over currently fielded US and adversary systems."[431]

AFC's five major programs for LRPF are:

Based on Futures Command's development between July 2018 and December 2020, by 2023 the earliest versions of these weapons will be fielded:[440]

Long-Range Hypersonic Weapon training with All-up-round in its canister, 7 Oct 2021

The kill chains will take less than 1 minute, from detection of the target, to execution of the fires command;[441] these operations will have the capability to precisely strike "command centers, air defenses, missile batteries, and logistics centers" nearly simultaneously.[440][r][443][444]

  • The speed of battle damage assessment will depend on the travel time of the munition. This capability depends on the ability of a specialized CFT, Assured precision navigation and timing (APNT) to provide detail.[81][82][83][445]
    1. Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF): Howitzer artillery ranges have doubled, in excess of 60 km (37 mi) , with accuracy within 1 meter of the aimpoint,[446] currently with sufficient accuracy to intercept cruise missiles, as of September 2020, reaching the 43 mile range as of December 2020.[447]
    2. Precision Strike Missiles (PrSMs) can reach in excess of 150 miles,[448] with current 2020 tests[q]
    3. Mid-range capability (MRC) fires can reach in excess of 500 to 1000 miles,[437] using mature Navy missiles[451][250][11]
    4. Long-Range Hypersonic Weapons (LRHWs) are to have a range greater than 1725 miles.[452][434]

The current M109A6 "Paladin" howitzer range is doubled in the M109A7 variant.[453]: minute 3:07 [454] An operational test of components of the Long range cannon was scheduled for 2020.[455] The LRC is complementary to Extended range cannon artillery (ERCA),[455][456] the M1299 Extended Range Cannon Artillery howitzer.[425] Baseline ERCA is to enter service in 2023.[457][446][458] Investigations for ERCA in 2025: rocket-boosted artillery shells:[294] Tests of the Multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) XM30 rocket shell have demonstrated a near-doubling of the range of the munition, using the Tail controlled guided multiple launch rocket system, or TC-G.[459] The TRADOC capability manager (TCM) Field Artillery Brigade - DIVARTY has been named a command position.[m]

  • An autoloader for ERCA's 95-pound shells is under development at Picatinny Arsenal,[425] to support a sustained firing rate of 10 rounds a minute [446][460] A robotic vehicle for carrying the shells is a separate effort at Futures Command's Army Applications Lab.[425][461]
  • The Precision Strike Missile (PrSM) is intended to replace the Army Tactical Missile System (MGM-140 ATACMS) in 2023.[294] PrSM flight testing is delayed beyond 2 August 2019, the anticipated date for the expiration of the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty, which set 499 kilometer limits on intermediate-range missiles.[462] (David Sanger and Edward Wong projected that the earliest test of a longer range missile could be a ground-launched version of a Tomahawk cruise missile,[463] followed by a test of a mobile ground launched IRBM with a range of 1800–2500 miles before year-end 2019.[463][464]) The 2020 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA)[465] was approved on 9 December 2019, which allowed the Pentagon to continue testing such missiles in FY2020.[466] The Lockheed PrSM prototype had its first launch on 10 December 2019 at White Sands Missile Range, in a 150-mile test, and an overhead detonation; the Raytheon PrSM prototype was delayed from its planned November launch,[448] and Raytheon has now withdrawn from the PrSM risk reduction phase.[467] The PrSM's range and accuracy, the interfaces to HIMARS launcher, and test software, met expectations.[448][468] PrSM passed Milestone B on 1 October 2021.[469] Baseline PrSM is to enter service in 2023;[470] an upgraded version of PrSM, with multi-mode seekers will then be sought.[471] The Army needs PrSM Increment 2 for INDOPACOM.[472][457][q]
  • For targets beyond the PrSM's range, the Army's RCCTO will seek a mid-range missile prototype by 2023, with a reach from 1000 to 2000 miles.[473][474][250][475] Loren Thompson points out that a spectrum of medium-range to long-range weapons will be available to the service by 2023;[476] RCCTO's prototype Mid-Range Capability (MRC) battery will field mature Navy missiles, likely for the Indo-Pacific theater in FY2023.[437][250] DARPA is developing OpFires, an intermediate-range hypersonic weapon which is shorter-range than the Army's LRHW. DARPA is seeking a role in the armory for OpFires' throttle-able rocket motor, post-2023.[477][478] DARPA announced in July 2022 it successfully tested its OpFires hypersonic weapon at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) for the first time.[479] The OpFires launch was from a Marine Corps logistics truck.[480] OpFires will "rapidly and precisely engage critical, time-sensitive targets while penetrating modern enemy air defenses", potentially to be launched from a High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS) launcher.[479] These weapons will likely require planning for new Army (or Joint) formations.
  • The Long range hypersonic weapons (LRHWs) will use precision targeting data against anti-access area denial (A2AD) radars and other critical infrastructure of near-peer competitors by 2023.[481][98] LRHW does depend on stable funding.[482][427][95][483][434]
    • Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS) 7.0 is the vehicle for a Multi-domain task force's artillery battery very similar to a THAAD battery: beginning in 2020, these batteries will train for a hypersonic glide vehicle which is common to the Joint forces.[93] The Long range hypersonic weapon (LRHW)[481] glide vehicle is to be launched from transporter erector launchers.[93][484][95] Tests of the Common hypersonic glide body (C-HGB) to be used by the Army and Navy were meeting expectations in 2020.[104][434]
    • In August 2020 the director of Assured precision navigation and timing (APNT) CFT announced tests which integrate the entire fires kill chain, from initial detection to final destruction. William B. Nelson announced the flow of satellite data from the European theater (Germany), and AI processing of AFATDS targeting data to the fires units.[82][83][175]
      • In September 2020 an AI kill chain was formulated in seconds; a hypervelocity (speeds up to Mach 5) munition,[485] launched from a descendant of the Paladin, intercepted a cruise missile surrogate.[486]
    • Three flight tests of LRHW were scheduled in 2021;[487] that plan was changed to one test in late 2021, followed by a multi-missile test in 2022.[457][488]

The LRHW has been named 'Dark Eagle'[489] The first LRHW battery will start to receive its first operational rounds in early FY2023; all eight rounds for this battery will have been delivered by FY2023.[490][434] By then, the PEO Missiles and Space will have picked up the LRHW program, for batteries two and three in FY'25 and FY'27, respectively.[490] Battery one will first train, and then participate in the LRHW flight test launches in FY'22 and FY'23.[490][d][491] In February 2023 5th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment (5-3 LRFB) —1st MDTF's long-range fires battalion— deployed the LRHW to Cape Canaveral, a distance of 3100 miles.[492][436]

Next Generation Combat Vehicle[edit]

Next Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV) portfolio:[493][494][321][495]

The use of modular protection is a move toward modular functionality for combat vehicles.[496][497][498]

At Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Firestorm (a Project Convergence AI node)[499][500][501] sent targeting coordinates to Remote Weapons Stations, which were proxies for the Robotic Combat Vehicles and Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicles. A CROWS was slewed to the aimpoint, awaiting the human commander's order to fire.[502] Firestorm aids and partakes of the Common operational picture (COP) shared by the AI hub at Joint Base Lewis-McChord.[502][503] Satellite-based, F-35 based, and Army ground-based targeting data were shared in real-time during Firestorm's operation with the AI hubs to produce effects at YPG.[504][505]

Firestorm was made possible by a mesh network—improvising a medium earth orbit (MEO, at 1200 mile altitude), and then a geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO, at 22,000 mile altitude) satellite link between Joint Base Lewis-McChord to Yuma Proving Ground.[506] Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): in Limited User Tests[493][321][381] General purpose variant supports Blue force tracking[52]: p.40  An Advanced Powertrain Demonstrator, compact enough for AMPVs, Bradleys, OMFVs, or RCVs, can generate 1,000 horsepower from diesel.[507] Alternatively, the demonstrator can generate electrical power: 160 kiloWatts for SHORAD high-energy lasers, or for propulsion of a 50-ton vehicle in quiet mode, for brief periods.[507] A ground mobility vehicle competition, bids closing 26 October 2018[508]

The JLTV was approved for full rate production in June 2019.[509] Joint Modernization Command (JMC) is supporting a TCM Stryker study on the optimum number of JLTVs for light infantry brigades.[510] Electrification microgrid standards[511][512] AFC's Futures and concepts center is proposing a strategy to guide the electrification of the GCVs, using the JLTV as an example for a step-by-step pathway and transition plan for electrification.[513][514][48][49] Loren Thompson cautions that electrification per se could harm further fielding due to scope creep in specifications for the JLTV.[515] The Army has not requested a hybrid electric JLTV.[516]

The Maneuver CDID (MCDID) is undertaking the requirements development for electrification of Tactical and Combat Vehicles in September 2020;[517] General Wesley had previously announced a plan in April 2020 for the modernization of Tactical and Combat Vehicles using the JLTV electrification plan as a prototype template of the electrification process.[517][48] After prototype JLTV electrification, the Army is seeking ideas[518] for an electrified Light Reconnaissance Vehicle (LRV) by 2025.[519] The LRVs would complement the Infantry Squad Vehicles (ISVs),[519] and electrified versions of Stryker Infantry Carrier Vehicle - Dragoon which are already fielded.[520][s] GM Defense has since converted one of its bid vehicles for the ISV to an all-electric version.[522][523]

Mobile Protected Firepower (MPF)[524]

Mobile Protected Firepower[525][526] approved by joint requirements oversight council.[321] Two vendors were selected to build competing prototype light tanks (MPF), with contract award in 2022.[527] A unit of 82nd Airborne Division will begin assessment of prototype MPFs beginning in March 2020.[528] General Dynamics Land Systems will build 42 MPFs, a battalion of light infantry tanks by FY2025.[529][530]

Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle (OMFV):[53] soliciting input, in requirements definition stage; the 2018 requirement was that 2 OMFVs fit in a C-17.[321][531][48][49] A request for proposal for a vehicle prototype was placed 29 March 2019.[53][532] On 16 January 2020 the Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle solicitation was cancelled, as a middle tier acquisition in its early stage; the requirements and schedule are being revisited.[225] The FY2021 budget request has been adjusted accordingly.[386][262][533]

An Army development team will not be an OMFV competitor as of 17 September 2020.[534] NGCV optionally manned fighting vehicle: OMFV is getting some industry silhouettes[535] which may be incorporated in digital designs for 2023, prototypes by 2025.[262] A fifth OMFV bidder (a small business) is still a contender in the competition, includes large consortia.[536] However, Mark Cancian points out that OMFV might not be suitable for a pivot to the Pacific theater.[537][538]

A hybrid electrified Bradley Fighting Vehicle is slated for January 2022 by RCCTO.[539] Robotic Combat Vehicles (RCVs):[540][53] General Murray envisions that by FY2023 critical decisions will be made on RCVs after years of experimentation.[147][541][542] Russia's Uran-9 (Уран-9) is not a robotic tank; rather it is an unmanned radio-controlled drone tank. A Next Generation main battle tank[543][544] remains a § Future concept.

Future Vertical Lift[edit]

Future Vertical Lift (FVL) is a plan for a family of military helicopters for the United States Armed Forces using common elements such as sensors avionics and engines.[545] Five different sizes of aircraft are to be developed, to replace the wide range of rotorcraft in use. The project began in 2009. By 2014, the SB-1 Defiant and V-280 Valor had been chosen as demonstrators. On 5 December 2022 Bell's V-280 was chosen for the Future Long-Range Assault Aircraft; the first phase of the contract award will be for a virtual prototype.[546][547]

  • The FVL CFT has secured approval for the requirements in all four of its Lines of Effort:[548][549]

Future Vertical Lift will use the DoD modular open systems approach (MOSA), an integrated business and technical strategy in FARA, and in FLRAA[545][550][551][552][553][554][555][556][557][224] Both FLRAA and FARA are to enter service by Fiscal Year 2030.[261] By abstracting its requirements, the Army was able to request prototypes which used new technologies.

Joint Multi-Role Technology Demonstrator (JMR-TD) prototypes are to be built by two teams to replace Sikorsky UH-60 Blackhawks with Future Long-Range Assault Aircraft (FLRAA).[558] The tilt-rotor FLRAA demonstrator by Bell is flying unmanned (October 2019); it logged 100 hours of flight testing by April 2019.[559] Both Bell and Sikorsky-Boeing received contract awards to compete in a risk reduction effort (CDRRE) for FLRAA in March 2020.[560][559][561] The risk reduction effort will be a 2-phase, 2-year competition. The competition will transition technologies (powertrain, drivetrain and control laws) from the previous demonstrators (JMR-TDs) of 2018–2019 to requirements, conceptual designs, and acquisition approach for the weapon system.[560][562] The Army wants flight testing of FLRAA prototypes[563] beginning in 2025, with fielding to the first units in 2030.[564]

The Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA) is smaller than FLRAA. The Army's requests for proposals (RFPs) for FARA were due in December 2018;[565][566]

A long range precision munition for the Army's aircraft will begin its program of design and development. In the interim, the Army is evaluating the Spike 18 mile range non-line of sight missile on its Boeing AH-64E Apache attack helicopters.[567]

Unmanned UH-60

An unmanned UH-60 Black Hawk flew pilotless in July 2022.[568] An FVL FLRAA (JMR-TD) flew unmanned in 2019.[559]

Mobile, Expeditionary Network[edit]

In Fiscal Year 2019, the network CFT will leverage Network Integration Evaluation 18.2[569] for experiments with brigade level scalability.[570] By 2022, 4 separate network Capability Sets were in-process, simultaneously ('21, '23, '25, and '27).[571]

Integrated Tactical Network (ITN) "is not a new or separate network but rather a concept"—PEO C3T.[572][573][574] Avoid overspecifying the requirements for Integrated Tactical Network[52][h][572][575][576][364][577][578][579] Information Systems Initial Capabilities Document. Instead, meet operational needs,[580][570][172] such as interoperability with other networks,[581][292]: minute 26:40 [579] and release ITN capabilities incrementally.[582][52][572]

  • Up through 2028, every two years the Army will insert new capability sets for ITN (Capability sets '21, '23, '25, etc.).[583][584][52][572] and take feedback from Soldier-led experiment & evaluation.[585][586][587] However, the Army's commitment to a 'campaign of learning' showed more paths:[588][589]
    • Firestorm was made possible by a mesh network—improvising an MEO, and then a GEO satellite link between JBLM to YPG.[506] There are plans to have a Project Convergence 2021.[153][590][591] The Army fielded a data fabric at Project Convergence 2020;[592] this will eventually be part of JADC2.[593][594][595][596]
    • Five Rapid Innovation Fund (RIF) awards were granted to five vendors via the Network CFT and PEO C3T's request for white papers. That request, for a roll-on/roll-off kit that integrates all functions of mission command on the Army Network, was posted at the National Spectrum Consortium and FedBizOpps, and yielded awards within eight months.[597][Note 2] Two more awards are forthcoming.
    • The Rapid Capabilities Office (RCO)'s Emerging Technologies Office structured a competition to find superior AI/Machine Learning algorithms for electronic warfare, from a field of 150 contestants, over a three-month period.[598][Note 2]
    • The Multi-Domain Operations Task Force (MDO TF) is standing up an experimental Electronic Warfare Platoon to prototype an estimated 1000 EW soldiers needed for the 31 BCTs of the active Army.[599][123]
  • Capability Set '21 fields ITN to selected infantry brigades to prepare for IVAS Integrated vision goggles. Expeditionary signal brigades get enhanced satellite communications.
    • 1/82nd Airborne, 173rd Airborne, 3/25th ID, and 3/82nd Airborne infantry brigades will all have fielded the Integrated Tactical Network Capability Set '21 by year-end 2021.[600][575] 2nd Cavalry Regiment is getting Capability Set '21 on Strykers,[601] which will test the CS'23 network design on Strykers early.[602]
  • Integrated Tactical Network (ITN) Capability Set '23 is prototyping JADC2 communications and the data fabric, to LEO (Low earth orbit) and to MEO (Medium earth orbit) satellites, as continued in Project Convergence 2021 in Yuma Proving Ground.[592][603][601][604] Capability Set '23 has passed its Critical design review (CDR).[571][t]
  • Integrated Tactical Network (ITN) Capability Set '25 will implement JADC2, according to the acting head of the Network CFT (9 June 2021).[606]
  • By 2023 the brigade-centric capability sets CS'21 and CS'23 already support mobile headquarters operation (Infantry and Stryker BCTs). The Armored BCTs are heavily affected by the need to support Large scale combat operations;[607][608][609][610][611] these Heavy brigades are to operate as part of a Division-level, and Corps-level plan.[612]
  • Command post footprint is to be reduced even at the division level, to keep headquarters survivable,[573][612] and the next network updates (the former CS'25) are for the echelons above brigade;[612][609] this new upgrade strategy will make the network more agile.[612]
  • The former Integrated Tactical Network (ITN) Capability Sets for the '25 and '27 waypoints[583] are to be implemented with rapid updates that are independent of previous tests. The Army network will rely upon a single standardized foundation.[612]

  • G-6 John Morrison is seeking to unify the battlefield networks of ITN, and IEN (Enterprise Network), as of September 2021.[613][614]
    • An Army leader dashboard from PEO Enterprise Information Systems is underway.[615][616] The dashboard is renamed Vantage.[617] The dashboard has streamlined and connected data updates for deployments.[618] Cloud-service-provider agnostic abstraction layers are in use, which allows merging the staff work in G-3/5/7 for cyber/EW (electronic warfare), mission command, and space.[619] The "seamless, real-time flow of data" across multiple domains (land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace) is an objective for G-6, as well as the sensor-to-shooter work at Futures command.[326][619][620][592]
    • Fort Irwin, Fort Cavazos, Joint Base San Antonio, and Joint Base Lewis McChord have 5G experiments on wireless connectivity between forward operating bases and tactical operations centers, as well as nonaircraft Augmented reality support of maintenance and training.[621]
    • The Multi-domain task forces (MDTFs)[11] will be used to expose any capability gaps in the Unified network plan.[622][613]

Air, Missile Defense[edit]

Air, Missile Defense (AMD):[623][624][625][7][626][627] In 2022 plans for FY2023 cruise missile defense were underway.[628]

Schematic 6-layer Air Defense dome, one of multiple arrays linked by Integrated Air and Missile Battle Command System (IBCS)
Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System[edit]

The United States Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense [IAMD] Battle Command System (IBCS) is a plug and fight network intended to let any defensive sensor (such as a radar) feed its data to any available weapon system (colloquially, "connect any sensor to any shooter").[52]: p.42 [h] The system is designed to shoot down short, medium, and intermediate range ballistic missiles in their terminal phase by intercepting with a hit-to-kill approach.[629][630][631] IBCS has been developed since 2004, with the aim to replace Raytheon's Patriot missile (SAM) engagement control station (ECS), along with seven other forms of ABM defense command systems.[632][633][634][635] In 2022, IBCS successfully completed initial operational test and evaluation (IOT&E),[636] and was approved for full-rate production in 2023.[637]

The IBCS program is part of the Army's Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) effort.[611][638][639] IBCS aims to create an integrated network of air defense sensors, such as AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel and AN/TPS-80 G/ATOR,[640] AN/MPQ-53, AN/MPQ-65A and GhostEye (LTAMDS) in Patriot missile system,[641] GhostEye MR in NASAMS, AN/TPY-2 in Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)[642] and Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD),[641] AN/SPY-1 and AN/SPY-6 in Aegis BMD,[643] and AN/APG-81 in Lockeed Martin F-35 Lightning II,[644] allowing them to interoperate with IBCS engagement control stations.[107] IBCS engagement stations will be able to take fine control of army-fielded air-defense systems like Patriot and THAAD, directing radar positioning and suggesting recommended launchers; naval, aerial and Marine systems will only be able to share either radar tracks or raw radar data with the IBCS network.[641] The Army requires all new missiles and air-defense systems to implement IBCS support.[645]

Northrop Grumman was announced as the prime contractor in 2010; between 2009 and 2020, the Army had spent $2.7 billion on the program.[646][647]

By May 2015, a first flight test integrated a networked S-280 engagement operations center[648] with radar sensor and interceptor launchers. This test demonstrated a missile kill with the first interceptor. By Army doctrine, two interceptors were launched against that missile. By April 2016,[649] IBCS tests demonstrated sensor fusion from disparate data streams,[629]: minute 2:28  identification and tracking of targets, selection of appropriate kill vehicles, and interception of the targets,[629]: minute 3:29  but the "IBCS software was 'neither mature nor stable'".[649] On 1 May 2019 an Engagement Operations Center (EOC) for the Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Battle Command System (IBCS) was delivered to the Army, at Huntsville, Alabama.[650]

In July 2019, the TRADOC capability manager (TCM) for Strategic Missile Defense (SMD) has accepted the charter for DOTMLPF for the Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC/ARSTRAT).[651][127]

On 30 August 2019 at Reagan Test Site on Kwajalein atoll, THAAD Battery E-62 successfully intercepted a medium range ballistic missile (MRBM), using a radar which was well-separated from the interceptors;[652][653] the next step tested Patriot missiles as interceptors[638] while using THAAD radars as sensors;[652] a THAAD radar has a longer detection range than a Patriot radar.[652] THAAD Battery E-62 engaged the MRBM without knowledge of just when the medium range ballistic missile had launched.[652][653]

IBCS' second limited user test was scheduled to take place in the fourth quarter of FY20.[625][654]

In July 2020 a Limited user test (LUT) of IBCS was initiated at WSMR; the test ran until mid-September 2020.[655] The LUT was originally scheduled for May but was delayed to handle the COVID-19 safety protocols.[654] The first of several LUTs of IBCS, by an ADA battalion was successfully run in August 2020.[656] IBCS successfully integrated data from two sensors (Sentinel and Patriot radars), and shot down two drones (cruise missile surrogates) with two Patriot missiles in the presence of jamming;[656] In the week after, by 20 August 2020 two more disparate threats (cruise missile and ballistic missile) were launched and intercepted;[657][658] the ADA battalion then ran hundreds of drills denoting hundreds of threats for the remainder of the IBCS tests (the increased effort occupied the entire unit);[659] the real-world data serve as a sanity check for Monte Carlo simulations of an array of physical scenarios amounting to hundreds of thousands of cases.[443][660] IBCS created a "single uninterrupted composite track of each threat" and handed off each threat for separate disposition by the air and missile defense's integrated fire control network (IFCN).[661] The same battalion running the LUT, for both IBCS, and LTAMDS radar, is scheduled to run the Initial Operational Test & Evaluation (IOTE) in 2021,[655][662] and is to run well into 2022.[660]

In September 2020 a Joint exercise against cruise missiles demonstrated AI-based kill chains which can be formulated in seconds; one of the kills was by a kinetic projectile fired by a "M109-based" tracked howitzer[441][663] (a Paladin descendant).[664]

The ranges of the IAMD defensive radars, when operated as a system, are thousands of miles. Cross-domain information from ground, air, and space sensors was passed to a fire control system at Project Convergence 2021 (PC21), via IBCS, during one of the use case scenarios.[665] At PC21 IBCS fused sensor data from an F-35, tracking the target, and passing that data to AFATDS (Army Field Artillery Tactical Data System). The F-35 then served as a spotter for artillery fire on ground target data.[666] More than 100 technologies were prototyped in experiments at PC21.[12]: minute 34:00 

By August 2020, a second Limited User Test (LUT) at White Sands Missile Range was able to detect, track, and intercept near-simultaneous low-altitude targets as well as a tactical ballistic missile,[667] over several separate engagements.[443][668][646] Army doctrine can now be updated to allow the launch of a single Patriot against a single target.[667][443] By 2021 the Army awarded a $1.4 billion contract to Northrop Grumman for IBCS.[669]

On 24 February 2022 THAAD radar and TFCC (THAAD Fire Control & Communication) demonstrated their interoperability with Patriot PAC-3 MSE missiles; in other words IBCS can engage targets using both THAAD and Patriot interceptors, freed of a siloed solution (THAAD-only / Patriot-only, etc.).[670] For example, in a scenario where a THAAD system has to conserve its All-Up-Rounds, IBCS can calculate which targets are within the reach of its PAC-3 MSE interceptors, and instead fire the PAC-3 interceptors at those targets within range.[670]

IBCS was projected to be at its initial operating capability (IOC) in Fiscal year 2022.[52]: 42 [h] In January 2018 James H. Dickinson and Richard Formica broached the integration of strategic fires and air/missile defense in the multi-domain task force.[430]: min 37:00 [o][11] IBCS was finally approved for full-rate production in April 2023, after years of delays. [637]

Raytheon's new GhostEye radar (previously Lower Tier Air and Missiles Defense Sensor, LTAMDS)[625] replaces the Patriot AN/SPY-65A radar. GhostEye will be able to feed raw sensor data to IBCS, and it will fit on a C-17 Globemaster.[642][671][672] GhostEye is engineered to operate with much greater sensitivity, improved range and ability to track smaller, faster-moving targets. It uses three fixed 120-degree arrays to seamlessly find, discriminate and track fast-approaching threats using a 360-degree protection envelope. The arrays are overlapping to close “blind spots” and maintain a track if an attacking missile shifts course in flight. GhostEye can detect the precise shape, size, distance and speed of an approaching threat with high-fidelity sensor “pings”; its semiconductor gallium nitride (GaN) emitters allow increased resolution, accuracy, and power efficiency.[673][674][675][Note 2][671][672][676][677][678] The fielding of four LTAMDS radars to a battalion is expected in 2023.[679][680]

The Indirect fire protection capability (IFPC) Multi-Mission Launcher (MML) will have fielded 50 kW lasers on Strykers[143][481] in 2021 and 2022 to two battalions per year.[126] In late FY2024 an integrated test of LTAMDS, IFPC, and IBCS is planned.[681]

Although on 21 August 2019 the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) cancelled the $5.8 billion contract for the Redesigned kill vehicle (RKV),[682][683][684][107] the Army's 100th Missile Defense Brigade will continue to use the Exo-Atmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV). The current Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) programs continue per plan, with 64 ground-based interceptors (GBIs) in the missile fields for 2019 planned. Command and Control Battle Management and Communications (C2BMC), was developed by the Missile defense agency (as a development organization) and is integrated with GMD, as demonstrated by FTG-11 on 25 March 2019.[685]: 15:00  By March 2021, the decision to approve further development of the Next Generation Interceptor is on the agenda for the 35th Deputy Secretary of Defense Kathleen Hicks. Hicks has extensive background in defense modernization; the 28th Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin has recused himself from acquisition matters.[686][687]

High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator[edit]
High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator (HEL-TVD) 2019

A contract for the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command's High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator (HEL TVD) laser system, a 100 kilowatt laser demonstrator for use on the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles, was awarded 15 May 2019 to Dynetics-Lockheed.[688][94] A 300 kilowatt laser demonstrator (HEL-IFPC) effort supersedes the HEL TVD (after the critical design review).[689][690][691] System test at White Sands Missile Range in 2023.[688]


  • Maneuver short-range air defense (MSHORAD)[699][625][700] with laser cannon prototypes in 2020,[690] In July 2021 RCCTO conducted a combat shootoff on just how to control pointing these high-energy lasers.[701][702] Raytheon is providing the high energy laser (Directed Energy Maneuver-Short Range Air Defense system —DE M-SHORAD) for the Strykers in 2022.[257][703][704]
  • RCCTO has awarded a contract to build a 300 kW high-energy laser (HEL) for the Army in FY2022, capable of defending against airborne threats, by acquiring, tracking, and maintaining the HEL's aimpoint on the threat until it goes down.[705]

Soldier lethality[edit]

  1. Soldier Lethality:[706][707][381][708]
    • Next Generation Squad Weapon Program: Expect 100,000 to be fielded to the Close Combat Force:[709][u] Infantry, Armor, Cavalry, Special Forces, and Combat engineers. Tests at Fort Benning in 2019. —Chief of Staff Milley[711]
    • Nine thousand systems, with two drones apiece are being purchased over a three-year period for the 9-man infantry squads heading to Afghanistan.[712]
    • Integrated Visual Augmentation System (IVAS) —an augmented reality display— allows soldiers to use multiple sensors to fight.[576] IVAS was put on hold in March 2022, with Congress budgeting $349 million in favor of drones instead.[363] An initial IVAS buy was approved in September 2022 after a six month hold.[364] An improved IVAS is being sought after finding that some soldiers are being physically affected from wearing the goggles.[713]
    • Enhanced night vision goggles (ENVG)-B, will be fielded to an Armor brigade combat team (ABCT) going to South Korea in October 2019[714][709][715]
      • A CCDC program which instrumented a battalion with sleep monitors, Redibands, and smartwatches to detect exertion, detected soldiers with elevated heart rates, indicating the beginnings of a streptococcus infection. This condition was detected by the medics, and would have impacted the battalion, detected before deploying to Afghanistan.[716]
    • Synthetic training environment (STE)—a CFT devoted to an augmented reality system[316][717] to aid planning, using mapping techniques, even at squad level[718][719][258] will begin fielding by 2021.[720][164][721] In October 2019 the Synthetic Training Environment (STE) prototype is being used by Special Operations for planning actual missions.[722][318] Development for the Synthetic Training Environment (STE) is to be accelerated to meet MDO and JADC2 training demands.[723]
  2. On the battlefield of the future, where no headquarters is safe for long, the commander's task is:[724]: p.87 
    • "Avoid being detected and targeted".[223]
    • "Work through and survive attacks".[223]
    • "Rapidly recover from losses".
    • Thus the commander has to be continuously aware of the current status (that is: alive or not) of the deputy commander (and the staff) so that the mission can be completed.

Enterprise campaign planning[edit]

In 2019 DoD planners are exercising Doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) in planning, per the National Defense Strategy (NDS),[725] in the shift from counterinsurgency (COIN) to competition with near-peer powers.[725] The evaluations from planners' scenarios will be determining materiel and organization by late 2020.[725][127][726][727]

Futures Command is formulating multiyear Enterprise campaign plans, in 2019.[728][309] The planning process includes Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC), AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs), Futures and Concepts (FCC), Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC), and Army Reserve's Houston-based 75th Innovation Command. At this stage, one goal is to formulate the plans in simple, coherent language which nests within the national security strategic documents.[728][729][730][244][731][732] By October 2022 Field Manual 3-0 could state that The Army Operating Concept was that 'Multi-domain Operations are at the root of all Army operations',[733]: § 1-11, p.1-3 [734]: minute 28:09 to 36:00 


AFC faces multiple futures,[735] both as threat and opportunity. The Army's warfighting directive, viz., "to impose the nation's political will on its enemy" —Chief of Staff Milley, is to be ready[40] for multiple near-term futures.[736] Under Secretary McCarthy notes that Gen. Murray functions as the Army's Chief Investments Officer[171] (more precisely, its "chief futures modernization investment officer").[268]: Section 4 [Note 2][47] Funding for the top six priorities could mean that existing programs might be curtailed.[737][269]

In the top six priorities:

XM1113 extended range artillery round, shown here at a range demonstration, uses a rocket-assist motor
  1. LRPF Long range precision fires[q][738][739]
  2. NGCV Next generation combat vehicle[749][166]
    • Much smaller and lighter ground combat vehicles, optionally unmanned[321] (Dedicated short-range communications for robotic vehicles[750]
      Small Multipurpose Equipment Transport (S-MET) candidate robotic mules for transporting infantry squad equipment[751]
      • If robotic combat vehicles (RCVs) do not need to be manned, neither would they need to be armored (see Uran-9); use of sensors and batteries could replace the armor.[752][753] Soldiers have learned to remotely operate the weapons on such RCVs in several days;[752] the CCDC RCV Center and CFT are placing RCV prototypes and the Soldier's vehicle prototypes in company-level scenarios in Europe, in 2020 and forward.[752] Modified Bradley Fighting Vehicles and M113s at Fort Carson went through unit-level operations to gain experience with RCVs in July and August 2020.[754] Future breaching operations will be affected in detail by the robotic breaching concept, according to the panel at the AUSA October 2020 meeting.[755][756]
      • In October 2020 the Army's Chief of Staff reminded the force that "The time is now" to modernize for the future, including how the Army develops the systems themselves;[757][758][34] if a soldier can now use IVAS to shoot around corners and hit the target, if soldiers and their units can use STE (synthetic training environment) to depict the mission's terrain and train for the mission before the conflict occurs, if deploying robotic reconnaissance vehicles at the time of the mission can smoke out defenses before committing manned combat vehicles against those defenses, then even light vehicles can transport soldiers in conflict, and precision fires can neutralize threats against those soldiers in a conflict. STE can depict these scenarios.[757]: min 14:01 [759][760]
    • Robotic warfare, as a concept or capability at the Joint Corps echelon, was demonstrated at the operational level using Joint Warfighting assessment (JWA) 18.1 in April 2018.
      • JWA 19 (April–May 2019): I Corps, at Joint base Lewis-McChord, is getting modernization training on the robotic complex breaching concept (RCBC),[761] and the command post computing environment (CPCE)[762] from Joint modernization command (JMC) training staff.[763]
      • Create decisive lethality:[764][765][147] Robotic experiments[766][767]
        • Jen Judson reports that Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley is proposing that the brigades begin to electrify their vehicles using hybrid,[768] or all-electric propulsion.[514][769][v]
        • Smaller brigades and stronger division-level maneuver, with robotic aerial reconnaissance vehicles, robotic combat vehicles (RCVs), and long-range precision fires (LRPFs) are under consideration.[777][237]
        • Modified M2 Bradleys (MET-Ds) and other RCVs operating at Fort Carson, and in Europe have used robotic software to operate the vehicles, for both logistics and also for combat maneuver.[778] As of August 2020, the RCVs are able to perform limited waypoint navigation; multiple vehicles can be controlled by one human operator.[778]
  3. FVL[779] "Our new approach is really to prototype as much as we can to help us identify requirements, so our reach doesn't exceed our grasp. ... A good example is Future Vertical Lift: The prototyping has been exceptional." —Secretary of the Army Mark Esper[282]
    • The Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA) scout helicopter prototypes are to be designed to fly along urban streets, to survive air defenses.[780] Five design vendors were selected, with downselect to two for prototyping by February 2020.[780]
    • These aircraft are envisioned as platforms for utilizing sensor networks to control and enable weapons delivery, as demonstrated in a 2019 experiment.[781][782] In preparation for FVL platforms, the FVL CFT demonstrated a 2020 Spike non-line of sight missile launch from an Apache gunship at Yuma Proving Ground, for extended range capability;[783] a forward air launch of an unmanned sensor aircraft (UAS) from a helicopter was demonstrated at YPG as well.[784]
  4. Mobile & Expeditionary Network[724] / MDO Multi-domain operations[27][384]
    • In the battlefield of the future, where nowhere is safe for long, "you will miss opportunities to get to positions of advantage if you don't synthesize the data very quickly"—LTG Wesley (AI for multi-domain command and control: MDC2)[132][785][124] "Finding and engaging high-value relocatable ground systems within rapid timelines" is the Air Force's operational objective in this JADC2 exercise (December 2019) —Eliahu Norwood, Greg Grant, and Tyler Lewis.[786]
      • ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance)[k][f] needs to match the range of the upcoming LRPF (Long range precision fires) and thousand-nautical-mile missile standoff capability of the Army.[787] Soldiers on the ground are now able to receive satellite ISR.[505][788]
    • Cybersecurity[789][790][791][792] RAND simulations show Blue losses[126]
    • Cyber warfare[793] / urban warfare[127][794][795][796][797] / Underground warfare / Multi-domain combined maneuver[798][147][540] Robotic swarms are a tactic under consideration.[799][311][800][124]
    • Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing (A-PNT)[81][801][802] Zephyr, a solar-powered drone successfully stayed aloft at Yuma Proving Ground for nearly 26 days, at times descending to 55,000 feet to avoid adverse weather conditions, while remaining well above the altitudes flown by commercial aircraft, and landing per plan in the summer of 2018, to meet other testing commitments.[803] A 2022 test of Zephyr S began on 15 June 2022; as of 22 July 2022 the drone was still flying at 70,000 feet in the stratosphere, and has broken its previous non-stop record.[804] However on 19 August, after 64 days, Zephyr S lost 20,000 feet of altitude, before suddenly plummeting at high speed in a presumed crash at YPG. Zephyr yielded over 1500 hours of stratospheric data during the mission. This surpasses Airbus' goal of 60 days of unmanned service, which included international flight from Arizona to Belize, and back.[805] Zephyr would have broken the world record for continuous flight, had it lasted just a few more hours.[806][807][808] In April 2021 a Vanilla UAS demonstrated 45 hour 23 minute unrefueled flight from Point Mugu to the Pacific Fleet's (PACFLT) UxS IBP 2021 exercise.[809][810]
      • An A-PNT event is scheduled at WSMR for August 2019[52]: pp220-3 [h][811]: Positioning, Navigation and Timing Assessment Exercise (PNTAX) [812][52]: pp220-1 [h][813][445]
      • Prototype jam-resistant GPS kits are being fielded to 2nd Cavalry Regiment in US European Command (EUCOM) before year-end 2019.[283] More than 300 Strykers of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment are being fitted with the Mounted Assured Precision Navigation & Timing System (MAPS), with thousands more planned for EUCOM.[814]
      • A Modular Open Systems Approach (MOSA) to Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) is under development.[815][140][219]
        • Low Earth orbit satellites for Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing—"When you look at the sheer number of satellites that go up and the reduced cost to do it, it gives us an array of opportunities on how to solve the problems" in A-PNT[816]
      • CCDC Army Research Laboratory (ARL) researchers have proposed and demonstrated a way for small ground-based robots with mounted antennas to configure phased arrays, a technique which usually takes a static laboratory to develop. Instead the researchers used robots to covertly create and focus a highly directional parasitic array (see Yagi antenna).[817]
      • CCDC Army Research Laboratory (ARL): ARL's Army Research Office is funding researchers at University of Texas at Austin, and University of Lille who have built a new 5G component using hexagonal boron nitride which can switch at performant speeds, while remaining 50 times more energy-efficient than current materials—the "thinnest known insulator with a thickness of 0.33 nanometers".[818]
      • CCDC Army Research Laboratory (ARL): ARL's Army Research Office (ARO) is seeking diamond colloids, microscopic spheres which can assemble bottom-up into promising structures for laser action.[819]
      • Newly developed materials with nanoscale trusses could serve as armor or coatings.[820]
      • A demonstration of proof of concept allows Soldiers to communicate their position using a wearable tracking unit. The technology allows soldiers (or robots) to prosecute a fight even indoors or underground, even if GPS were lost during a NavWar.[231]
  5. Air, Missile Defense[739][130][695] is being reframed, as more integrated.[642][821][822]
      • Integrated Air and Missile Battle Command System (IBCS)[823] award, including next software build.[824][130] $238 million also funds initial prototypes of the command and control system for fielding in FY22.[625]
        • Hypersonic glide vehicle launch preparations,[98] beginning in 2020, and continuing with launches every six months.[93]
        • At Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake an FVL CFT-sponsored demonstration of interconnected sensors handed-off the control of a glide munition which had been launched from a Grey Eagle unmanned aircraft system (UAS). During the flight of that munition, another group of sensors picked up a higher-priority target; another operator at the Tactical Operations Center (TOC) redirected the glide munition to the higher-priority target and destroyed it.[781][825][548] See: § Air-launched effects
    1. Indiscriminate use of thousands of offensive missiles against Ukraine "shows we should expect these weapons to become a common feature of 21st-century conflict" —unnamed DoD official, 27 October 2022.[826][827][828]
    2. Contested logistics are needed for Ukraine's Army, in a time span of months as of April 2022.[829][830][831] As a test of its assumptions on contested logistics, the 2023 exercises for IndoPacom will test its prepositioned stocks.[832] The CG of Army Materiel Command is taking the lead for contested logistics.[833]
  6. Soldier lethality
    • Sensor-to-shooter prototype for multi-domain battle, 2019 operational assessment: Air Force RCO / Army RCO / Network CFT[144][145][146]
    • Night vision goggles thermal polarimetric camera.[834] Integrated Visual Augmentation System (IVAS)[835][836][837][838][576][839][840][841][842] The Synthetic Training Environment (STE) is available to some of the troops outfitted with IVAS.[843] Christine Wormuth, 25th Secretary of the Army, has identified the Army's work on a Common operating picture (COP) as foundational for the operation of the Joint services.[844][845][846]
    • CCDC ARL researchers are developing a flexible, waterproof, lithium-ion battery of any size and shape, for soldiers to wear; the electrolyte is water itself. In 2020 the batteries were engineering prototypes; by 2021 soldiers will wear the battery for themselves for the first time.[847]
      • CCDC ARL and DoE's PNNL are examining the solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) as it first forms during the initial charging of a Lithium-ion battery. They have found an inner SEI (thin, dense, and inorganic—most likely lithium oxide) between the copper electrode, and an outer SEI which is organic and permeable—a finding which will be useful when building future batteries.[848]
    • CCDC ARL and MIT researchers are formulating atomically thin materials to be layered upon soldiers' equipment and clothing for MDO information display and processing.[849]
    • Integrated, wearable cabling for capabilities such as IVAS, NGSW, or Nett Warrior are under development;[850] the potential exists to reduce 20 pounds of batteries to half that weight.[851]
    • CCDC ARL is undertaking an Essential research program (ERP) in the processes underlying additive manufacturing (3D printing), which is applicable to munitions.[852]
    • Natick Soldier RDEC has awarded an Other Transaction Authority (OTA) contract to prototype soldier exoskeletons which augment human leg strength under harsh conditions.[853][854][855][856]
    • DEVCOM Chem Bio Center (CBC) is developing sensors to detect possible hazardous contamination.[857]
    • Plans for the Infantry Squad Vehicle (ISV) are underway.[858][859] An ISV is meant to be airdropped for a squad of nine paratroopers.[860] The GM design was selected; first unit is expected at 1/82nd AB division in February 2021.[861][862]
      • Assured pointing, navigation and tracking (A-PNT) devices are being miniaturized, with increased redundant positioning sources. This aids wearability.[812][52]: pp220-3 [h]
      • In September 2019 in the Maneuver CoE's Battle Lab at Fort Moore, OneSAF simulations[863] of a platoon augmented by UAS drones, ground robots, and AI were able to dislodge a defending force 3 times larger, repeatedly. But by current doctrine, a near-battalion would have been required to accomplish that mission.[863]

Waypoint 2028 and the Army of 2030[edit]

In 2022 to 2028,[34][35] the Army defined a path for defining Corps-level Large scale combat operations (LSCO): in multi-domain operation,[864] that the Corps be the Unit of Employment;[865] the Division echelon to be the Unit of Action; Brigades are Units for Close combat. Divisions are purpose-built designs: [866] [867] Joint forcible entry airborne, and air assault; [868] Standard heavy, and light;[869] and Heavy Reinforced (formerly Penetration) divisions.[870][871] [872][873]

By 2022 the 25th Secretary of the Army, Christine Wormuth was able to announce the top six areas for the Army of 2030:[874][875]: minute 43:30  1) improved Intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR); 2) "Coordination at greater speed";[d] 3) "Win the Fires fight"; 4) §concealment[876][877] via improved mobility and reduced signature; 5) "talk often and quickly";[729][i] and 6) logistics.[874][878][34][35] [879][865] [14] [880]

Army of 2040

By October 2022 the 25th Secretary of the Army, Christine Wormuth could charge the 2nd commander of Futures Command with proponency[a] for the Army of 2040.[881][875]: minute 51:00 [878][882][883] Futures Command hosted the inaugural Army Future Readiness Conference in Austin 13–15 December 2022, covering the design of the Army of 2040.[884] The conference was a synchronization meeting for AFC, AMC, TRADOC, FORSCOM, and Headquarters Department of the Army. The meeting was to support the Army Campaign Plan and to execute the ReARMM readiness model in future synchronization meetings.[884] A series of working groups, using the techniques of DOTMLPF to focus future meetings is underway.[884][885][886][887]

Headquarters (HQ)[edit]

AFC's headquarters is based in Austin, Texas where it spreads across three locations totaling 75,000 ft2;[165] One location is a University of Texas System building at 210 W. Seventh St. in downtown Austin, on the 15th and 19th floors; the UT Regents were not going to charge rent to AFC until December 2019.[888][889] The command began initial operations on 1 July 2018.[890]

Value stream[edit]

In a hearing before Congress' House Armed Services Committee, the AFC commander projected that materiel will result from the value stream below, within a two-year time frame,[9] from concept to Soldier. The commanding general is assisted by three deputy commanders.

  1. Science and technology (S&T: discovery / collection of ideas with usable effects)[Note 3][892]
  2. Experiments (Testing of a system to a known expectation of effects, or else observation of that system, in the absence of a specific expectation of effects)
  3. Concepts development[47] (Development of a relevant idea about that system)[313][308]
  4. Requirements development (Development of the terms and conditions for that system)[31]
  • Combat Development element,[335][893] Army Futures Command.[305] LTG Richard R. Coffman is the deputy commander. He assists the commander with efforts to assess and integrate the future operational environment, emerging threats, and technologies to develop and deliver concepts, requirements, and future force designs to posture the Army for the future.
    • The Capability development integration directorate (CDID) of each Center of Excellence (CoE), works with its CFT[Note 1] and its research, development and engineering center (RDEC) to develop operational experiments and prototypes to test.
    • The Battle Labs and The Research Analysis Center (TRAC)[307][313] prototype and analyze the concepts to test.
    • JMC is capable of providing live developmental experiments to test those concepts or capabilities, "scalable from company level to corps, amid tough, realistic multi-domain operations".[168][10][131]
    • RDECOM becomes the Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC, or DEVCOM), part of the Combat Development element, on 3 February 2019.[335][58][296][894][48][49]
  • Futures Command's Thomas H. Todd III, Lt. Gen. USA, is Deputy Commanding General of Acquisition and Systems (in 2018, denoted Combat Systems).[w][a]
    • Gen. Robert Abrams has tasked III Corps with providing Soldier feedback for the Next Generation Combat Vehicles CFT, XVIII Corps for the Soldier feedback on the Soldier lethality CFT, the Network CFT, as well as the Synthetic training CFT, and I Corps for the Long Range Precision Fires CFT.[899]
    • Combat Systems refines, engineers, and produces the developed solutions from Combat Development.[900][901]
    • An analysis by AMSAA can then assess that concept or capability, as a promising system for a materiel development decision.[270]

... what I do think you will see is some of the capabilities the cross-functional teams are working will be in production and being delivered and in the hands of soldiers in the next two years" —Gen. John "Mike" Murray (2018).[9]

Army Chief of Staff Milley is looking for AFC to attain full operational capability (FOC) by August 2019.[19][25][77][902] By 2022 the Army's unclassified Multi-Domain Operations concept[g] (which had been initially formulated by Futures Command) was disclosed to the public.[34][35]

List of commanding generals[edit]

LTG James E. Rainey assumes command of AFC from LTG James M. Richardson on 4 October 2022.

On 16 July 2018, Lieutenant General John M. Murray was nominated for promotion and appointment as Army Futures Command's first commanding general.[903] and his appointment was confirmed on 20 August 2018[904] and he assumed command during the official activation ceremony of AFC on 24 August 2018, in Austin, Texas.[165] Murray relinquished command of AFC on 3 December 2021.[905][67][68][898][69][70][71] Lieutenant General James E. Rainey (later promoted to general on 7 October 2022)[906] became AFC's second commanding general on 4 October 2022.[a]

No. Portrait Name and rank Took office Left office Term length
John M. Murray
John M. Murray
24 August 20183 December 20213 years, 101 days
James M. Richardson
Lieutenant General
James M. Richardson
3 December 20214 October 2022305 days
James E. Rainey
James E. Rainey
4 October 2022Incumbent244 days

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g The CG,AFC is responsible for Force design (in the style of TRADOC's G357,[907] but applied to Force modernization, rather than training).[61] The Army's Force management model begins with a projection of the Future operating environment, in terms of resources: political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, and the time available to bring the Current army to bear on the situation.[908] The AROC serves as a discussion forum of these factors.[61]
    • The Army G-8 and G-3/5/7 sit on the Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC), chaired by the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA).[909]: diagram on p.559 [61][908]
    • The relevant strategy is provided by the Army's leadership to guide Army staff.[909]
    • The resources are "dictated by Congress".[908]
    • A DOTMLPF analysis models the factors necessary to change the Current force into a relevant Future force.
    • A JCIDS/ACIDS[910] process identifies the gaps in capability between Current and Future force.
    • A Force design to meet the materiel gaps is underway.
    • An organization with the desired capabilities (manpower, materiel, training) is brought to bear on each gap.
      • AR 5-22(pdf) lists the Force modernization proponent for each Army branch, which can be a CoE or Branch proponent leader.
      • Staff uses Synchronization meetings[911]: minute 8:29  before seeking approval —HTAR Force Management 3-2b: "Managing change in any large, complex organization requires the synchronization of many interrelated processes".[909]: p.3-1 
    • A budget request is submitted to Congress.
    • Approved requests then await resource deliveries which then become available to the combatant commanders.
  2. ^ a b c Andrew Eversden (17 Dec 2021) Here's the Army's 24 programs in soldiers' hands by 2023
    1. Precision Strike Missile (§ PrSM)
    2. Extended Range Cannon Artillery (ERCA)
    3. Long-Range Hypersonic Weapon (§ LRHW)
    4. Mid-range capability (§ MRC) missile, also called Strategic Mid-Range Fires (SMRF)[250]
    5. Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV)
    6. Robotic Combat Vehicle (§ RCV)
    7. Mobile Protective Firepower (§ MPF)
    8. Future Unmanned Aircraft Systems/ Future Tactical Unmanned Aircraft System (FUAS)/(FTUAS)[251][252]
    9. Integrated Tactical Network (§ ITN) unified with § echelons above brigade, and the multi-domain task forces
    10. Common Operating Environment: Command Post Computing Environment[253]/Mounted Computed Environment (CPCE)/(MCE) See Common operational picture
    11. Command Post Integrated Infrastructure (CPI2)
    12. Mounted Assured Positioning, Navigation, and Timing System (MAPS)[254][255]
    13. Dismounted Assured Positioning, Navigation, and Timing System (DAPS)[254]
    14. Maneuver-Short Range Air Defense (M-SHORAD) using high-energy lasers
    15. Indirect Fires Protection Capability: Iron Dome
    16. Lower Tier Air and Missile Defense Sensor (§ LTAMDS)[256] - Patriot radar replacement
    17. Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense (§ IBCS)
    18. Directed Energy Maneuver-Short Range Air Defense (DE M-SHORAD)[257] High energy lasers
    19. Next Generation Squad Weapon (NGSW)
    20. Integrated Visual Augmentation System (IVAS)
    21. Enhanced Night Vision Goggle – Binocular (ENVG-B)
    22. Reconfigurable Virtual Collective Trainer (RVCT) - Synthetic training environment
    23. IVAS Squad Immersive Virtual Trainer (SiVT) - Synthetic training environment
    24. One World Terrain/ Training Management Tools/ Training Simulation Software (OWT) / (TMT) / (TSS) - Synthetic training environment[258]
    [248][249][259] [260]
  3. ^ a b c d In Future Vertical Lift, FARA and FLRAA are projected to be prototyped by 2028, with fielding by 2030.[224][261] The OMFV prototype is projected for 2025.[262]
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (November 22, 2019) SecArmy's Multi-Domain Kill Chain: Space-Cloud-AI Army Multi-Domain Operations Concept, December 2018 slide from TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1 (Dec 2018).
    Multi-domain operations (MDO) span multiple domains: cislunar space, land, air, maritime, cyber, and populations.
    • In September 2020 an ABMS Onramp demonstrated a specific scenario, which can be illustrated by the 5 red numbered bullet points from the slide in TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1:
    1. Competition— No overt hostilities are yet detected. Blue bar (force projection) is in standoff against red bar (threat).
    2. Strategic Support area— National assets (blue) detect breaching of standoff by adversary (in red).
    3. Close area support— blue assets hand-off to the combatant commands, who are to create effects visible to the adversary (in red).
    4. Deep maneuver— blue combatant actions dis-integrate adversary efforts (per TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1: "militarily compete, penetrate, dis-integrate, and exploit" the adversary); —Operational and Strategic deep fires create effects on the adversary. Adversary is further subject to defeat in detail, until adversaries perceive they are overmatched (no more red assets to expend).
    5. Adversary retreats to standoff. The populations perceive that the adversary is defeated, for now. (Compare to Perkins' cycle, 'return to competition', in which deterrence has succeeded in avoiding a total war, in favor of pushing an adversary back to standoff (the red threat bar). Blue force projection still has overmatched red threat.)
  5. ^
    In standoff,[29] adversaries attempt to project protected areas against each other.[30] Within these protected areas, friends are deemed safe, but foes who attempt penetration are endangered by the capabilities of the allies arrayed against them. Outside these protected areas, adversaries compete for control, by projecting their power.
  6. ^ a b c d e As informed by lessons learned in light of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
  7. ^ a b c d e The Army's unclassified Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) concept is "the combined arms employment of capabilities from all domains that create and exploit relative advantages to defeat enemy forces, achieve objectives and consolidate gains during competition, crisis, and armed conflict".[55]
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j ASA(ALT) (2018) Weapon Systems Handbook update Page 32 lists how the Weapon Systems Handbook is organized. 440 pages.
    • By Modernization priority
    • By Acquisition or Business System category (ACAT or BSC). The Weapon systems in each ACAT are sorted alphabetically by Weapon system name. Each weapon system might also be in several variants (Lettered); a weapon system's variants might be severally and simultaneously in the following phases of its Life Cycle, namely—°Materiel Solution Analysis; °Technology Maturation & Risk Reduction; °Engineering & Manufacturing Development; °Production & Deployment; °Operations & Support
    • ACAT I, II, III, IV are defined on page 404.[51][24][53][54][29]
  9. ^ a b c d Colin Clark (18 Feb 2020) Gen. Hyten On The New American Way of War: All-Domain Operations (ADO)
    • "A computer-coordinated fight": in the air, land, sea, space, cyber, and the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS)
      • "forces from satellites to foot soldiers to submarines sharing battle data at machine-to-machine speed"
    • "it's the ability to integrate and effectively command and control all domains in a conflict or in a crisis seamlessly"—Gen. Hyten, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
      • All-Domain Operations (ADO) use global capabilities: "space, cyber, deterrent [the nuclear triad (for mutually assured destruction in the Cold War, an evolving concept in itself)], transportation, electromagnetic spectrum operations, missile defense"
  10. ^ a b c Echelons above brigade (division, corps, and theater army) engage in a continuum of conflict.[i] [d][84]: minute 17:45 [85]
  11. ^ a b c When used in multi-domain operations, I2CEWS denotes Intelligence, Information, Cyber, Electronic Warfare, and Space. See: ISR, or Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, and National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  12. ^ The 2020 xTechSearch top ten semifinalists (who will each receive $120,000) are:[228]
    • Bounce Imaging, for a tactical throwable camera (self-orienting, pointable camera)
    • GeneCapture, for deployable medical tests
    • Inductive Ventures, for magnetic braking of helicopters
    • IoT/AI, for hardware IoT AI devices
    • LynQ Technologies, for a GPS beacon
    • KeriCure, for wound care
    • MEI Micro, for Micro Electronic-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (assured position, navigation, and timing—A-PNT)
    • Multiscale Systems, for meta-material
    • Novaa, for single-aperture antennas ( multi-band rather than 1 dedicated antenna per application)
    • Vita Inclinata, stabilized anti-spin hoisting for pulling injured people on a stretcher into a hovering helicopter
  13. ^ a b "That's pretty important because that gives him (Dunwoody) the authority to do what needs to be done across the Army with the myriad responsibilities that he has," Shoffner said." Dunwoody becomes a direct report to the TRADOC commander —Tribune staff (22 August 2019) Colonel named division artillery director
  14. ^ Even with an increased 2022 defense budget to $782 billion, deployment of Integrated Visual Augmentation System (IVAS) was put on hold, in favor of drone countermeasures.[363] By September 2022 the ASA(ALT) announced a final testing step for IVAS would take place in October.[364] (The Budget Control Act was to have restricted funds by 2020.)[365][366][367][368][369][370][371][372][373][20][21][374][375][376] but was overtaken by the §events in Ukraine in 2022.[377][378][259][379][380][381][excessive citations]
  15. ^ a b In January 2018 Lt. Gen. James H. Dickinson broached the possibility of both strategic fires and air/missile defense capabilities being in the same unit.[429][430]
  16. ^ In late FY2023 18 ERCA prototypes will undergo a one-year operational assessment at Fort Bliss.[432]
  17. ^ a b c d Munitions such as PrSM will need to fire and then move, at targets on the move.[449][450]
  18. ^ "[HIMARS] is used to destroy critical communications nodes, command posts, airfields, and important logistics facilities".—Mick Ryerson (Major General, Australian Army, retired)[442]
  19. ^ Strykers upgraded with autonomous operation would need more control by wire, in order to experiment with autonomy.[521]
  20. ^ The Senate Appropriations Committee is cutting an Army component of the FY23 Presidential Budget Request which funds a CS'23 network capability.[605]
  21. ^ The DoD Close Combat Lethality Task Force is hosting the Artificial Intelligence for Small-Unit Maneuver working group in order to foment relationships with OUSD(R&E), the Chief Digital and Artificial Intelligence Office (CDAO), and the Army, Marines, and Special Operations cells for close combat.[710]
  22. ^ Perhaps using other mobile power plants (2020), using TRISO fuel[770] (2022)—Idaho National Laboratory will assemble a Project Pele transportable nuclear reactor, and test it for up to three years;[771] if test performance warrants it, this type of reactor will generate a nominal 2 MWe (1 to 5 MWe— megaWatts, electrical) for up to 3 years, for isolated areas such as the Arctic, or for an island;[772] the reactor will be gas-cooled;[773][774][775] the fuel will be high-assay low-enriched uranium (HALEU);[776] experiments for handling the nuclear fuel will be performed at Idaho National Labs Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT), or the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) during the three year test period.[775] Mobile Microreactor startup testing at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC), or at the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC).[775] Assembling, operating, and disassembling, and transporting the Mobile Microreactor at the MFC, or at the CITRC.[775] Transporting the disassembled mobile microreactor to temporary storage at the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility (RSWF), or at the Outdoor Radioactive Storage Area (ORSA).[775] Potentially conducting mobile microreactor and spent nuclear fuel post-irradiation examination (PIE) and disposition at Idaho National Lab.[775] Produce reliable electrical power on a CITRC electrical grid that is separate from the public utility grid at Idaho National Lab.[775]
  23. ^ The Combat Systems Directorate[893] was to be led by the ASA(ALT)'s Principal Military Deputy [895][896] (Principal Military Deputy (PMILDEP) to the ASA(ALT)) [268]: AD2018-15, 6b:PMILDEP will additionally be AFC director, Combat Systems [280] who will produce those developed solutions and seek feedback.[51][897] In 2022, AD2018-15 was rescinded by Army Directive AD2022-07,[63] which in turn is subject to rescission 180 days after passage of FY2023 NDAA.[68][898]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i The capabilities as prioritized by the Chief of Staff, will use subject-matter experts (SMEs) in the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment, using CFTs for:
    1. Improved long-range precision fires (artillery):—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG John Rafferty ... PEO Ammunition (AMMO)
    2. Next Generation Combat Vehicle—(Detroit Arsenal, Warren, Michigan) Lead: BG Geoffrey Norman ... PEO Ground Combat Systems (GCS)
    3. Vertical lift platforms—(Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: BG Wally Rugen ... PEO Aviation (AVN)
    4. Mobile and expeditionary (usable in ground combat) communications network (Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland)
      1. Network Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence—Lead: BG Jeth Rey ... PEO Command Control Communications Tactical (C3T)
      2. Assured Position Navigation and Timing—(Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: William B. Nelson, SES
    5. Air and missile defense—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG Brian Gibson, ... PEO Missiles and Space (M&S)
    6. Soldier lethality
      1. Soldier Lethality—(Fort Moore, Georgia) Lead: BG Larry Q. Burris, Jr. ... PEO Soldier
      2. Synthetic Training Environment—(Orlando, Florida) Lead: BG William Glaser ... PEO Simulation, Training, & Instrumentation (STRI)
    • Above, 'dotted line' relationship (i.e., coordination) is denoted by a ' ... '
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. Army Applications Lab: (23 October 2018) Army Futures Command Wants YOU (To Innovate)
    • —Adam Jay Harrison's list for types of Funding Authority
  3. ^ As an example, any number of effects can be weaponized (see p.1 The New York Times 2 September 2018 "Invisible strikes may be cause of envoy's ills", describing the Microwave auditory effect), or else countered. Hypersonic vehicles are a countermeasure to ballistic missiles.


  1. ^ a b c Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (6 December 2018) Futures Command reveals new insignia as it 'forges' ahead last accessed 3 February 2019
  2. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (27 August 2018) Establishment of Army Futures Command marks a culture shift
  3. ^ "About - U.S. Army Futures Command". U.S. Army. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  4. ^ Army Futures Command Meet Our Leadership Archived 20 November 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b c Army Futures Command: Meet Our Leadership
  6. ^ Carlson, Kara "'Modernizing is key': Austin-based Army Futures Command continues to grow, adapt". Austin-American Statesman. 11 May 2021. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  7. ^ a b MG Cedric T. Wins (09.10.2019) CCDC'S road map to modernizing the Army: air and missile defense DVIDS release
  8. ^ Phillip B. Fountain, U.S. Army Futures Command (8 October 2019) Army Futures Command to highlight modernization efforts at 2019 AUSA Archived 7 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ a b c d e Matthew Cox (14 Sep 2018) Head of Army Futures Command Fields Tough Questions From Congress
  10. ^ a b c d Gen. David G. Perkins, U.S. Army (Nov-Dec 2017) Multi-Domain Battle: The Advent of Twenty-First Century War
  11. ^ a b c d Andrew Feickert, Specialist in Military Ground Forces, Congressional Research Service (CRS) (31 May 2022) The Army's Multi-Domain Task Force (MDTF) report IF11797
  12. ^ a b Christine Wormuth (10.11.2021) AUSA 2021
  13. ^ a b c Colin Demarest (21 Oct 2022) Project Convergence shows JADC2 alignment, leaders from 3 services say Interoperations "show the services are aligned and not disjointed".
  14. ^ a b Jen Judson (29 Mar 2023) US Army has a 'gigantic problem' with logistics in the Indo-Pacific AMC is lead, AFC sets requirements
  15. ^ Gilbert F. Decker, Louis C. Wagner (co-chairs) et. al. (Jan 2011) Army Strong: Equipped, Trained and Ready Final Report of the 2010 Army Acquisition Review
  16. ^ C. Todd Lopez (25 July 2011) Army to implement 63 Decker-Wagner acquisition recommendations
  17. ^ a b Scott Maucione (19 July 2019) Army Futures Command fully operational, dinged by GAO on announcement
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (11 July 2019) "Embracing a new culture at Army Futures Command". www.army.mil. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Army Futures Command Press Conference". DVIDS. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  20. ^ a b c Devon L. Suits, Army News Service Army (26 February 2019) FY20 budget proposal realigns $30 billion
  21. ^ a b Sydney J Freedberg Jr (29 May 2019) Army Big 6 Gets $10B More Over 2021-2025
  22. ^ Michael A. Grinston, James C. McConville, and Ryan McCarthy(2019) 2019 Army Modernization Strategy revision 7, CFTs' 31 signature efforts
  23. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 September 2019) Can Army Control Costs Of Its New Weapons? Currently the Army has 692 programs of record
  24. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 March 2019) Army 'Big Six' Ramp Up in 2021: Learning From FCS
  25. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 January 2019) 12 Moments Of Truth For Army Modernization In 2019
  26. ^ a b MDO Challenge (15 May 2019) *Start here* MDO 101 General explanation of multi-domain operations (MDO) for the layman
  27. ^ a b c d TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1 (6 December 2018) The U.S. Army in Multi-Domain Operations 2028 "describes how US Army forces, as part of the Joint Force, will militarily compete, penetrate, dis-integrate, and exploit our adversaries in the future." Link moved here
  28. ^ a b "The U.S. Army Modernization Strategy". APG News. 13 June 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  29. ^ a b c d Kerensa Crum CCDC Aviation & Missile Center Public Affairs (14 August 2019) Leader updates Army's modernization priorities Standoff
  30. ^ a b c d Yasmin Tadjdeh (10/10/2018) Army to Focus on Defeating Enemies' Standoff Capabilities Summary of standoff
  31. ^ a b CRS Insight (IN11019) (17 January 2019) The U.S. Army and Multi-Domain Operations Congressional Research Service (CRS)
  32. ^ Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (14 January 2020) Army Chief Seeks 'Minimally Manned' Vehicles, Joint C2 LRPF, ITN, IBCS, FARA, FLRAA, and "We need a joint command and control system" —Army Chief of Staff James C. McConville
  33. ^ Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (2021) Army Chief To Navy, Air Force: We've Got 'Speed & Range' "The future is all about range and speed" —Gen. McConville
  34. ^ a b c d e f Chief of Staff paper #1, Headquarters, Department of the Army (16 March 2021) Army Multi-Domain Transformation: Ready to Win in Competition and Conflict Unclassified version by 40th Chief of Staff of the Army, Gen. James C. McConville
  35. ^ a b c d e Chief of Staff paper #2 (1 March 2021) The Army in Military Competition
  36. ^ Sean Kimmons In first year, Futures Command grows from 12 to 24,000 personnel, Army News Service, 19 July 2019
  37. ^ Freedberg Jr, Sydney J. (13 September 2018), Futures Command Won't Hurt Oversight, Army Tells Congress, Breakingdefense.com
  38. ^ Source: Organization, United States Army. For detail, see AR10-87
  39. ^ a b Army Commands, Army Service Component Commands, and Direct Reporting Units ARN2541_AR10-87_WEB_Final.pdf section 20-2a, p.27
  40. ^ a b c d e Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (1 April 2019) The number one priority: An interview with Gen. Mark Milley: Readiness (both current and future)
  41. ^ a b Sébastien Roblin (11 Oct. 2019) China's stealth drones and hypersonic missiles surpass—and threaten—the U.S.
  42. ^ "75th Innovation Command Page - About Us". US Army Reserve. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  43. ^ US Army (2020) AMERICA'S ARMY: READY NOW,INVESTING IN THE FUTURE FY19-21 accomplishments and investment plan
  44. ^ Andrew Smith (9 Apr 2020) Convergence within SOCOM – A Bottom-Up Approach to Multi Domain Operations
  45. ^ Todd South (17 Jun 2021) Even generals must learn new skills in tech-dominated special operations future
  46. ^ a b c d Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (26 March 2018) Army Outlines Futures Command; Org Chart In Flux
  47. ^ a b c d e Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (25 October 2017) Can The Pentagon Protect Young Innovators? Fixing the 'up or out' culture, which favors generalists
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Lt. Col. Thomas "Bull" Holland, PhD, U.S. Army (15 January 2019) Proposed Army Futures Command Process Tenets
    1. 'Scientific research is a fundamentally different activity than technology development';
    2. Incorporate 'scientific research into "Appendix C: Functional Concepts" and specify pathways for technology development';
    3. Buy into the 'fail fast' mentality;
    4. '6.3-funded projects to produce knowledge (technical data) that can be consumed by requirements developers as opposed to PMs';
    5. Use 'evidence-based requirements process' (early hypothesis testing) with citations for evidence:
      • All projects will be executed in no less than two increments.
      • No new requirements once an increment is started.
    6. Summary: 'advances on the battlefield requires comprehensive, coordinated changes in the entire acquisition system';
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k The RAND Corporation (2000) Discovery and Innovation: Federal Research and Development in the Fifty States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico RAND MR1194 Appendix B: Government-Wide and DOD Definitions of R&D Archived 6 March 2021 at the Wayback Machine See Appendix B p.615 for DOD Financial Management Regulation (Volume 2B, Chapter 5)
  50. ^ Neil Hollenbeck and Benjamin Jensen (6 December 2017) Why the Army needs a Futures Command Enable a culture of experimentation, and develop concepts and technology together.
  51. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 Sep 2018) Futures Command Won't Hurt Oversight, Army Tells Congress
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m ASA(ALT) Weapon Systems Handbook 2018 update
  53. ^ a b c d e f g Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (3 April 2019) Army 'Shark Tank' enabling quick prototyping of new systems
  54. ^ a b Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (18 July 2019) Futures Command showcases efforts ahead of upcoming FOC
  55. ^ Jen Judson (23 Mar 2022) Multidomain operations concept will become doctrine this summer
  56. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (7 May 2018) Permanent Evolution: SecArmy Esper On Futures Command
  57. ^ a b c d JP-1 Archived 26 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine p.xxi has the definition of operational control (OPCON). Note that "command authority may not be delegated" (COCOM being command authority). p.xxii has the definition of administrative control (ADCON): one application being coordinating authority.
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h Army R&D Chief: 'I Don't Think We Went Far Enough'—But Futures Command Can
  59. ^ a b Scott Maucione (14 Sep 2018) Army leaders ask for trust in lieu of metrics for Futures Command
  60. ^ a b c d US Army (6 Oct 2017) Army Directive 2017-24 (Cross-Functional Team Pilot In Support of Materiel Development)
  61. ^ a b c d Headquarters, Department of the Army (29 Jun 2021) Army Regulation 71–9 Force Management. Warfighting Capabilities Determination °1-6c, p.1) tasks for CG,AFC; °2-24 p.13) CG,AFC is a principal member of AROC, with 43 duties a through qq; °3-1 ch.3 pp20-21) AROC is a forum for requirements decisions (RDF); °4-1 p.24) CG,AFC is responsible for force design; °6-4 p39) figure 6-1 Deliberate staffing and review process; figures for more staffing and review processes follow.
  62. ^ Research, Development, and Acquisition AR 71–9 (2009) Warfighting Capabilities Determination Aug 15, 2019 update
  63. ^ a b HQDA (3 May 2022) Army Directive 2022-07 (Army Modernization Roles and Responsibilities) AD2022-07 is 6 pages
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      1. Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing
      2. Tactical Space: SDA is structuring a multi-layer satellite system:
        1. Backbone layer for data transport downward to the long-range precision fires
        2. Custody layer for missiles' trajectories, whether friendly or threat
        3. Tracking layer for hypersonic glide vehicles which represent threats to the multi-layer satellite system
        4. Space situational awareness for cis-lunar trajectories,
      3. NavWar
  82. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 August 2020) Army Tests New All Domain Kill Chain: From Space To AI
    1. Initially, satellites feed data to TITAN.
    2. Prometheus, which is AI software, combs through the data for potential threats and targets.
    3. SHOT, which is also software, tracks each target on a custody list, correlating each target's current location, signature, and threat assessment, with a list of candidate fires countermeasures, ranked by capability, range to the target, kill radius, etc. "SHOT then computes the optimal match of weapons to targets", and passes the list to AFATDS.
    4. Human commanders choose whether to fire, or not, from the list of fires assets (Nelson notes that ERCA and Grey Eagle drones are to be added to the list of fires assets—currently M777 howitzers and MLRS 270 rocket launchers in the upcoming tests, August 2020).
    5. satellites perform Battle damage assessment, to update the list of threats and targets.
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      1. Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing
      2. Tactical Space: SDA is structuring a multi-layer satellite system:
        1. Backbone layer for data transport downward to the long-range precision fires
        2. Custody layer for missiles' trajectories, whether friendly or threat
        3. Tracking layer for hypersonic glide vehicles which represent threats to the multi-layer satellite system
        4. Space situational awareness for cis-lunar trajectories,
      3. NavWar
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    • RFI posted on the Federal Business Opportunities, 4 April
    • Contract award: fourth quarter of FY21
    • preliminary design review (PDR) second quarter of FY23
    • first flight in the third quarter of FY24
    • critical design review (CDR) in the fourth quarter of FY24
    • fielding to first unit in second quarter of FY30
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  236. ^ a b Andrew Eversden (24 Aug 2022) Army's robotic vehicle slipped behind 'enemy' lines in European exercise
  237. ^ a b Spc. Garrison Waites (12 Jun 2022) Soldiers get hands-on experience with new tech during Combined Resolve Using RCVs with Javelins and CROWS
  238. ^ a b Andrew Eversden (21 Oct 2022) 'Lightning in a bottle': Inside the 'Origin' of the Army's future robotic fleet
  239. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 Mar 2021) Army Outlines Ambitious Schedule For Robots, Armor
  240. ^ Andrew Eversden (22 Nov 2021) Robotic vehicles, drones coordinate recon at Army's Project Convergence 21
  241. ^ Defense One staff (9 Sep 2022) The Army's top officer discusses the future of the force and how the six-month-old Ukraine invasion is evolving. LTG Scott McKean
  242. ^ Army Futures Command (19 Sep 2022) Project Convergence 2022 to demonstrate futuristic joint, multinational warfighting technologies inaugural PC22 Technology Gateway
  243. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (21 Sep 2022) Army to test robotic vehicles on land and sea during PC 22 AFC's McKean: JADC2 experiment to reach from continental US to Pacific: 1) establish an IAMD; 2) use Joint offensive fires; 3) examine which authorities and policies hinder the mission
  244. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (14 Nov 2022) Can the Army's robotics programs build AI the Silicon Valley way? RCV navigation: "DIU has brokered a potentially groundbreaking contract between the Army's Robotic Combat Vehicle program and a small California firm that trains AI algorithms to navigate off-road".
  245. ^ Max Boot (28 May 2023) Opinion: An Army command like no other seeks to master the future of war
  246. ^ Colin Clark (13 Jul 2021) SecDef Austin Commits US To ‘Responsible AI’ 28th SecDef
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  251. ^ Ashley Roque (22 Aug 2022) US Army picks AeroVironment's Jump 20 for FTUAS Increment 1
  252. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 Feb 2023) 'Unmanned' drones take too many humans to operate, says top Army aviator
  253. ^ Jaspreet Gill (14 Jan 2022) Army 'well on its way' to first OCONUS cloud in Indo-Pacific
  254. ^ a b Alternative PNT & Area Protection DAPS
  255. ^ Andrew Eversden (Feb. 2, 2022 at 12:09 PM ET update) Here's the Army's 24 programs in soldiers' hands by 2023 Updated by AFC
  256. ^ MDAA (24 Jul 2020) Lower Tier Air and Missile Defense Sensor (LTAMDS)
  257. ^ a b Jen Judson (13 Jan 2022) Army readies to deliver first set of Strykers with 50-kilowatt laser weapons
  258. ^ a b Jaspreet Gill (27 Feb 2023) Maxar plans geospatial data, multi-source collection for Army's One World Terrain
  259. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 May 2020) Army Braces For Post-COVID Cuts: Gen. Murray 34 Signature Programs: 31 in Futures Command, 3 in RCCTO
  261. ^ a b Steve Trimble (24 July 2020) U.S. Army Upgrades Vision For Future Vertical Lift Programs
  262. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 April 2020) Army Revamps OMFV Bradley Replacement For Russian Front OMFV digital designs by 2023, prototypes by 2025, operational by 2028
  263. ^ Jason Cutshaw (5 Dec 2022) Experiment demos Army space capabilities to test 300 technologies
  264. ^ Megan Eckstein and Colin Demarest (8 Dec 2022) Project Overmatch: US Navy preps to deploy secretive multidomain tech
  265. ^ Jen Judson (7 Feb 2023) Army sets sights on 2024 for next Project Convergence
  266. ^ Ashley Roque (8 Feb 2023) No Convergence in 2023: Army deliberating the path ahead for signature JADC2 exercise
  267. ^ Ms. Karen Diane Kurtz (ASA (ALT)) and Steven Y. Lusher (JPEO CBRND PAO) (8 October 2018) ASA(ALT) Participates in U.S. Army Futures Command Panel at AUSA
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  272. ^ a b c d e (24 October 2019) Army Pushes 600 Programs From Acquisition To Sustainment
  273. ^ USArmy tweet: Futures Command will have the overarching objective to achieve clear overmatch in future conflicts, making Soldiers and units more lethal to win the nation's wars, then return home safely.
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  277. ^ A sample career path here: Aviation Engineering director to SES
  278. ^ (1 Aug 2018) Military (Officer) Corner: Army Acquisition Centralized Selection List
  279. ^ (29 Apr 2015) Army Acquisition Corps Recognized
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  283. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 June 2019) Army Fields Anti-Jam GPS In Germany This Fall
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  287. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (19 March 2019) Army Sets 2023 Hypersonic Flight Test; Strategic Cannon Advances
  288. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (2 Oct 2020) Army Tripled OTA Prototyping To $4.8B In Just 3 Years: GAO
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  293. ^ U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (4 February 2019) CCDC Research Laboratory
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  295. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin (17 October 2018) RDECOM at the forefront of creating a more modern, lethal Army
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  320. ^ "Maneuver CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)". Archived from the original on 5 September 2018. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
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  326. ^ a b Army Multi-Domain Targeting Center (16 July 2019) Target Mensuration Only TMO
  327. ^ a b Maj. Anthony Clas, 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division Public Affairs: (SEPTEMBER 4, 2019) Target Mensuration course: Bulldog Brigade trains target acquisition with precision Target Mensuration Only (TMO) Including TMO in a unit training plan
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  329. ^ Karen Flowers, Fort Sill Tribune (4 September 2020) Air defense Army Capability Manager gets new director
  330. ^ Intelligence CoE - no information on its CDID
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  336. ^ a b Suits, Devon L. (22 August 2019), Army showcases new electronic warfare tech, Army News Service
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  338. ^ Dan Lafontaine, C5ISR Center Public Affairs (19 November 2019) C5ISR Center hosts CCDC commander for town hall, lab tours "a renewed emphasis on collaboration across CCDC's eight research centers"
  339. ^ Andrew Eversden (25 Oct 2021) Army Seeks 'Cutting Edge' Network-Aided PNT Technologies For Battle
  340. ^ Theresa Hitchens (1 Nov 2021) Sandia's Atomic 'Avocado' Could Allow GPS-Free PNT
  341. ^ Tobias Naegele (27 Nov 2022) Q&A: The New Chief of Space Operations on Empowering the Force "one B-2 hits 80 independent targets because of GPS".—Gen. B.Chance Saltzman, Space Force
  342. ^ RCCTO is located in Huntsville (26 August 2019): RCCTO- About us
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  344. ^ Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (25 February 2019) Army-funded researcher wins Nobel Prize
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  349. ^ Dan Lamothe Washington Post (2018-07-12) Army to unveil details about new Futures Command in biggest reorganization in 45 years
  350. ^ Thomas E. Ricks (MARCH 2, 2015)Why hasn't the Army's regular acquisition process produced anything in decades? --Future of War conference.
  351. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard Army.mil (6 September 2018) Safer, smarter, faster: An interview with Gen. James McConville
  352. ^ "US edge has eroded to a dangerous degree"
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  354. ^ AUSA 2018 CMF #1: Army Futures Command Unifies Force Modernization DVIDS video of panelists Gen. Murray, Sec. McCarthy, Dr. Jette, and Trae Stephens
  355. ^ Trae Stephens (6 Jun 2022) Rebooting the arsenal of democracy 4 principles for the new defense companies
  356. ^ a b c Federal News Radio Army has picked a location for its new Futures Command, but now comes the hard part
  357. ^ Association of the United States Army (AUSA): Scott R. Gourley (Friday, 13 January 2017) CLOSING THE CAPABILITIES GAP: SEVEN THINGS THE ARMY NEEDS FOR A WINNING FUTURE
  358. ^ a b c United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) Report: GAO-17-457 (Jun 2017) ARMY CONTRACTING Leadership Lacks Information Needed to Evaluate and Improve Operations
  359. ^ Bruce Jette, Building the Army of the future
  360. ^ Hannah Wiley (6 April 2018) Program cuts likely under Army secretary's new Futures Command
  361. ^ Jen Judson (17 July 2018) US Army asks Congress to shift millions in FY18 dollars. What's behind the request?
  362. ^ a b David Vergun (5 September 2018) Richardson confirmed as Futures Command deputy commander
  363. ^ a b Andrew Eversden (11 Mar 2022) Congress puts $349M for IVAS 'on hold,' but Army sees major boost to counter drones FLRAA, JLTVs, and Strykers got an increase, as well as the 6 modernization priorities.
  364. ^ a b c Niamh Cavanagh (3 Sep 2022) U.S. Army approves order for thousands of Microsoft combat goggles Total value is expected to be $21.9 billion over the next 10 years.
  365. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (28 March 2018) CHIPS Articles: Army Secretary defines goals for coming decade—modernization, Futures Command
  366. ^ Jeff Martin (15 October 2018) How did the Army find $25 billion for new equipment? video
  367. ^ Daniel Gouré (18 October 2018) Can Trump Rebuild The Military As Deficits Balloon?
  368. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 October 2018) Joint Experiments Will Pick Budget Winners & Losers: Dunford Task is to cut $33 Billion from 2020 budget
  369. ^ Youtube Youtube: What will $716 Billion Buy You? US Defense Budget 2019 Weapons
  370. ^ Michael J. Meese (23 Dec 2016) Chapter 4 : The American Defense Budget 2017–2020 Note Fed chart 1970-2026
  371. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (26 October 2018) Trump Orders DoD To Take Surprise $33B Budget Cut 2020 DoD budget cut from $733 billion to $700 billion
  372. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (14 November 2018) The Pentagon's First-Ever Audit: A Big Disappointment?
  373. ^ Wesley Morgan (9 December 2018) Trump reverses course, tells Pentagon to boost budget request to $750 billion
  374. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (23 July 2019) Esper Confirmed As SecDef; Budget Deal Leaves DoD Spending Flat Next Year
  375. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 January 2020) Army To Navy: Hey, We Already Get Less $$ Than You Army: 26.6%; Navy: 28.7%; Air Force: 28.5%; Other: 16.3%
  376. ^ United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) (September 2018) DEFENSE MANAGEMENT. DOD Needs to Address Inefficiencies and Implement Reform across Its Defense Agencies and DOD Field Activities
  377. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (19 February 2020) Army leaders save $1.2 billion to fund modernization push After a set of 'Night court' cuts
  378. ^ Mark Cancian (15 May 2020) Huge Deficit = Defense Budget Cuts? Maybe Not A 5% cut would be $35 billion across DoD in 2021; FY2021 defense budget will likely be passed during a time of free-spending in Congress.
  379. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (9 June 2020) Army Study Asks: How Much Modernization Can We Afford?
  380. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 June 2020) Army Ponders What To Cut If Budget Drops: Gen. Murray
  381. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (4 Dec 2020) NDAA: Conference Cuts New Army Tech, Pluses Up Old Cuts in IVAS, OMFV, AMPV, IFPC. Increases in Stryker, Lasers, UASs. Top 6 modernization prorities are unscathed.
  382. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (24 October 2019) Sec. Army Interview: 'We Have To Get This Budget Deal'
  383. ^ (22 November 2019) SecArmy looks toward FY21 budget as continuing resolution impacts priorities CR avoids shutdown until 20 December 2019.
  384. ^ a b c Todd South, Military Times (8 May 2019) 4 things the general in charge of the Army's newest command says are needed to win the wars of the future
  385. ^ Amy McCullough (7 Feb. 2020) What to Look for in the 2021 Budget Request
  386. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 February 2020) Army Boosts Big Six 26%, But Trims Bradley Replacement FY2021 budget request
  387. ^ a b FY2021 budget request: Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (13 February 2020) Army budget request eyes $2B boost for modernization
    • $10.6 billion for modernization in 2021 request, up from $8.5 billion in 2020
      • LRPF: $1700 million
      • FVL: $514 million
      • OMFV: $328 million
      • MPF: $135 million
      • LTAMDS: $376 million
      • IFPC $236 million
  388. ^ Mark Cancian and Adam Saxton (14 February 2020) 2021 Budget Spells The End of US Force Expansion Reduced topline $740.5 billion; Army remains at 31 BCTs, 5 SFABs, and 11 CABs.
  389. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 March 2019) Army Bets Big On Service Contracts To Fix Aging IT
  390. ^ Maj. Gen. Randy S. Taylor, CECOM (8 July 2019) Sustaining data delivery on the future Army network Halt, fix pivot (WIN-T)| ITN: Integrated Tactical Network | IEN: Integrated Enterprise Network
  391. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (7 February 2020) Vice chief of staff: Speed of modernization no longer at 'glacial pace'
  392. ^ Joyce M. Conant, ARL Public Affairs (19 Feb 2016) ARL West hires its first employee, meet Dr. Benjamin T. Files
  393. ^ The DOT&E Mission
  394. ^ Shelby Oakley (26 June 2019) GAO Defends Annual Weapons Review: Let's Look at All the Facts GAO reply
  395. ^ DAU.mil DoDI 5000.02: Defense Acquisition Life Cycle Compliance Baseline (Pre‐Tailoring) Archived 5 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  396. ^ DoD org chart
  397. ^ Dennis Via, CG AMC (6 April 2016) AMC announces Mission Command alignment
  398. ^ AMRDEC (10 April 2018) AMRDEC Industry days Archived 29 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  399. ^ Ms. Andricka Thomas (CECOM) (23 December 2009) About CECOM LCMC
  400. ^ Megan Paice (26 July 2018) From RDECOM to CECOM
  401. ^ amc.army.mil [https:[dead link]//www.amc.army.mil/Portals/9/Documents/Fact%20Sheets/HQ%20TACOM%20Fact%20Sheet%20AO%20June%202016.pdf?ver=2017-07-12-105832-173 (June 2016) U.S. ARMY TACOM LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT COMMAND (TACOM)]
  402. ^ Ed Worley (2 November 2018) ACC celebrates 10 years of enabling readiness, modernization Contracting officers are embedded with every CFT
  403. ^ Kern Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC) 2004
  404. ^ Ed Worley (1 October 2018) Two contracting centers achieve full operational capability
  405. ^ Jon Harper (3 April 2020) COVID-19 NEWS: Army Trying to Mitigate Disruptions for Top Modernization Programs
  406. ^ Mission Command Center of Excellence (MCCoE)
  407. ^ a b c d Connie Lee (3/26/2019) NEWS FROM AUSA GLOBAL: Army Fleshing Out Updated Modernization Strategy
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  409. ^ Sydney Freeberg (6 September 2018) 'A Little Bit Disruptive': Murray & McCarthy On Army Futures Command
  410. ^ Acqnote AcqNotes (17 Jan 2017) Other Transaction Authority (OTA) Guide – 17 Jan 2017
  411. ^ Paul McCleary (31 December 2018) Amidst Turmoil, Pentagon Persists On Acquisition Reform: Ellen Lord
  412. ^ Mr. Kinsey Kiriakos (ASA (ALT)) (20 November 2019) Army Acquisition Leaders Must "Speak Truth To Power" MTA and OTA
  413. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (27 Feb 2023) Rapid updates, flexible authorities key for modern combat, says Army acquisition chief Use DOD Instruction 5000.87 for Software Pathway (SWP) acquisition process, under middle tier acquisition authority.
  414. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2018) Army in final stages of hashing out Stryker lethality requirements at an AROC council in January 2019
  415. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 December 2018) Army Bradley Brigade Will Get Israeli Anti-Missile System: Iron Fist
  416. ^ Lt. Gen. John M. Murray, deputy chief of staff, G-8 (8 September 2016) Modernization vital to joint force success
  417. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 August 2018) Can Army Futures Command Overcome Decades Of Dysfunction?
  418. ^ HQ Dept of the Army (22 July 2011) Army Acquisition Policy Archived 22 April 2021 at the Wayback Machine Army Regulation 70–1
  419. ^ Devon L. Suits (19 September 2018) New G-8 embraces streamlining tech acquisition
  420. ^ Jen Judson (26 March 2018) The next Army program executive office will be the Rapid Capabilities Office
  421. ^ Jen Judson (7 Oct 2018) Army Rapid Capabilities Office realigned to focus on top modernization priorities
  422. ^ RCCTO (2019) About Us
  423. ^ RCO RCCTO (2019) Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office
  424. ^ Jon Harper (7/17/2019) BREAKING: Army Futures Command to Reach Full Operational Capability by End of Month
  425. ^ a b c d Freedberg Jr., Sydney J. (6 March 2020), "New Army Cannon Doubles Range; Ramjet Ammo May Be Next", Breaking Defense
  426. ^ Joe Lacdan (19 September 2019) G-8: Army operations in the Pacific crucial to future battlefield success Follow-up on Modernization Reviews is forthcoming, on a regular basis.
  427. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 September 2019) Congress' Budget Gridlock Threatens Army Hypersonics G8 is posing a heuristic to get beyond delay in NDAA (national defense authorization act) for 2020 (get Army funding by calendar year-end)
  428. ^ Follow-up FY2021 Budget Request: Thomas Brading, Army News Service (5 March 2020) Hypersonic tests, modernization top Army budget request for funding of the top 6 modernization priorities; progress on the spend plan for tests of the prototypes vs actual spending
  429. ^ Jason B. Cutshaw, USASMDC/ARSTRAT Public Affairs (30 January 2018) SMDC leader addresses national missile defense community
  430. ^ a b Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS) (28 Jan 2018) Distributed Defense: New Operational Concepts for Integrated Air and Missile Defense 2:40:56 James H. Dickinson SMDC
  431. ^ Army Futures Command "Long Range Precision Fires CFT". Army Futures Command. U.S. Army. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  432. ^ Maureena Thompson, Army Futures Command (1 June 2022) Army programs promote strength, agility of Long Range Precision Fires
  433. ^ Jen Judson (23 May 2022) US Army terminates Strategic Long-Range Cannon science and technology effort
  434. ^ a b c d e Andrew Feickert, Specialist in Military Ground Forces, Congressional Research Service. (updated 23 May 2022) The U.S. Army's Long-Range Hypersonic Weapon (LRHW) Report IF11991, with references to related reports
  435. ^ Frank Wolfe (27 Feb 2023) U.S. Army to Field First Long Range Hypersonic Weapon Battery This Fall, Wormuth Says
  436. ^ a b Emre Kelly, Florida Today (6 Mar 2023) Department of Defense scrubs hypersonic missile test at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station
  437. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 November 2020) Army Picks Tomahawk & SM-6 For Mid-Range Missiles Tomahawk (missile) and SM-6 (RIM-174 Standard ERAM)
  438. ^ Feickert, Andrew (16 March 2021). "U.S. Army Long-Range Precision Fires: Background and Issues for Congress". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  439. ^ Emma Helfrich (6 Dec 2022) First Land-Based Tomahawk And SM-6 Launcher Delivered To Army RCCTO
  440. ^ a b Dan Gouré (2 Dec 2020) Army's Newest Long-Range Fires System Isn't New, But It Will Be Effective
  441. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens "ABMS Demo Proves AI Chops For C2", breakingdefense.com, 3 September 2020
  442. ^ Tim Lister and Oren Liebermann, CNN (14 Jul 2022) Ukraine's new US rockets are causing fresh problems for Russia
  443. ^ a b c d Todd South (20 Aug 2020) Army missile defenders defeat cruise and ballistic missiles nearly simultaneously The test created terabytes of data to be queried.
  444. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (22 Mar 2021) Army Missiles, Missile Defense Race Budget Crunch To 2023
  445. ^ a b Caitlin O'Neill, APNT CFT Public Affairs (23 August 2019) APNT CFT Hosts First Annual Assessment Exercise
  446. ^ a b c Todd South (11 Mar 2020) The Army is 'making artillery great again' Press conference.
  447. ^ Ben Wolfgang (22 Dec 2020) Army's long-range cannon hits target 43 miles away
  448. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 December 2019) Direct Hit: Army Test-Fires Lockheed Precision Strike Missile EXCLUSIVE
  449. ^ Todd South (20 Sep 2022) Army missile teams will add robots and multi-payload rockets —Hunter Blackwell, CCDC Aviation and Missile Center (AvMC)
  450. ^ US Army AvMC (16 Jun 2021) Video: Autonomous missile launcher destroys enemy threats AvMC concept video —autonomous multi-domain launcher (AML): Jen Judson (16 Jun 2021) US Army fires autonomous launcher in Pacific-focused demo AML demo at Fort Sill utilized a HIMARS launcher and the AML
  451. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 Mar 2021) Joint World Warms Up To Army Long-Range Missiles Capabilities of MDTF
  452. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 May 2021) Army Discloses Hypersonic LRHW Range Of 1,725 Miles; Watch Out China
  454. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (13 September 2018) Cross-functional teams already producing results, says Futures Command general, House Armed Services Sub-committee hearing, 13 September 2018
  455. ^ a b Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (20 September 2018) Army doubles cannon range in prototype demo
  456. ^ Defense updates (14 Dec 2018) EXTENDED RANGE CANNON ARTILLERY OF U S ARMY- FULL ANALYSIS 5:00 clip. XM1113 shell and XM657 propellant on XM907
  457. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (21 Oct 2020) LRPF: Army Missiles, Cannon Face Big Tests In '21
  458. ^ US Army (27 May 2020) Excalibur Round Precision Hit From 65 kilometers at U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground
  459. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (8 May 2019) Army demonstrates extended ranges for precision munitions
  460. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (16 Apr 2021) ERCA: Army Contracts To Help New Cannon 'Fire Faster'
  461. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 January 2020) Artillery Seeks Robot Ammo Haulers Field Artillery Autonomous Resupply
  462. ^ Paul McLeary (19 July 2019) Army Readies Long-Range Missile Tests—Post INF
  463. ^ a b David Sanger and Edward Wong The New York Times (2 August 2019) US ends cold war missile treaty, to counter arms buildup by China. p.A7
  464. ^ Paul McCleary (12 Dec 2019) US Busts INF Wall With Ballistic Missile, Puts Putin & Xi On Notice
  467. ^ Jen Judson (25 Mar 2020) Raytheon exits precision strike missile competition
  468. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 Mar 2020) PRSM: Lockheed Long-Range Missile Passes Short-Range Stress Test 3 layers of LRPF are scheduled to enter service in limited numbers in 2023; also explains its relationship to Future vertical lift (FVL) and Mobile & expeditionary network
  469. ^ Andrew Eversden (1 October 2021) Lockheed Martin's Precision Strike Missile Enters Next Phase with Army
  470. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (30 Apr 2020) Army: Lockheed PrSM Missile Aces Third Flight Test
    • 2023 goal is to deliver 30 PrSMs with 500 km range
    • 2025 goal is to use multi-mode seekers against moving targets
    • Use open architecture to allow multiple vendors to offer upgrades
    • Provide extended range (beyond 650-700 km) within the existing HIMARS MLRS form factor
  471. ^ Andrew Eversden (3 May 2027) The Army could get its next-gen Precision Strike Missiles in FY27
  472. ^ Ashley Rocque (20 Apr 2023) Here are 3 future missiles INDOPACOM says it needs to challenge China
  473. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (08 September 2020) Army Seeks New Mid-Range Missile Prototype By 2023 1000 mile missile needed.
  474. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 October 2020) Army Asks Hill For New Mid-Range Missile $$$ ASAP: Thurgood Fund the Mid-Range Capability (MRC) with 2020 Above Threshold Reprogramming (ATR).
  475. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 October 2020) China, Russia Threats To Drive What Army Keeps & Cuts: Gen. Murray TRAC needs to produce its reports in 3 months or faster.
  476. ^ Loren Thompson (12 Apr 2021) Air Power Advocates Are Attacking Army Long-Range Strike Plans. Here's Why They're Wrong.
  477. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 October 2020) DARPA's Hypersonic OpFires Aims For Army 1,000-Mile Missile
  478. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 November 2018) Beyond INF: Countering Russia, Countering China (Analysis)
  479. ^ a b Mike Stone (13 Jul 2022) U.S. successfully tests pair of Lockheed hypersonic missiles
  480. ^ John Vandiver (18 Jul 2022) DARPA scores success with hypersonic missile launch from Marine Corps truck
  481. ^ a b c Ryan Pickrell (5 June 2019) The US Army says it will have hypersonic missiles and laser weapons ready for combat in less than 4 years
  482. ^ Bill Greenwalt (13 Dec 2021) New defense budget commission could be last hope for fixing DoD spending.
  483. ^ Corey Dickstein (3 March 2020) Army to fire two hypersonic test shots this year, McCarthy says
  484. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (RCCTO) (12 February 2020) Virtual Reality helps Soldiers shape Army hypersonic weapon prototype LRHW
  485. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 January 2018) $86,000 + 5,600 MPH = Hyper Velocity Missile Defense
  486. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 September 2020) Target Gone In 20 Seconds: Army Sensor-Shooter Test
  487. ^ Matthew Cox (5 Aug 2020) Army to Speed Up Testing of Planned Hypersonic Missile
  488. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (16 February 2021) Speeding ahead: Hypersonics team stays on track to deliver despite pandemic
  489. ^ Theresa Hitchens "'Confident' Of 2023 Fielding Goal, Army Dubs Hypersonic Weapon 'Dark Eagle'", breakingdefense.com, 11 August 2021
  490. ^ a b c Andrew Eversden (15 Oct 2021) First Live Hypersonic Missile Rounds To Be Delivered to Army Unit Next Year
  491. ^ Patrick Tucker (21 Oct 2022) The Military's Network Warfare Experiment Scaled Up This Year
  492. ^ 1st Lt. Richard Parlato (30 March 2023) 1st Multi-Domain Task Force Deploys the Army’s First Long-Range Hypersonic Weapon System
  493. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 Apr 2021) Faster, Tougher, Smarter: Army's Future Armored Force EXCLUSIVE AMPV, OMFV, MBT, RCV
  494. ^ GVSC Public Affairs (7 October 2019) Virtual experiments helping shape Next-Generation Combat Vehicle
  495. ^ Defense & Aerospace Report (12 Oct 2016) US Army Ground Combat Systems Chief on Armored Vehicle Programs
  496. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 Feb 2021) Army Tests New Active Protection For Abrams, Bradley, AMPV & Stryker
  497. ^ Defense & Aerospace Report (11 Oct 2017) US Army's Bassett on Trophy Active Protection Decision, AMPV, Future Vehicle Tech
  498. ^ Marty Beckerman (17 October 2018) A serious participation Trophy
  499. ^ Spc. Carlos Cuebas Fantauzzi, 22nd Mobile Public Affairs Detachment (11 September 2020) Next Generation Combat Vehicle Cross-Functional Team converges efforts during Project Convergence 20 Shortened time developing Common operating picture to 30 seconds
  500. ^ Sgt. 1st Class Will Reinier (10 September 2020) Campaign of learning: U.S. Army, AFC introduce Project Convergence
  501. ^ Army Futures Command (Monday, 14 September 2020) Project Convergence
  502. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (16 September 2020) A Slew To A Kill: Project Convergence
  503. ^ Matthew Cox (20 Sep 2020) Army's New Target Tracking System Aims to Quicken Artillery Kills "artificial intelligence to improve human decision-making; autonomy; and robotics"
  504. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (24 September 2020) Marine F-35s Share Targeting Data With Army: Project Convergence
  505. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 September 2020) Pushing Data 'From Space To Mud': Project Convergence
  506. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 Sep 2020) 'Improvised Mode': The Army Network Evolves In Project Convergence used a mesh network—50th Expeditionary Signal Battalion—Enhanced (ESB-E) was able to improvise a MEO satellite link in June 2020, to complete the link from JBLM to YPG
  507. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 Dec 2019) Army Revs Up High-Tech Tank Engine
  508. ^ Jen Judson (9 October 2018) US Army triggers start of possible ground mobility vehicle competition after long delay
  509. ^ Program Executive Office for Combat Support & Combat Service Support (21 June 2019) Army approves JLTV Full-Rate Production
  510. ^ Jonathan Koester, Joint Modernization Command http:[dead link]//fortblissbugle.com/2019/09/10/newest-army-vehicle-arrives-on-fort-bliss/ (10 September 2019) Newest Army vehicle arrives on Fort Bliss.
  511. ^ Yasmin Tajdeh (5 Oct 2021) Army Investing in Hybrid Power Microgrids Electrification microgrid and network standards: TMS, HPS
  512. ^ Jaspreet Gill (18 Oct 2022) As Army begins electrification push, C5ISR office aims to smooth bumps in the road $6.8 billion for Army's climate strategy, including tactical microgrids.
  513. ^ Matthew Cox (22 April 2020) Army Officials Working on Proposal That Could Lead to Electric JLTVs
  514. ^ a b Jen Judson (17 Mar 2020) US Army ventures down path to electrify the brigade
  515. ^ Loren Thompson (29 Jan 2021) Turning The Joint Light Tactical Vehicle Into A Science Fair Would Be Dangerous For Warfighters
  516. ^ Andrew Eversden (25 Jan 2022) Oshkosh Defense announces first hybrid electric JLTV
  517. ^ a b Matthew Cox (22 Sep 2020) Army Takes First Step Toward Equipping Tactical, Combat Vehicles with Electric Engines
  518. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (22 April 2021) Electric Battlefield: Army Awards $600K For R&D
  519. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 October 2020) Army Seeks Electric Scout By 2025 ELRV to complement Infantry Squad Vehicle (ISV), hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-powered mobile charging sites for these expeditionary vehicles.
  520. ^ Jeff Martin (2019/10/22) Video: 30mm cannons and a new network: Here's what the Stryker brigade of the future will look like Video interview, Col. William Venable
  521. ^ Andrew Eversden (16 Jun 2022) Autonomy on a Stryker? 'It'll be challenging,' general says
  522. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (4 May 2021) GM Defense: New President, New Factory, New Electric Truck
  523. ^ Jen Judson (21 May 2021) Army wraps up industry demo for future electric light recon vehicle eLRV: A possible future prototyping program
  524. ^ Battle Order (1 Jul 2022) How America's NEW Light Tank Units Will Work 7:39
  525. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2018) Decision coming soon on who will build prototypes for a new Army light tank
  526. ^ Battle Order (July 2022) Explaining the MPF Light Tank's Future Role (U.S. Army)
  527. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 December 2018) Army Picks BAE, GD For MPF Light Tank Prototypes: Upstart SAIC Is Out
  528. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (27 June 2019) 82nd Airborne infantry Soldiers to test light tank next year
  529. ^ Jen Judson (28 Jun 2022) US Army unveils contract to build new light tank for infantry forces General Dynamics Land Systems
  530. ^ Andrew Feickert, Congressional Research Service (5 Jan 2023) The Army's Mobile Protected Firepower (MPF) System CRS report IF11859 105mm
  531. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 February 2020) Army Reboots OMFV, 2026 Deadline Dropped OMFV project starts over again; drops requirement that 2 fit on a C-17 as premature, does not insist on 2026 deadline; approach is less top-down
  532. ^ Andrew Feickert, CRS Report for Congress, R45519 (10/10/2019) Army's Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle (OMFV) Program: Background and Issues for Congress --Updated 10 October 2019 abstract. Details in pdf
  533. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 April 2021) OMFV: Korea's Hanwha Is Officially In Partner with Oshkosh
  534. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (18 Sep 2020) OMFV: Army Team Won't Compete For Bradley Replacement
  535. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 Apr 2021) OMFV: Army gets BAE, GD Designs For Bradley Replacement: BAE's press release features a shadowy silhouette of a previously unseen vehicle. Could this be BAE's proposal for the Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle?
  536. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 Apr 2021) OMFV: Why Small Biz MettleOps Has A Shot
  537. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 Apr 2021) OMFV: Army's Bradley Replacement Faces Hill, DoD Skeptics
  538. ^ Capt. Sean Minton (23 April 2022) US Army equips first unit with modernized Bradley with transition plan to OMFV. 5 Bradley brigade sets planned.
  539. ^ Andrew Eversden (29 Nov 2021) Army plans to turn on first hybrid electric Bradley in January
  540. ^ a b Army ALT Magazine, Commentary (20 March 2019) Driving the Future
  541. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 November 2019) The Army's Got A Universal Robot Driver
  542. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 Oct 2022) Lighter, hybrid, & highly automated: the Army's next-gen armor "Experimental Robotic Combat Vehicles and virtual designs for Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicles" .. "OMFV will be entirely based on open-architecture standards"
  543. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (9 October 2018) Next Generation Combat Vehicles to replace Bradley starting fiscal year 2026
  544. ^ Binkov (3 Mar 2021) Will Abrams be replaced with a new tank? And what will it be?
  545. ^ a b New Army aircraft will be durable, lethal, unmanned for modern conflicts
  546. ^ Marcus Weisgerber (5 December 2022) Army Chooses Bell V-280 to Replace Its Black Hawk Helicopters
  547. ^ Bell (2021) Bell Master Avuators Retired CWSs give their perspective: operations, maintenance, training, tactics, capability
  548. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (25 February 2020) Future Vertical Lift: Army's Aerial Vanguard LRPF will be the prime customer for the AI targeting data provided via FVL. The Joint force is also a consumer of this data, provided by FVL's manned or unmanned missions.
  549. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (11 June 2020) Future Vertical Lift pushes forward with new requirements
  550. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (3 October 2018) Army Wants Revolutionary Scout Aircraft For $30 Million, Same As Apache E FARA Solicitation
  551. ^ Eric Adams (5 July 2019) The Pirouetting S-97 Raider Makes Your Helicopter Look Lazy
  552. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. and Richard Whittle (23 October 2019) Tilting Wings, Tilting Tailprop, But Not A Tiltrotor: Karem's FARA Design
  553. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. and Richard Whittle (23 October 2019) Bell 360: Will Slower & Steadier Win The Race For FARA?
  554. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 March 2020) MOSA: The Invisible, Digital Backbone Of FVL Modular Open System Architecture
  555. ^ "DoD Modular Open Systems Architecture (MOSA)". Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  556. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 March 2019) FVL: Next Steps For UH-60 & Shadow Replacements In 'Weeks'
  557. ^ Sean Kimmons (24 October 2018) Future Vertical Lift projects to build on recent progress FVL Deliverables—1: Joint Multi-Role Technology Demonstration (JMR). 2: Analysis of alternatives (AoA). Phase II award—2020–2023
  558. ^ FLRAA, JMR-TD: Flight test
  559. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 October 2019) 4 Flights, 3 Hours, 20 Knots: Defiant Inches Ahead
  560. ^ a b Jen Judson (16 Mar 2020) Army selects companies to continue in long-range assault aircraft competition
  561. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 February 2020) We've Got Enough Data On Defiant: Sikorsky & Boeing
  562. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 February 2020) FVL: Can Army Break The Comanche Curse?
  563. ^ Jen Judson (13 Oct 2022) US Army nearly ready to make future long-range assault aircraft award
  564. ^ Jen Judson (12 Jul 2021) US Army triggers competition for future long-range assault aircraft
  565. ^ "Army Pushing Forward with Major Future Helicopter Projects". www.nationaldefensemagazine.org. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  566. ^ Andrew Eversden (8 Jul 2022) Army's FARA-destined future helicopter engine passes first test ITEP engine
  567. ^ Jen Judson (14 Jun 2021) US Army sets timeline to design new long-range weapon
  568. ^ Kris Osborn (28 Jul 2022) UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter Achieves Pilotless Flight Sikorsky, DARPA's ALIAS program "... includes the ability to operate aircraft at all times of the day or night, with and without pilots, and in a variety of difficult conditions, such as contested, congested, and degraded visual environments".— Stuart Young, DARPA
  569. ^ PEO C3T 30 May 2018
  570. ^ a b Justin Eimers, PEO C3T (3 October 2018) Network Cross-Functional Team, acquisition partners experimenting to modernize tactical network In 2018 MG Bassett became (Program Executive Office Command Control Communications-Tactical) PEO C3T)
  571. ^ a b Colin Demarest (28 Apr 2022) US Army wraps review of 'future battlespace' network tools
  572. ^ a b c d PEO C3T (2018) Integrated Tactical Network "is not a new or separate network but rather a concept"
  573. ^ a b PEO C3T Peo3ct.Army.mil (2021) Networking the Soldier ARMY NETWORK CAPABILITY SET MODERNIZATION. 18 pp
  574. ^ Walker, Gleason, and Ayer Peo3ct (7 Jul 2021) Global network super highway postures Army for multi-domain operations Global Agile Integrated Transport (GAIT) is a network design: RHN regional hub network, DoD Teleport Sites, 150 Gait points of presence (POPs)
  575. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (18 November 2019) New Army Network 'A Revolution' For Airborne: Commander ITN full brigade Network equipment: PEO slide showing connectivity from BCT command post, down to Fire Team leaders cell phones; use each soldiers' IVAS goggles to locate each paratrooper
  576. ^ a b c Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (19 November 2019) The Army's tactical network empowers advanced goggle platform IVAS is under STP 2-- "In July 2020, STP 3 will fully integrate the ITN with IVAS"
  577. ^ Jared Serbu (24 August 2018) Army experimenting with SOF-tested equipment while building long-term tactical network plan
  578. ^ U.S. Army PEO C3T (30 April 2019) Profile: Program Executive Office for Command, Control and Communications-Tactical (PEO C3T)
  579. ^ a b Mark Pomerleau (1 April 2019) How the Army will sustain its tactical network of the future ITN to take advantage of Tobyhanna depot. 5-3-1 model
  580. ^ Mark Pomerleau (21 Jan 2020) What a deployment to the Middle East means for testing a new Army network An operational deployment begun 1 Jan 2020, which won't be instrumented, will provide some Soldier feedback, but instrumented testing is deferred until after redeployment.
  581. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (25 October 2018) Interoperability a key focus in building the Army's future network
  582. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 April 2019) Multi-Domain Networks: The Army, The Allies & AI: Incremental ITN Capability sets '21, '23, '25
  583. ^ a b Claire Heininger and Amy Walker (26 Apr 2022) 'The backbone of everything we do:' Army advances new communications network baseline
  584. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (21 June 2019) New tech, accessibility to improve Army tactical networks
  585. ^ Amy Walker, PEO C3T (18 June 2019) Modernizing the Network
  586. ^ Maj. Gen. Cedric T. Wins, U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (22 July 2019) CCDC's road map to modernizing the Army: the network 4th in a series
  587. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (29 August 2019) The Fraying Edge: Limits Of The Army's Global Network
  588. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 August 2019) Uncle Sam Wants YOU To Compete For Army Network Upgrade: CS 21 Multiple Expeditionary Signal Battalion – Enhanced (ESB-E) network hardware sets are being fielded simultaneously to individual companies in the 50th Expeditionary Signal Battalion of 35th Signal Brigade/82nd Airborne Division in 2020, to allow maximum testing.
  589. ^ Amy Walker, PM Tactical Network, PEO C3T (4 December 2019) Global network design unifies Army modernization efforts GAIT: worldwide network mesh—CS21
  590. ^ Thomas Spoehr (13 November 2020) Project Convergence: Its Success Could Draw Army Astray Risks-- Opfor, Allies & Joint participation, EW jamming, PrSM launches, JADC2, Joint Forces command is a cautionary example.
  591. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (12 February 2021) Army scales up joint capabilities as Project Convergence grows
  592. ^ a b c Andrew Eversden (15 Oct 2020) US Army's tactical network team tests new unified data fabric in Yuma
  593. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 Nov 2020) Project Rainmaker: Army Weaves 'Data Fabric' To Link Joint Networks CCDC C5ISR built Project Rainmaker to weave together a data fabric which is foundational to JADC2
  594. ^ FY19 Army Programs (2018) Distributed Common Ground System – Army (DCGS-A) capability drop 1, 2018
  595. ^ Andrew Eversden (6 Oct 2021) Army Awards Palantir $823M Contract For Enterprise 'Data Fabric' DCGS-A Distributed Common Ground Systems-Army capability drop 2
  596. ^ Claire Heninger and US Army (29 Oct 2021) Bridging the gap: Army weaves data fabric at Project Convergence 21
  597. ^ Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (17 October 2018) New players bring novel approaches to the Army's network modernization goals
  598. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (8 November 2018) Cutting through the noise: Army, industry work together to speed up signal detection
  599. ^ Sydney J. FREEDBERG JR. (19 November 2018) Can Army Afford The Electronic Warfare Force It Wants?
  600. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 May 2021) Paratroopers Pioneer New Army Network, Tactics HMS Manpack and Leader radios, ITN CS '21, can use variable height antenna drones, MUOS constellation: for tactical satellite communications —Andrew Eversden (24 Sep 2021) Army Drops Nearly $350M For New Radios After Two Years of Testing
  601. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (4 May 2021) Army Network Upgrade Seeks Fast Data For JADC2
  602. ^ Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (25 January 2022)Army's integrated network rolls on with Stryker vehicles
  603. ^ Jaspreet Gil (10 Jun 2022) Army CIO: FY23 is 'year of inflection' for digital transformation CIO Raj Iyer: "Iyer said that the overall budget is 'almost flat' going from FY22 to FY23".
  604. ^ Colin Demarest (1 Apr 2022) US Army picks L3Harris and Thales for radio modernization replaces SINCGARS
  605. ^ Jaspreet Gill (2 Aug 2022) In Army, worry follows Senators' proposed cuts to network, comms upgrades: Official Cuts to CS'23 layer will affect upcoming CS'25 capability
  606. ^ Andrew Eversden (9 Jun 2021) Army says 2025 tactical network will make JADC2 a reality
  607. ^ Andrew Eversden (29 Sep 2021) New Army Pilot Program To Test Armored Brigade Mobile Communications N-CFT and PEO C3T are cooperating on CS'25, using 12 M1068 mobile command posts as test vehicles.
  608. ^ Amy Walker, Project Manager Tactical Network, PEO C3T, public affairs (20 December 2022) Future operating environment, strategic need fuel Army's network design goals CS'25, CS'27 goals for Army of 2030
  609. ^ a b Colin Demarest (16 May 2023) US Army preps for fresh mobile communications experiment
  610. ^ Brad Williams (21 Sep 2021) DoD Spending On JADC2 Jumps, With Increased Focus On Interoperability: Report a cautionary note on stovepiped systems —Billy Fabian
  611. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (11 Aug 2021) JROC's Next Target: 'Integrated Air & Missile Defense' IAMD will eventually be subject to a JROC capability review —John Hyten. JADC2 will thus have to be harmonized with IAMD.
  612. ^ a b c d e Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (5 May 2023) Keep moving or die: Army will overhaul network for rapid maneuver in big wars "The Army has nixed future 'Capability Set' upgrade packages for brigade networks in favor of smaller, more frequent updates, with the most complex technology reserved for division and corps HQs".
  613. ^ a b Andrew Eversden (23 Sep 2021) Top Army General: Network Modernization 'Never Going To Stop'
  614. ^ CIO and G-6 (8 Oct 2021) The Army Unified Network Plan: ENABLING MULTI-DOMAIN OPERATIONS
  615. ^ Ellen Summey, PEO EIS (1 July 2019) Army Leader Dashboard, creating insight-driven decisions
  616. ^ Lizette Chapman (13 December 2019) Palantir Wins New Pentagon Deal With $111 Million From the Army HR, supply chain, et al.
  617. ^ Billy Mitchell (DEC 26, 2019) Inside Palantir's support of the Army's massive data problem
  618. ^ Capt. Matthew Visser (30 Jul 2022) Reinventing Modern Deployment: Soldiers leverage Army Vantage to make data-driven decisions
  619. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (29 July 2020) Army Future Ops Depend On Cloud – But Not On JEDI
  620. ^ Kelsey Atherton (7 August 2020) Pentagon Code Library Will Support Multiple Clouds
  621. ^ U.S. Army Public Affairs U(3 June 2020) Two Army Installations selected for 5G testing and experimentation
  622. ^ Andrew Eversden (15 Dec 2021) Tactical cloud coming to Army's Multi-Domain Task Forces in 2022
  623. ^ AARON MAK (MAY 12, 2019) Report: Missile System and Surveillance Plane Funding Will Go Towards the Border Wall slate.com
  624. ^ Jason Cutshaw (SMDC/ARSTRAT) (22 March 2019) Army's senior air defender talks future of air, missile defense
  625. ^ a b c d e f Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (13 March 2019) FY20 budget to boost air & missile defense
  626. ^ Justin Katz (26 Apr 2022) Lockheed sending first five A4 radars to Army next month "Army's Q-53 counterfire target acquisition radar and the Air Force's new long-range radar" 2023 delivery
  627. ^ Jen Judson (27 Apr 2022) US Army plan to replace Patriot interceptors gets a jolt in FY23 budget request Budget request for FY2023: Abbreviated Concept Development Document (ACDD) in FY24. Down select: 2QFY2023–4QFY2025. Concept Development Document by 1QFY24. Rapid capability development phase begins 1QFY25.
  628. ^ Jen Judson (18 Jul 2022) Pentagon plan for homeland cruise missile defense taking shape
  629. ^ a b c IBCS a Revolutionary C2 System Archived 23 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine 4:40 video clip
  630. ^ Daniel Cebul "(12 October 2018) Army continues push for integrated sensors and shooters with latest IBCS contract". 2 October 2018.
  631. ^ Daniel Cebul  (9 October 2018) Army looks to a future of integrated fire by integrating THAAD IBCS LRPF
  632. ^ "Army Seeks To Field One-Size-Fits-All Battle Command System". Space News. 29 June 2004.
  633. ^ Kiley, Gregory T. (17 May 2017). "Congress and the Administration Must Reassess Failing Missile Defense Programs". RealClearDefense. Archived from the original on 21 May 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  634. ^ "Fort Sill Tribune staff (August 8, 2019) MOS 14E: Linchpin of Patriot missile system".
  635. ^ Jen Judson (11 Oct 2018) "So Patriot and THAAD will talk. What does that really mean?". 10 October 2018.
  636. ^ Theresa Hitchens (9 Nov 2022) Army's IBCS wraps up initial operational testing Northrop Grumman received a "five-year, $1.4 billion contract in late December" 2021.
  637. ^ a b Jen Judson (12 April 2023). "US Army greenlights key battle command system for full-rate production". Retrieved 12 April 2023.
  638. ^ a b U.S. Army (12 December 2019) Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense System successfully intercepts test targets
  639. ^ USAASC (2020) Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD)
  640. ^ "Army's IBCS passed F-35 sensor data to artillery system at Project Convergence 21". 20 January 2022.
  641. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. Army IBCS: Joint, Up To A Point. Breaking Defense. 15 May 2020
  642. ^ a b c Jen Judson (27 March 2019) Army debuts missile defense framework in move to counter drones, hypersonic threats
  643. ^ Tyler Rogoway. Here's What The Army's Long-Awaited Super Air Defense Network Can Actually Do. The Warzone. October 29, 2020
  644. ^ Jen Judson (6 August 2019) F-35 talks to US Army's missile command system, says Lockheed
  645. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. New Missiles Must Work With IBCS Network: Bruce Jette (Exclusive). Breaking Defense. March 09, 2020
  646. ^ a b Jen Judson (20 Aug 2020) "US Army's future missile defense command system nearly simultaneously defeats cruise, ballistic missile threats". 20 August 2020.
  647. ^ Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System (IBCS) Archived 6 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine vendor summary
  648. ^ "S-280 - the Engagement Operations Center for the Integrated Battle Command System". Northrop Grumman. 6 June 2017. Archived from the original on 14 November 2021 – via YouTube.
  649. ^ a b Jen Judson (6 February 2017)"Army falls behind with new anti-missile command system". 6 February 2017.
  650. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (1 May 2019) IBCS: Northrop Delivers New Army Missile Defense Command Post Archived 2 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine 11 EOCs as well as 18 IBCS integrated fire control network (IFCN) relays by year-end 2019
  651. ^ Jason Cutshaw, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command (7.24.2019) SMDC colonel accepts TCM SMD Assumption of Charter from AMD to SMD
  652. ^ a b c d Paul McCleary (30 August 2019) Army Tests Dispersed THAAD; Beginning Of Modular Missile Defense? A step toward IBCS
  653. ^ a b MDA.mil MDA NEWS Release (30 August 2019) THAAD System Successfully Intercepts Target in Missile Defense Flight Test Flight Test THAAD (FTT)-23 image: https://www.mda.mil/global/images/system/thaad/FTT-23_THAAD_01.jpg at Kwajalein
  654. ^ a b Sydney J Freedberg COVID-19: Army Delays Missile Defense Network Test, breakingdefense.com, 7 April 2020, The test had been scheduled to begin May 15. An ADA battalion training at WSMR has been sent home.
  655. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 July 2020) IBCS: Army Launches Massive Army Missile Defense Test LUT is prerequisite for a Milestone C decision in the acquisition process.
  656. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 August 2020) IBCS: Army Missile Defense Passes Most Complex Test Yet
  657. ^ Matthew Cox (20 August 2020) Army Destroys Cruise and Ballistic Missile Targets in 2nd Test of New Defense System
  658. ^ Jason Cutshaw USASMDC (27 August 2020) SMDC target team supports Army IBCS tests Zombie launched to test IBCS
  659. ^ Lt. Col. David P. McCoy, Test Division Chief, Air and Missile Defense Test Directorate, U.S. Army Operational Test Command (11 September 2020) Ft. Bliss Air Defense Soldiers provide data testing new Integrated Air and Missile Defense system
  660. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 August 2020) IBCS Defeats 2 Missiles in Flight – But 100s In Simulation
  661. ^ Defense Brief Editorial (20 August 2020) US Army IBCS intercepts ballistic, cruise missile targets in second LUT test "IBCS integrated the data to form a single uninterrupted composite track of each threat, impossible with any single sensor, which then informed engagement solutions with the best interceptors to engage both incoming threats"
  662. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (3 August 2020) Live-Fire Tests In August For Army Air & Missile Defense
  663. ^ AFWERX (25 August 2020) Dr. Will Roper ABMS 'Ask Me Anything'
  664. ^ Insinna, Valerie (4 September 2020). "Behind the scenes of the US Air Force's second test of its game-changing battle management system". C4ISRNet. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  665. ^ Jen Judson (19 Jan 2022) At Project Convergence, Army's new battle command system demonstrated expanded capability
  666. ^ Andrew Eversden (20 Jan 2022) Army's IBCS passed F-35 sensor data to artillery system at Project Convergence 21
  667. ^ a b Defense News (26 Aug 2020) Latest variant of Patriot missile misfired in major test of command system Patriot-MSE misfired, but a Pac-3 successfully intercepted the Black Dagger Zombie ballistic missile. IBCS did send the correct commands.
  668. ^ CJ Robles "(17 Aug 2020) US Army Recycles Rocket Motors to Create Zombies, Saves 50% on Test Missiles". 17 August 2020.
  669. ^ Andrew Eversden (23 Dec 2021) Army awards Northrop Grumman $1.4 billion contract for IBCS
  670. ^ a b Jen Judson (10 Mar 2022) Missile Defense Agency fires Patriot missile from THAAD system
  671. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 October 2019) LTAMDS: Raytheon To Build Linchpin Of Army Air & Missile Defense
  672. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 March 2020) Raytheon: Robotized Factory Speeds Up Army LTAMDS Radar Avoids DoD5000 by using "Other Transaction Authority (OTA) and Section 804 Mid-Tier Acquisition processes"
  673. ^ "The National Interest: Blog".
  674. ^ Jen Judson (8 Oct 2018) What's the rush? US Army races to get missile defense radar early LTAMDS
  675. ^ Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (19 June 2019) Army tests prototypes, explores technologies for air, missile defense Tests of 3 LTAMDS prototypes at WSMR
  676. ^ Raytheon Missiles & Defense (2 Oct 2020) Soldiers See – And Touch – Raytheon Technologies' Full-Scale GhostEye Archived 3 April 2022 at the Wayback Machine in 4 Soldier Touchpoints
  677. ^ Andrew Eversden (11 Oct 2021) Raytheon Announces New Medium-Range Radar System
  678. ^ Defense News (21 Oct 2021) GhostEye - Nothing Goes Unseen GhostEye MR (medium range) introduced at AUSA, October 2021
  679. ^ Jen Judson (2 May 2022) US Army scrambles to keep its new air-defense radar on schedule 1st of 4 LTAMDS radars will enter testing at WSMR in April 2022; 4 radars will be fielded to an LTAMDS battalion by December 2023 to meet the Congressional mandate.
  680. ^ Andrew Eversden (14 Oct 2022) Raytheon aims to finish LTAMDS radar prototypes for Army in January 6th radar
  681. ^ Jen Judson (28 Mar 2023) US Army plans test for combining new air defense capabilities FY2024 IAMD: Test Planned for LTAMDS, IFPC, and IBCS
  682. ^ Paul McCleary Pentagon Cancels Multi-Billion $ Boeing Missile Defense Program, breakingdefense.com, 21 August 2019
  683. ^ Theresa Hitchens (17 December 2019) Lawmakers Question R&E Oversight; Pump MDA Funding RKV cancellation is prompting a National Defense Authorization Act mandate for a federally funded R&D center (Federally funded research and development centers - FFRDC) study, whether to move the oversight of MDA
  684. ^ Paul McCleary (6 September 2019) Pentagon Issues Classified RFP For New Missile Interceptor No Refund of Monies expected. Rework is To Be Determined
  685. ^ AUSA (12 Mar 2020) Army SMD Hot Topic 2020 - VADM Jon Hill - Dir, Missile Defense Agency
  686. ^ Paul McCleary (12 Mar 2021) New Missile Defense Program On Deputy SecDef's Desk, Awaiting Approval 20 GBIs are planned.
  687. ^ Aaron Mehta (12 September 2021) "US Successfully Tests New Homeland Missile Defense Capability MDA's "2-/3-Stage selectable GBI" Breaking Defense
  688. ^ a b Jen Judson "Dynetics-Lockheed team beats out Raytheon to build 100-kilowatt laser weapon". Defense News. 16 May 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  689. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (5 August 2019) New Army Laser Could Kill Cruise Missiles Demonstrator lasers in test 2023, with fielding in 2024
  690. ^ a b Claire Heininger, U.S. Army (1 August 2019) Army awards laser weapon system contract RCCTO has awarded Other Transaction Authority (OTA) contract 26 July 2019 for $203 million to two subcontractors, for prototype high energy lasers (HELs) for MSHORAD
  691. ^ Daniel Wasserbly (14 October 2019) AUSA 2019: Lockheed Martin weighs options for achieving a 250-300 kW air-defence laser Addresses IFPC requirements
  692. ^ Joe Lacdan (22 October 2018) Army to fuse laser technology onto air defense system
  693. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (17 Sep 2020) Lockheed Aims For Laser On Fighter By 2025
  694. ^ Jen Judson (11 Oct 2018) Army nearing strategy on way ahead for Indirect Fire Protection Capability
  695. ^ a b Sydney J Freedberg Jr.Iron Dome Doesn't Work For Army: Gen. Murray: Interoperability with IBCS is critical, breakingdefense.com, 5 March 2020
  696. ^ Anna Ahronheim (9 MARCH 2020) US Army: Iron Dome cannot be integrated into our air defense systems: Iron Dome offers 12 launchers, two sensors, two battle management centers and 240 interceptors, but US Army's IAMD needs access to Iron Dome Source Code for interoperability w/ IFPC, IBCS
  697. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (9 March 2020) New Missiles Must Work With IBCS Network: Bruce Jette (Exclusive) Each shooter must accept targeting data and firing commands from IBCS, at brassboard level at least
  698. ^ Jen Judson (24 Aug 2021) Here's who the US Army has tapped to build an enduring capability to counter drones and cruise missiles defensenews.com
  699. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 Apr 2021) Army Fields First Anti-Aircraft Strykers In Just 3 Years breakingdefense.com
  700. ^ Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (2 July 2019) Army rebuilding short-range air defense Manpad training for 19K MOS using synthetic training environment (STE)
  701. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest (10 Aug 2021) Army advances first laser weapon through Combat Shoot-Off Soldier-centered design
  702. ^ Jared Keller (12 Aug 2021) The Army's first laser weapon is almost ready for a fight
  703. ^ Kris Osborn (1 Feb 2023) Army Strykers Destroy Attacking Drones & Mortars With 50kw Laser
  704. ^ Sputnik (25 Jan 2023) US Reaches Key Milestone On Laser Air Defense; Lockheed Martin Confirms DEIMOS Demonstration Success 50kW laser
  705. ^ Andrew Eversden (26 Oct 2021) Army Awards Laser Weapon Contract To Boeing, General Atomics Team
  706. ^ MG John George "CCDC's Road Map to Modernizing the Army: Soldier lethality". www.army.mil. Retrieved 14 December 2021. Sixth in a series
  707. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin, CCDC Public Affairs (29 March 2019) CCDC technology to increase Soldier readiness in multi-domain operations: capabilities by 2023
  708. ^ Robert Purtiman (21 September 2018) Lethality Cross-Functional Team bringing next generation technologies to Soldiers ENVG-B, Next Generation Squad Weapons, and the Adaptive Soldier Architecture
  709. ^ a b Bridgett Siter, Communications Director, Soldier Lethality CFT (10 September 2019) Soldier Lethality team delivers first big win for AFC Enhanced night vision goggle - binocular (ENVG-B) significantly aids marksmanship by the Close Combat Force
  710. ^ Alexander Gago (8 Aug 2022) Close Combat Lethality Task Force hosts Artificial Intelligence for Small Unit Maneuver working group
  711. ^ David Vergun (8 October 2018) Next-generation squad weapon to be very capable, lethal, says Army chief of staff
  712. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 June 2019) Army Buys 9,000 Mini-Drones, Rethinks Ground Robots
  713. ^ Ashley Roque (27 Dec 2022) With war in Europe, us Army replenished weapons, pushed modernization: 2022 in Review IVAS 1.2 sought
  714. ^ "Army to field new night vision goggles". www.army.mil. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  715. ^ AFC (21 Nov 2019) Soldier feedback driving Army modernization used 10 soldier touchpoints
  716. ^ Todd South (11 Oct 2021) This Army program prevented disease outbreak in a unit deploying to Afghanistan MASTR-E —Measuring and Advancing Soldier Tactical Readiness and Effectiveness
  717. ^ Joe Lacdan (3 June 2019) Army testing synthetic training environment platforms Reconfigurable Virtual Collective Trainer-Air (RVCT-A), -Ground (RVCT-G), and 3-D terrain database (One World)
  718. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (22 March 2018) Synthetic training environment to enhance Soldier lethality
  719. ^ US Army "One World Terrain to allow Soldiers to train anywhere". www.army.mil. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  720. ^ The Army Strategy 2018
  721. ^ Insinna, Valerie; Kahwaji, Riad; "Let The (War) Games Begin: Army Buying High-Tech Training Sims". Breaking Defense. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  722. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 October 2019) Special Ops Using Army's Prototype 3D Maps On Missions: Gervais
  723. ^ Yasmin Tadjdeh (1 Dec 2020) I/ITSEC NEWS: Army Accelerates Synthetic Training Environment Development
  724. ^ a b c Scott McKean (14 Jul 2021) AFC Pamphlet 71-20-9 Army Futures Command Concept for Command and Control - Pursuing decision dominance AFCC-C2 is the future communications network. 14 Jul 2021 see: FUTURES AND CONCEPTS CENTER resources
  725. ^ a b c McLeary, Paul (16 April 2019). "Esper: Chinook & JLTV 'Designed For a Different Conflict'". Breaking Defense. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  726. ^ Joe Lacdan (25 September 2019) More joint efforts likely as the Army prepares for multi-domain operations A speedup in tempo, as driven by the CFTs is needed, according to Lt. Gen. Wesley
  727. ^ "Clearly define roles, responsibilities and processes in order to identify the right efforts and get ahead of need." —William B King (AMC) (18 February 2020) Conference focuses on Army modernization, equipping Soldiers Equipping Enterprise (AMC) + Modernization Enterprise (AFC)
  728. ^ a b Phil Fountain, U.S. Army Futures Command (7 August 2019) Army Futures Command charts a campaign plan No uniforms
  729. ^ a b Gen. David Goldfein and Gen. Jay Raymond (28 Feb 2020) America's future battle network is key to multidomain defense JADC2: " We cannot yet share data in a seamless and simultaneous way between the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps or the Space Force"
  730. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (14 Oct 2020) Army Seeks Open Architecture For All Air & Ground Systems: Jette In the spirit of MOSA, JADC2, & Project convergence:
    • Army Common Operating Environment (COE)
    • C5ISR/EW Modular Open Suite of Standards (CMOSS)
    • Future Air-Borne Capability Environment (FACE)
    • Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA)
    • Sensor Open Systems Architecture (SOSA)
    • Vehicle Integration for C4ISR/EW Interoperability (VICTORY)
  731. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (13 Nov 2020) QinetiQ Delivers Armed Scout Robot To Army: RCV-L uses UGV Interoperability Profile
  732. ^ Katherine Spivey and Wendy Wagner-Smith (19 May 2021) Positioning Yourself as a Plain Language Editor
  733. ^ Headquarters, Department of the Army (1 October 2022) FM 3-0 OPERATIONS 280 pages
  734. ^ AUSA 2022 (10 Oct 2022) AUSA Contemporary Military Forum: Army 2030 - Preparing Today for Tomorrow's Fight Office of the Chief of Public Affairs
  735. ^ Futurology (22 May 2020) The World in 2050 CCDC is actually working on realizing some of these possibilities. See below
  736. ^ AUSA, ILW selected papers, David Perkins, moderator (24 October 2018) ILW Launches Landpower Education Forum 4 views
  737. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 October 2018) Army Moves $25B To Big Six, From New Tanks To 6.8mm Rifle
  738. ^ Breaking Defense A series on: Army Strategic Fires
  739. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (28 May 2019) Beyond INF: An Affordable Arsenal Of Long-Range Missiles? INF Treaty likely to expire in August 2019
  740. ^ Loren Thompson (7 Aug 2020) Army breakthroughs in Long-range fires raise novel questions about targeting, organization, and command about SLRC, a long-barrelled cannon which uses GPS-guided munitions
  741. ^ Matthew Cox (14 September 2018) The Army is developing a new strategic cannon to devastate targets over 1,000 miles away
  742. ^ a b Sean Gallagher (10/15/2019) Bringing in the big gun: Army paves way for "strategic cannon"
  743. ^ Eric Kowal (August 27, 2020) By Improving Artillery Shells, Picatinny Engineers Seek to Greatly Extend Range of Cannon Artillery
  744. ^ Richard P. Hansen, Scranton Army Ammunition Plant (August 19, 2020) Scranton Army Ammunition Plant Manufactures and Ships Large-Caliber Ammunition Metal Parts
  745. ^ Monica K. Guthrie, LRPF communications director (9 October 2019) Army Futures Command gains new general
  746. ^ Daniel Cebul (8 Oct 2018) Army looks to a future of integrated fire
  747. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (24 October 2019) TITAN system being developed to tie 'deep sensing' to long-range fires For use in I2CEWS battalion of a Multi-domain task force
  748. ^ Sandra Erwin (19 April 2021) U.S. Army approves plans for a future 'tactical space layer' "tactical space layer will be integrated with an existing ground station called Tactical Intelligence Targeting Access Node (TITAN)"
  749. ^ Todd South (14 Jul 2021) Tanks are here to stay: What the Army's future armored fleet will look like
  750. ^ Mark Gardiner The New York Times (Friday 21 Sep 2018) p.B4
  751. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (4 June 2020) Small robotic mule, other unmanned ground systems on the horizon
  752. ^ a b c Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (11 July 2019) Soldiers to operate armed robotic vehicles from upgraded Bradleys (Mission Enabler Technologies-Demonstrators, or MET-Ds)
  753. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (14 October 2019) Army Robots Go Rolling Along – Ahead Of Schedule Robotic combat vehicles in "Four Years, Three Phases, Three Weight Classes"
  754. ^ Mandy Mayfield (2 Oct 2020) Army Puts Robotic Combat Vehicles Through Paces
  755. ^ USACE (6 Oct 2020) Future Combined Arms Breaching Technology to be highlighted at AUSA 2020
  756. ^ Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (10.13.2020) AUSA 2020 Warriors Corner - Future Combined Arms Breaching Enabled by Technology
  757. ^ a b David Craig (26 Oct 2020) The Time Is Now to Transform America's Army Chief of Staff Gen. James C. McConville
  758. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (27 July 2020) Two Men & A Bot: Can AI Help Command A Tank? 2-man crews in MET-Ds have proved they can maneuver without a commander.
  759. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (18 Dec 2020) OMFV: Army Wants Your Weird Ideas For Bradley Replacement Multiple forms of the OMFV are a possibility. Modular Open Systems Approach (MOSA) is a requirement so that systems can be upgraded in a modular fashion. OMFV to be compatible with STE capabilities.
  760. ^ EditorDavid (1 Aug 2022) Will the US Army, Not Meta, Build an 'Open' Metaverse? STE to connect systems for combined arms and joint training
  761. ^ Daniel Lafontaine, CCDC (21 May 2019) Army Futures leveraging mission command for effective Soldier, robot teams
  762. ^ Devon L. Suits (26 July 2018) CERDEC unveils more than a dozen new technologies for mission command CPCE COE MCE
  763. ^ Maj. Rich Marsh, Joint Modernization Command (14 February 2019) JMC sets the stage for largest annual modernization exercise
  764. ^ Jen Judson (9 October 2018) The Army's future tank may not be a tank Buy back size, weight, and power
  765. ^ Economist.com (12 Sep 2020) Tanks have rarely been more vulnerable Taiwan would have an advantage defending.
  766. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (11 September 2019) Titan Robot Test-Fires Javelin Anti-Tank Missile Remote-controlled test-fires of FGM-148 Javelin antitank missiles from unmanned ground vehicle
  767. ^ David Miller (20 August 2020) The Future of Unmanned Ground Systems in the Operational Environment names 7 countries using UGSs
  769. ^ Major Matthew Wood (Nov 2019) The Future of Hybrid and Electric Technology for Army Archived 23 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine Australian Defence Force
  770. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 April 2020) New TRISO Nuclear Mini-Reactors Will Be Safe: Program Manager DoD project: 3 competing designs (1-year contracts, with a possible 1 year follow-on) for 1 prototype of an inherently safe reactor (no meltdowns). Fuel rods are composed of spheres: three layers of uranium, carbon, silicon carbide—TRISO has been tested to be safe at 3200°F, hotter than the melting point of steel. A molten salt reactor is a possibility.
  771. ^ Jaspreet Gill (13 Apr 2022) Idaho National Labs to build Pentagon's mobile 'nuclear microreactor'
  772. ^ Todd South (15 Apr 2022) Pentagon to build nuclear microreactors to power far-flung bases Ft Greeley
  773. ^ DoD SCO (13 Apr 2022) DoD to Build Project Pele Mobile Microreactor and Perform Demonstration at Idaho National Laboratory
  774. ^ Jeff Waksman (Mar 2020) Project Pele Overview
  775. ^ a b c d e f g DoD Office of the Secretary, SCO (15 Apr 2022) Record of Decision for the Final Construction and Demonstration of a Prototype Mobile Microreactor Environmental Impact Statement
  776. ^ BWX Technologies (BWXT) (9 Jun 2022) BWXT to Build First Advanced Microreactor in United States for Project Pele
  777. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 Nov 2020) Army Wants Smaller Brigades, Stronger Divisions & Lots O' Robots First contact with the enemy to be unmanned. Lists a portfolio of Common robotic systems (CRSs)
  778. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 August 2020) Robots & Puddles: Surprises From Army RCV Test
  779. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 Mar 2020) FVL Q&A: 7 Leaders On The Future Of Army Aviation Nicknamed "6-pack+1";
    1. Commander, Aviation Center of Excellence (CoE)
    2. Commander, Aviation Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC)
    3. Director, Aviation directorate, Deputy Chief of Staff G3/5/7
    4. Commander, Aviation Special Operations Command (USASOAC)
    5. Deputy PEO, Aviation
    6. SES, Aviation and Missile Command
    7. Director, FVL CFT
  780. ^ a b Cooper, Scott (23 April 2019). "FARA: Army Awards 5 Design Contracts; Winner Enters Production in 2028". Breaking Defense. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  781. ^ a b Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (9 September 2019) Smart sensor network helps redirect missile The GBU-69 was redirected; FARA is slated to replace AH-64 in subsequent A3I experiments
  782. ^ Dan Gouré (29 Feb 2020) Finally, There Is a Solution to the Problem of Flying in Degraded Visual Environments: Terrain awareness and warning systems (TAWS)
  783. ^ David Craig (6 April 2020) Future Vertical Lift Conducts a Demonstration of the Spike NLOS Missile System
  784. ^ Kerensa Crum CCDC Aviation & Missile Center Public Affairs (30 March 2020) CCDC Aviation, Missile Center highlights forward-launched UAS technology
  785. ^ Anthony Small, U.S. Army Futures Command (13 March 2019) Futures Command highlights changes, new structure at SXSW
  786. ^ Eliahu Norwood, Greg Grant, and Tyler Lewis, MITRE (December 2019) A new battle command architecture for multi-domain operations: countering peer adversary power projection Tie-in to MDC2, MDO
  787. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 March 2020) Army Won't Build Recon Satellites: Lt. Gen. Berrier
    1. MDO-driven modernization priorities for ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance)
      • Terrestrial Layer System (TLS)
      • Aerial ISR
        • Gray, Blue, and Red (targeted) force tracking
      • TITAN-level communications
  788. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 Apr 2021) Army Artillery's AI Gets Live-Fire Exercises In Europe, Pacific APNT: Timing for TITAN terminal prototype in 2022
  789. ^ NPR on the GAO report: GAO-19-128 Bill Chappell NPR (9 October 2018) Cyber Tests Showed 'Nearly All' New Pentagon Weapons Vulnerable To Attack, GAO Says
  790. ^ United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) GAO-19-128 (October 2018) report on weapon system vulnerabilities
  791. ^ David Vergun (24 September 2018) Cybersecurity: 'Remain vigilant, be accountable, stand ready' Army major general says
  792. ^ ARL Public Affairs (6 September 2018) Army research takes proactive approach to defending computer systems Moving target defense (MTD)
  793. ^ Shane Harris (27 March 2019) Palantir Wins Competition to Build Army Intelligence System
  794. ^ Joe Lacdan (05.24.2018) Warfare in megacities: a new frontier in military operations "No amount of planning, study or preparation can prepare a military unit for the unique rhythm of a major city or what Townsend labeled the 'flow'."
  795. ^ Timothy L. Rider (22 November 2019) Multinational partners find New York ideal to test urban warfare technologies Fort Hamilton hosted Contested Urban Environment Strategic Challenge 2019 (CUE 19) on 24 July 2019
  796. ^ John Spencer (14 November 2016) The Most Effective Weapon on the Modern Battlefield is Concrete
  797. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 Apr 2021) Army Needs Armor For City Fights: Gen. McConville
  798. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (10 September 2018) Multi-domain operations to exploit enemy vulnerabilities, say Army leaders
  799. ^ Dan Lafontaine, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (4 September 2019) Army looks to enhance mission command with robotic swarms
  800. ^ Carol Scheina, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (September 8, 2020) Abrams demonstration proves concept for enterprise-level system health monitoring
  801. ^ ARL Public Affairs (16 October 2018) Researchers develop technique to locate robots, Soldiers in GPS-challenged environments
  802. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (10 June 2019) Army leaders: Space tech crucial to future combat
  803. ^ Mark Schauer (ATEC) (12 February 2019) Unmanned aircraft stays aloft for nearly 26 days above U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground Zephyr
  804. ^ Andrew Eversden (2022) After setting ultra-endurance record, Army Zephyr drone keeps flying, whether it wants to or not
  805. ^ Nicholas Slayton (21 Aug 2022) After 64 days, the Army's drone that wouldn't die has died [Updated]
  806. ^ Riley Pickett (21 Aug 2022) The Airbus Zephyr Comes Crashing Down In Arizona
  807. ^ Lee Ferran (23 Aug 2022) Army's ultra-endurance Zephyr drone comes down after 'unexpected termination' over Arizona desert "First flight over water", the first "direct downlink while outside of U.S. airspace" and the "longest duration (7 days) utilizing satellite communications — including from a military base in the UK"
  808. ^ Christina MacKenzie (13 Jan 2023) France considering options for 'unexploited' higher airspace region HAO is 'higher airspace operations' e.g. Zephyr
  809. ^ UASWeekly.com (29 Apr 2021) UxS IBP: Multi-Day Maritime Demonstration for Vanilla UAS
  810. ^ Ryan White (27 Apr 2021) SM-6 successfully hits a target with the help of Unmanned Systems USS John Finn (DDG 113) during UxS IBP 21
  811. ^ Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing Cross Functional Team Assessment Exercise 1-16 Aug 2019, WSMR
  812. ^ a b Jonathan Koester, Joint Modernization Command Public Affairs http:[dead link]//fortblissbugle.com/2019/09/04/army-jmc-assess-new-navigation-positioning-systems/ (4 September 2019) Army, JMC assess new navigation, positioning systems. Wearable A-PNT
  813. ^ Mark Pomerleau (28 March 2019) If GPS goes out, the Army now has a requirement for that
  814. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (7 October 2019) Army fields anti-jam GPS, plans for thousands more by 2028
  815. ^ Dan Lafontaine, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (17 June 2019) Futures Command looks to enable plug-and-play PNT across Army platforms
  816. ^ Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (10 March 2020) Army looks to leverage 'low Earth orbit' satellites: LEO satellites orbit 100-1200 miles above Earth
  817. ^ CCDC Army Research Laboratory (29 August 2019) Army scientists discover a new way for robots to exchange directed messages
  818. ^ Kim, M., Pallecchi, E., Ge, R. et al. (2020) Analogue switches made from boron nitride monolayers for application in 5G and terahertz communication systems. Nature Electron https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-020-0416-x
  819. ^ Todd South (20 Nov 2020) New Army research breakthrough could lead to more powerful lasers
    • David J. Pine is investigator for ARO, using colloids of microscopic spheres which can assemble bottom-up into promising structures.
    • Mingxin He, Johnathon P. Gales, Étienne Ducrot, Zhe Gong, Gi-Ra Yi, Stefano Sacanna, & David J. Pine (23 Sep 2020) Colloidal diamond
  820. ^ U.S. Army DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (19 Jul 2021) New material could mean lightweight armor, protective coatings
  821. ^ Paul McLeary (17 January 2019) Missile Defense Review a Multi-Billion IOU to White House
  822. ^ Miles Brown (5 July 2019) Aviation, missile commander addresses workforce CG Todd Royar's statement of his expectations
  823. ^ PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE MISSILES AND SPACE (2018) Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Program Overview Archived 23 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  824. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (1 October 2018) Army Awards Northrop $289M For IBCS Missile Defense Network
  825. ^ Dan Gouré (20 Mar 2020) SOCOM Has Solved the Military's 'Tower of Babel' Problem
  826. ^ Mallory Shelbourne and Sam LaGrone (27 October 2022) Nuclear Sea-Launched Cruise Missile Has 'Zero Value', Latest Nuclear Posture Review Finds SLCM(N) would have fielded in 2035. Hence cancellation.
  827. ^ Valerie Insinna (6 May 2022) After DoD’s $1.5B move, Army and Marines rush to buy new Javelins, Stingers 250 microprocessors in each Javelin —Jim Taiclet
  828. ^ Marcus Weisgerber (1 May 2023) Defense Business Brief: Supply-chain headaches; Missile-making bump; Revolving-door figures; and more "Annual production of the PAC-3 interceptor will rise from 450 to 550; Javelin anti-tank missile, from 2,000 to more than 3,500; and GMLRS, from 10,000 to 14,000"
  829. ^ Marcus Weisgerber (26 Apr 2022) It Will Be Years Before Raytheon Can Build New Stinger Missiles:"The U.S. has been sending its Stingers to Ukrainian forces battling Russia." Aid was being sent by Feb 2022, at the latest.
  830. ^ Dan Grazier (27 Apr 2022) Let a Stinger be a Stinger. A new design isn't needed.
  831. ^ Kevin Baron (31 Mar 2023) Ukraine Victory Unlikely This Year, Milley Says Victory not impossible, just unlikely in the near term, 2023.
  832. ^ Ashley Roque (31 Mar 2023) Army to use Pacific Pathways to test assumptions about ‘contested logistics,’ prepositioned stocks
  833. ^ Jen Judson (31 Mar 2023) Army Materiel Command boss says logistics are key to future warfare
  834. ^ ARL (24 September 2018) New Army technology guides Soldiers in complete darkness
  835. ^ Andrew Eversden (18 Oct 2021) Army Says Next-Gen AR Goggles Delayed Over Field Of View Issues
  836. ^ Joe Lacdan (13 May 2019) Augmented reality training on the horizon to give Soldiers edge in combat allows repetition, for training
  837. ^ Tom McKay (6 April 2019) The Army Just Gave a Press Demo of Microsoft's HoloLens 2 Military Prototype
  838. ^ Bridgett Siter (19 November 2019) Soldiers test new IVAS technology, capabilities with hand-on exercises IVAS: 1 Soldier Touchpoint (STP) STP is becoming rapid acquisitions methodology for AFC
  839. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 December 2019) Soldiers, Coders Surprise Army Brass By Changing IVAS Goggles FOV is turning out to be more important to the infantrymen than the range of the goggles
  840. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (9 December 2019) Third IVAS evaluation slated for July Soldier Touchpoint successfully increased IVAS FOV to 80 degrees while range of the goggles was still at 900 meters, from thermal nightsight capability
  841. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (10 February 2020) New technology recognizes faces in the dark, far away Combines night vision with facial recognition
  842. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 October 2020) From 'Frankengoggle' To Battle-Ready: Army IVAS waterproof IVAS
  843. ^ Adam Stone (30 Sep 2021) US Army makes headway on Synthetic Training Environment
  844. ^ Andrew Eversden (1 Dec 2021) Wormuth: Here's the Army's role in a Pacific fight
  845. ^ Immersive Ops (15 Nov 2021) Immersive Wisdom briefs Secretary of the Army at Project Convergence '21 on future of Army operations centers 3D Virtual Operations Center software platform
  846. ^ Caitlin M Kenney (1 Dec 2021) Army Would Have 5 'Core Tasks' in a Pacific Conflict
  847. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (6 February 2020) Army scientists on verge of nearly unbreakable battery First announced in 2015
  848. ^ U.S. Army CCDC Research Laboratory Public Affairs (5 February 2020) Army scientists look inside batteries with a molecular eye CCDC ARL "teamed with researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory" (PNNL)
  849. ^ CCDC Army Research Laboratory March 2020) Researchers imagine devices without cords or batteries[permanent dead link] Molybdenum disulphide
  850. ^ Dan Lafontaine, C5ISR Center Public Affairs (4 May 2020) In modernization push, Army researches integrated power cables for Soldiers uses technology from Foreign Comparative Testing program (FCT)
  851. ^ Dan Lafontaine, C5ISR Center Public Affairs (17 Jan 2020) Army boosts Soldier battery power for greater lethality, mobility by using silicon-based anodes
  852. ^ U.S. Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (25 February 2020) Additive manufacturing to provide Soldiers with cutting-edge munitions They "printed the world's first 3-D hybrid microcontroller circuit on a hemisphere that survived high G environments".
  853. ^ NSRDEC Public Affairs (15 October 2018) Natick's exoskeleton work is a powerful step toward the future of Soldier lethality
  854. ^ RDECOM Soldier Center, Public Affairs Office (23 January 2019) Soldier Center partners with industry experts to advance exoskeleton technologies
  855. ^ Harvard (17 Sep 2018) Multi-joint Personalized Exosuit Breaks New Ground video clip
  856. ^ David Roza (26 Aug 2022) The Army wants exoskeletons so soldiers can defeat their worst enemy: Lower back pain Assistive technology adds 3 pounds of equipment, but stabilizes lower back
  857. ^ Jerilyn Coleman (28 Apr 2022) DEVCOM teams explore low-cost, lightweight sensors for warfighter use Chem Bio Center (CBC) sensors to detect possible hazardous contamination
  858. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (29 August 2019) Army closer to delivering new infantry squad vehicle (ISV)
    • 9 Soldiers of an infantry squad will maneuver in an ISV
    • Plans to purchase 649 prototypes were approved in February 2019
    • 3 industry leaders have been named (23 Aug. 2019), to deliver ISV prototypes
      1. Oshkosh Defense/Flyer,
      2. GM Defense, and
      3. SAIC/Polaris
    • Prototypes are due for initial assessment at Aberdeen Test Center 13 November 2019 through December 2019
    • At Fort Bragg a second round of operational testing by Soldiers will be performed on the candidate ISV prototypes
    • Downselect to one vendor is expected 2nd Quarter of FY2020
  859. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 October 2019) Who Will Build 651 Parachuting Trucks For The Army? 2 air-drop-able prototypes from each vendor due 13 November 2019,
  860. ^ Kyle Mizokami (13 Oct 2019) Meet the Army's New Airborne Trucks
  861. ^ GM Defense LLC (8 Aug 2020) US Army Selects GM Design for Infantry Squad Vehicle
  862. ^ Ashley Roque (5 Apr 2023) US Army waves green flag for Infantry Squad Vehicle full-rate production
  863. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 December 2019) AI & Robots Crush Foes In Army Wargame
  864. ^ Army University Press (Dec 2021) WayPoint in 2028 – Multidomain Operations 14:00 Lt Gen Theodore Martin, Commander of the Combined Arms Center at Fort Leavenworth, KS
  865. ^ a b Caitlin Kenny (10 Oct 2022) Divisions, Corps to Replace Brigades As Army's Wartime Formation Of Choice "Brigades that operated largely independently in Iraq and Afghanistan will fight as part of larger units in future conflicts, officials said".
  866. ^ (26 Apr 2022) U.S. Army's Way Forward: 5 New Division Organizations
  867. ^ Todd South (11 Apr 2022) The Army's transformation begins with these new units
  868. ^ Joint Publication 3-18 (Validated 9 July 2021) Joint Forcible Entry Operations JP-3-18
  869. ^ Mark Cancian (11 Apr 2022) The Army's transformation begins with these new units Waypoint Divisions unitsOfAction=Airborne 82ndAB, AirAssault 101stAA, PenetrationDiv 1stAD 1stCD 1stID 34thID, HeavyDivABCTs, LightDivIBCTs
  871. ^ Ethan Sterenfeld (12 Apr 2022) Army will realign ABCTs to create National Guard penetration division 34th ID
  872. ^ Jonathan Koester (13 Apr 2022) Future Penetration Division focus of Joint Warfighting Assessment 22
  873. ^ Battle Order (Sep 2022) Transforming U.S. Armor Divisions For Future War 20:45
  874. ^ a b Andrew Eversden (15 Sep 2022) Wormuth: Here are the 6 areas the Army must be prepared for in 2030
  875. ^ a b Christine Wormuth, 25th Secretary of the Army (10 Oct 2022) AUSA 2022 Opening Ceremony hour 0:37:50 to 1:05:41
  876. ^ Patrick Tucker (14 Sep 2022) Ukraine War Offers Clues to Future War, Joint Chiefs Chairman Says
  877. ^ The Economist (30 Nov 2022) What is the war in Ukraine teaching Western armies? "It shows the importance of dispersal, firepower and stockpiles"
  878. ^ a b Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (24 Oct 2022) Army of 2030: Collaboration key to Army modernization
  879. ^ US Army Public Affairs (10 Oct 2022) AUSA Contemporary Military Forum: Army 2030 - Preparing Today for Tomorrow's Fight Gen. McConville, Gen.(Ret) Perkins, DepUnderSec Diaz, Gen. Rainey, LTG Beagle, Prof. Greer (SAMS)
  880. ^ TRADOC (13 Apr 2022) The Operational Environment and the Changing Character of Warfare TP 525-92
  881. ^ Signal (10 Oct 2022) The Army Takes an Extended View to 2040
  882. ^ Jaspreet Gill (19 Oct 2022) As Project Convergence tries new 'tech gateways', 2 AI algorithms to transition to programs of record Todd Army 2040
  883. ^ Parth Satam (15 Nov 2022) Decoding HIMARS' 'Design Philosophy', Latest Images Show Russia Could Be Analyzing Deadly US Rockets
  884. ^ a b c Maureena Thompson, Army Futures Command (3 January 2023) AFC hosts inaugural Army Future Readiness Conference
  885. ^ Jen Judson (8 Feb 2023) New Futures Command chief shifts main effort to designing Army of 2040
  886. ^ John Ferrari (2 Mar 2023) Congress can put Army modernization back on track "AEI's John Ferrari asks five important questions that the Army needs to answer before committing to high-dollar procurments [sic] during its modernization push".
  887. ^ Jen Judson (4 Apr 2023) The US Army moves to tweak its formations for future conflicts AFC to work with TRADOC
  888. ^ University of Texas System (13 July 2018) University of Texas System to serve as home base for U.S. Army Futures Command
  889. ^ Ralph K.M. Haurwitz - American-Statesman Staff (10 August 2018) UT regents give Army's Futures Command free use of space temporarily Archived 10 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  890. ^ US Army "Army announces Austin as the home of new Army Futures Command". C-SPAN. 13 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  891. ^ Army Futures Command FCC Leadership (20 February 2020). "Futures and Concepts Center". Futures and Concepts Center. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  892. ^ BETSY WOODRUFF SWAN, ANDREW DESIDERIO, LARA SELIGMAN and ERIN BANCO (22 Apr 2021) Pentagon investigated suspected Russian directed-energy attacks on U.S. troops
  893. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg (10 Dec 2018) US Army's Brain Transplant: Futurists Move To Futures Command
  894. ^ CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (29 April 2019) Army selects senior research scientist for terminal ballistics Fewer than 50 STs across the Army: An ST is a general-officer equivalent
  895. ^ Jen Judson (6 September 2018) Military deputy to US Army acquisition now has two bosses
  896. ^ Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski Bio
  897. ^ ASA(ALT) (20 September 2019) Army Acquisition Reform
  898. ^ a b Marcus Weisgerber (10 Nov 2022) Defense Business Brief: What a split Congress means for defense spending;... "on the lame-duck Congress' to-do list: Pass the fiscal 2023 defense appropriation by December and the National Defense Authorization Act". Passage of the NDAA starts the 180-day timer on AD 2022-07.
  899. ^ Myers (27 March 2018) Abrams: Army units will be tasked to work on each of Futures Command's priorities
  900. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (18 July 2019) The Cheese Has Moved: An Interview With Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski
  901. ^ Ft Meade Soundoff! (19 July 2018) New site for Army Futures Command
  902. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (1 October 2019) Bridging the gap to Army 2028: An interview with Gen. John "Mike" Murray
  903. ^ "PN2622—Lt. Gen. John M. Murray—Army". U.S. Congress. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  904. ^ Austin gets its general; Army Futures Command leader confirmed
  905. ^ Jen Judson (12 Jul 2021) Army Futures Command chief on what his team got right — and wrong — since its founding
  906. ^ "Promotion Ceremony iho LTG James E. Rainey". DVIDS. 7 October 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  907. ^ TRADOC Regulation 10-5-1 G357
  908. ^ a b c James Kennedy (2019) Force Management Model - Complete
  909. ^ a b c United States Army War College and Army Force Management School (2019-2020) How the Army Runs HTAR: A senior leader reference handbook which synthesizes "existing and developing National, Defense, Joint, and Army systems, processes, and procedures currently practiced"
  910. ^ James Kennedy (Aug 2022) JCIDS (ACIDS)
  911. ^ James Kennedy, CGSC (Jun 2022) AY22 Force Integration CGSC Weekly meetings on Change, Crisis, Competition, or Conflict. 50:31

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