United States Army Futures Command

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United States Army Futures Command
Army Futures Command SSI.png
Founded1 July 2018
Country United States
Branch United States Army
TypeArmy command
Garrison/HQAustin, Texas
Motto(s)"Forge the future"[1]
Websitearmy.mil/futures
armyfuturescommand.com
Commanders
Commanding general[3]GEN John M. Murray
Deputy Commanding Generals[3]LTG James M. Richardson
LTG Thomas H. Todd III
LTG D. Scott McKean[2]
Command Sergeant Major[3]CSM Michael A. Crosby
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia[1]
Army Futures Command Distinctive Unit Insignia.png
Beret flash
US Army Futures Command Beret Flash.svg

United States Army Futures Command (AFC)[4][5] is a United States Army command aimed at modernizing the Army.[6][7][8]

Futures Command (AFC) was established in 2018 as a peer of Forces Command, Training and Doctrine Command, and Army Materiel Command (AMC), the Army commands that provide forces, training and doctrine, and materiel respectively).[9][10] The other Army commands focus on their readiness to "Fight tonight" when called upon by the nation. In contrast, AFC is focused on future readiness[11] for competition with near-peers, who have updated their capabilities.[12][13] The command is supported by United States Army Reserve Innovation Command (aka. 75th Innovation Command).[14]

AFC declared its full operational capability in July 2019,[15][16] after an initial one-year period.[17] The FY2020 military budget allocated $30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over the next five years.[18] The $30 billion came from $8 billion in cost avoidance and $22 billion in terminations.[18][19] Over 30 projects[20][21] are envisioned to become the materiel basis needed for overmatching any potential competitors in the 'continuum of conflict' over the next ten years,[22][23] in multi-domain operations (MDO).[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]

As of 2018 it was focused on six priorities:[Note 1] 1— long-range precision fires,[33][34] 2— next-generation combat vehicle,[35] 3— future vertical lift platforms,[36] 4— a mobile & expeditionary Army network,[37] 5— air & missile defense capabilities,[38] and 6— soldier lethality.[39][40] AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs)[41] are Futures Command's vehicle for sustainable reform of the acquisition process for the future.[42][43][44][45]

History[edit]

U.S. Army Futures Command was activated in the summer of 2018. The Decker-Wagner report on the 2010 Army Acquisition Review (Jan 2011) listed numerous changes to the acquisition process;[46] the recommendation to disestablish RDECOM was not followed.[47] Instead a unitary Futures Command, to unify development over the life cycle was moved forward by an Acting Secretary of the Army, and Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, who established a task force for modernization in 2016-2017 using cross-functional teams of subject matter experts to drive initial actions.

From an initial 12 people at its headquarters in 2018 it grew to 24,000 across 25 states and 15 countries in 2019.[48] The apparent rapid expansion came by research facilities and personnel (including ARCIC and RDECOM) migrated from other commands and parts of the Army such as the United States Army Research Laboratory.[49]

Transition to multi-domain operations (MDO)[edit]

Friendly forces (denoted in black)[50] operating in multi-domains (gray, yellow, light blue, dark gray, and dark blue)—Space, Cyber, Air, Land, and Maritime respectively—cooperate across domains, working as an integrated force against adversaries (denoted in red). These operations will disrupt these adversaries, and present them multiple simultaneous dilemmas to encourage adversaries to return to competition rather than continue a conflict.[24][51][52]

We're moving out and there's no turning back. We've shown the will to act over the last year, and now we have to show the will to follow through.

— Then–Under Secretary of the Army Ryan McCarthy[53][54]

According to Secretary Ryan McCarthy, there will be three elements in Futures Command:[55]

  1. Futures and Concepts: assess gaps (needs versus opportunities,[56] given a threat).[55] Concepts for realizable future systems (with readily harvestable content)[57][58]: for definitions of terms, such as '6.3'  will flow into TRADOC doctrine, manuals, and training programs.
  2. Combat Development: stabilized concepts.[57][58] Balance the current state of technology and the cash-flow requirements of the defense contractors providing the technology, that they become deliverable experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes, in an iterative process of acquisition.[59] (See Value stream)
  3. Combat Systems: experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes.[60] Transition to the acquisition, production, and sustainment programs of AMC.[60][61]

Then-Secretary of the Army, Mark Esper emphasized that the 2018 administrative infrastructure for the Futures and Concepts Center (formerly ARCIC) and United States Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC, now called DEVCOM, (formerly RDECOM)) remains in place at their existing locations.[62] What has changed or will change is the layers of command (operational control, or OPCON)[63] needed to make a decision.[62]

You've got to remain open to change, you've got to remain flexible, you've [got] to remain accessible. That is the purpose of this command.

— Secretary Esper[62][64]

Cross-Functional Teams (CFTs)[edit]

Under Secretary McCarthy characterized a Cross-Functional Team (CFT) as a team of teams, led by a requirements leader, program manager, sustainer and tester.[65] Each CFT must strike a balance for itself amid constraints: the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment. A balance is needed in order for a CFT in order to produce a realizable concept before a competitor achieves it.[41] The Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC) itself serves as a kind of CFT, operating at a higher level as response to Congressional oversight, budgeting, funding, policy, and authorization for action.[66][67][68][69]

CFTs[41][70] for materiel and capabilities were first structured in a task force, in order to de-layer the Army Commands. Each CFT addresses a capability gap, which the Army must now match for its future: there can be a Capability Development Integration Directorate (CDID), for each CFT.[Note 1] Initially, the CFTs were placed as needed; eventually they might each co-locate at a Center of Excellence (CoE) listed below. For example, the Aviation CoE at Fort Rucker, in coordination with the Aviation Program Executive Officer (PEO), also contains the Vertical Lift CFT and the Aviation CDID. Modernization reform is the priority for AFC, in order to achieve readiness for the future.

The CFTs will be involved in all three of AFC's elements: Futures and concepts, Combat development, and Combat systems.[71] "We were never above probably a total of eight people" —BG Wally Rugen, Aviation CFT.[72] Four of the eight CFT leads have now shifted from dual-hat jobs to full-time status. Each CFT lead is mentored by a 4-star general.[72]

Although AFC and the CFTs are a top priority of the Department of the Army, as AFC and the CFTs are expected to unify control of the $30 billion-dollar modernization budget,[73][16] "The new command will not tolerate a zero-defects mentality. 'But if you fail, we'd like you to fail early and fail cheap,' because progress and success often builds on failure." —Ryan McCarthy:[74] Holland notes that prototyping applies to the conceptual realm ('harvestable content') as much as prototyping applies to the hardware realm.[57][58]

A 2019 Government Accountability Office (GAO) report[75] cautions that lessons learned from the CFT pilot[41] are yet to be applied; Holland notes that this organizational critique applies to prototyping hardware, a different realm than concept refinement ("scientific research is a fundamentally different activity than technology development").[57][58] Also in 2019 the GAO recommended that the government establish a process to ensure that CFTs implement their intended business reforms; however by 2021 the office of the Chief Management officer (CMO) had been disestablished.[76]

Joint collaboration on modernization[edit]

Multi-domain operations (MDO) span multiple domains: cislunar space, land, air, maritime, cyber, and populations.[77]: minute 17:45 [78][79][80] Echelons above brigade (division, corps, and theater army) engage in a continuum of conflict.

The Secretaries of the Army, Air Force, and Navy meet regularly to take advantage of overlap in their programs:[81][82]

Hypersonics
  • Hypersonics: The US Army (August 2018) has no tested countermeasure for intercepting maneuverable hypersonic weapons platforms,[83][84] and in this case the problem is being addressed in a joint program of the entire Department of Defense.[85] The Army is participating in a joint program with the Navy and Air Force, to develop a hypersonic glide body.[86][87][88][89][90][91][92] The Long range precision fires (LRPF) CFT is supporting Space and Missile Defense Command's pursuit of hypersonics.[90][93][94] Joint programs in hypersonics are informed by Army work;[95][96] however, at the strategic level, the bulk of the hypersonics work remains at the Joint level.[97][98][99][100][92] Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF) is an Army priority, and also a DoD joint effort.[96] The Army and Navy's Common Hypersonic Glide Body (C-HGB) had a successful test of a prototype in March 2020.[101][100] A wind tunnel for testing hypersonic vehicles is being built at the Texas A&M University System' RELLIS Campus in Bryan, Texas (2019).[102] The Army's Land-based Hypersonic Missile "is intended to have a range of 1,400 miles".[91]: p.6 [92] By adding rocket propulsion to a shell or glide body, the joint effort shaved five years off the likely fielding time for hypersonic weapon systems.[81][103] Countermeasures against hypersonics will require sensor data fusion: both radar and infrared sensor tracking data will be required to capture the signature of a hypersonic vehicle in the atmosphere.[104][105][106][107][108] In 2021 the GAO counted 70 separate Hypersonics projects, in both offense and defensive categories overseen by DoD's OUSD(R&E), which oversees only research and development, and not DoD's OUSD(A&S) —DoD's acquisition and sustainment office, which do not need oversight until the Hypersonics projects are ready for the acquisition phase.[109][110]
    • By 2021, the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) realized that it almost had a countermeasure to hypersonic boost-glide weapons, by using existing data on the adversary hypersonic systems which were gathered from existing US satellite and ground-based sensors.[111] MDA then fed this data into its existing systems models, and concluded that the adversary hypersonic weapon's glide phase offered the best chance for MDA to intercept it.[112] MDA next proffered a request for information (RFI) from the defense community for building interceptors (denoted the GPI —glide phase interceptor) against the glide phase of that hypersonic weapon.[112] GPIs would be guided by Hypersonic and Ballistic Tracking Space Sensors (HBTSS).[104] These GPI interceptors could first be offered to the Navy for Aegis to intercept using the C2BMC, and later to the Army for THAAD to intercept using IBCS.[112][113]
Multi-Domain Operations (MDO); Joint warfighting concept (JADC2)
  • Multi-Domain Operations (MDO):[26][114][115][116] Joint planning and operations are also part of the impending DoD emphasis on multi-domain operations.[12][117][118][119][120] Multi-domain battalions, first stood up in 2019,[121][122] comprise a single unit[123][124] for air, land,[125] space,[126][127][104][128]—and cyber[129][130] domains.[131][81][130] A hypersonics-based battery similar to a THAAD battery is under consideration for this type of battalion,[87][101] denoted a strategic fires battalion.[132][133]
    • The ability to punch-through any standoff defense of a near-peer competitor is the goal which Futures Command is seeking.[134][28][135][136] For example, the combination of F-35-based targeting coordinates, Long range precision fires, and Low-earth-orbit satellite[137] capability overmatches the competition, according to Lt. Gen. Wesley.[138][139][25][140][141][115][142][125][92] Critical decisions to meet this goal will be decided by data from the results of the Army's ongoing tests of the prototypes under development.[135][90]
    • For example, in Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF), the director of the LRPF CFT envisions one application as an anti-access/area denial (A2AD) probe; this spares resources from the other services;[143] by firing a munition with a thousand-mile range at an adversary, LRPF would force an adversary to respond, which exposes the locations of its countermeasures, and might even expose the location of an adversary force's headquarters. In that situation an adversary's headquarters would not survive for long, and the adversary's forces would be subject to defeat in detail. But LRPF is only one part of the strategy of overmatch by a Combatant commander.
    • In August-September 2020. at Yuma Proving Ground, the US Army engaged in a five-week exercise to rapidly merge capabilities in multiple-domains. The exercise prototyped a ground tactical Network, pushing it to its limits of robustness[144] (as of 2020, 36 miles on the ground, and demonstrated 1500-mile capability above the ground, with kill chains measured in seconds) in the effort to penetrate anti-access/area denial (A2AD) with long-range fires. Longer-range fires are under development, ranging from hundreds of miles to over 1000 miles, with yearly iterations of Project Convergence being planned.[145]
      • MDO (multi-domain operations) and JADC2 (joint all-domain command and control) thus entails:
        1. Penetrate phase: satellites detect enemy shooters
        2. Dis-integrate phase: airborne assets remove enemy long range fires
        3. Kinetic effect phase: Army shooters, using targeting data from aircraft and other sensors, fire on enemy targets.[146]
      • Army Chief of Staff Gen. James C. McConville will discuss the combination of MDO and JADC2 with Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. Charles Q. Brown.[144] In October 2020 the Chiefs agreed that Futures Command, and the Air Force's A5 office will lead a two-year collaboration 'at the most "basic levels" by defining mutual standards for data sharing and service interfacing' in the development of Combined Joint All-Domain Command and Control (CJADC2).[147]
        • The ability of the joint services to send data from machine to machine was exercised in front of several of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in April 2021; this is a prerequisite capability for Convergence of MDO and JADC2.[148][149]

Partners[edit]

AFC is actively seeking partners outside the military,[150] including research funding to over 300 colleges and universities,[16] but with one-year program cycles.[151] "We will come to you. You don't have to come to us. —General Mike Murray, 24 August 2018"[17]: minute 6:07  Multiple incubator tech hubs are available in Austin,[152] especially Capital Factory, with offices of Defense Innovation Unit (DIUx) and AFWERX (USAF tech hub).[153] Gen. Murray will stand up an Army Applications Lab[Note 2] there to accelerate acquisition and deployment of materiel to the soldiers, using artificial intelligence (AI) [154] as one acceleration technique; Murray will hire a chief technology officer for AFC.[155][156] Gen. Murray, in seeking to globalize AFC,[157] has embedded U.S. military allies into some of the CFTs.[158][16]

AI; Software; Data; ISR; Allies and partners
  • Disinformation at scale appears to be AI-generated, in 2021.[159]
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) Modernization[160][161]—The Secretary of the Army has directed the establishment of an Army AI Task Force (A-AI TF) to support the DoD Joint AI center. The execution order will be drafted and staffed by Futures Command:[154][162]
  • The Army Applications Laboratory[Note 2] was established in 2018, along with the stand-up of the Army Futures Command, to act as a concierge service across the Army’s Future Force Modernization Enterprise and the broader commercial marketplace of ideas.
    • Army AI task force[163][164] (its relationship with the CFTs is cross-cutting, in the same sense as the Assured Position, Navigation, Timing (A-PNT) CFT and the Synthetic Training Environment (STE) CFT are also cross-cutting) will use the resources of the Army to establish scalable machine learning projects at Carnegie Mellon University
    • the Army CIO/G-6 will create an Identity, Credential, and Access Management system to efficiently issue and verify credentials to non-person entities (AI agents and machines)[165]
    • DCS G-2 will coordinate with CG AFC, and director of A-AI TF, to provide intelligence for Long-Range Precision Fires
    • CG AMC will provide functional expertise and systems for maintenance of materiel with AI
    • AFC and A-AI TF will establish an AI test bed for experimentation, training, deployment, and testing of machine learning capabilities and workflows.[166][167] Funding will be assured for the Fiscal Year 2019.[81][168]
      • A Global Network to counter cyber attacks, much like Five Eyes, is the recommendation for multi-domain operations (MDO), which is unified to present a synoptic view of any cyber operation to all the combatant commands simultaneously.[169][130][170][141][139][25][171]
        • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) AlphaDogfight: Trials of eight AI teams, which began learning how to fly in September 2019. In August 2020 the eight AI agents faced each other, in a series of simulated fights. The simulations included the g-forces which limit a human (accelerations greater than 9 g's will cause most forward-facing human pilots to black out— AI agents are not subject to these human constraints). The champion AI agent eventually met a human General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon fighter pilot in simulated combat on 20 August 2020.[172] On 20 August 2020, the champion AI agent consistently defeated a human F-16 pilot in a series of dogfights.[173]
        • DoD's Joint AI Center (JAIC) is providing a Joint Common Foundation, a cloud-based AI toolkit for any DoD organization (viz., Futures Command) to use.[174] JAIC is seeking to curate the flood of data at DoD[175][57] to allow systematic, reliable datasets which are usable for machine learning.[176]
        • Adaptive Distributed Allocation of Probabilistic Tasks (ADAPT) is a DARPA model for testing AI-to-human communication in a toy environment.[177]
  • In 2021 DoD is requesting 600 separate AI efforts for FY2022 ($874 million) as opposed to 400 AI efforts for FY2021.[178] The Army is using machine learning to extract targeting data from satellite sensors for its JADC2 effort.[178][179]
    • U.S. Army 1st Lt. Mahdi Al-Husseini won the XVIII Airborne Corps software competition by pointing a video camera at his helicopter's instrument panel, and feeding the video into an AI neural network, and then using the tablet computer strapped to his leg, to help him evaluate his flight training performance as a pilot.[180]

Futures Command will stand up Army Software Factory in August 2021, to immerse Soldiers and Army civilians of all ranks in modern software development, in Austin.[181][182][183] Similar in spirit to the Training with industry program, participants are expected to take these practices back with them, to influence other Army people in their future assignments, and to build up the Army's capability in software development. The training program lasts three years, and will produce skill sets for trainees as product managers, user experience and user interface designers, software engineers, or platform engineers.[181] The Al Work Force Development program and this Software Factory will complement the Artificial Intelligence Task Force.[182][184]

  • Tapping in to its personnel system, the Army has identified soldiers who can already code at Ph.D.-level, but who are in unexpected MOSs.[185]

AFC is seeking to design signature systems in a relevant time frame according to priorities[Note 1] of the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA).[71] AFC will partner with other organizations such as Defense Innovation Unit Experimental (DIUx) as needed.[95][186] If a team from industry presents a viable program idea to a CFT, that CFT connects to the Army's requirements developers, Secretary Esper said, and the program prototype is then put on a fast track.[187] The Secretary of the Army has approved an Intellectual Property Management Policy, to protect both the Army and the entrepreneur or innovator.[188][189]

For example, the Network CFT and the Program Executive Office Command, Control, Communications—Tactical (PEO C3T) hosted a forum on 1 August 2018 for vendors to learn what might function as a testable/deployable[190] in the near future.[191][129][192] A few of the hundreds of white papers from the vendors, adjudged to be 'very mature ideas', were passed to the Army's acquisition community, while many others were passed to United States Army Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) for continuation in the Army's effort to modernize the network for combat.[193] Although some test requirements were inappropriately applied, the Command post computing environment (CPCE) has passed a hurdle.[194]

While seeking information, the Army is especially interested in ideas that accelerate an acquisition program, in for example the Future Vertical Lift Requests for Information (RFIs): "provide a detailed description of tailored, alternative or innovative approaches that streamlines the acquisition process to accelerate the program as much as possible".[195] In January 2020 the current Optionally manned fighting vehicle (OMFV) solicitation was cancelled when the OMFV's requirements added up to an unobtainable project;[196] In February 2020 Futures command was now soliciting the industry for do-able ideas for an OMFV.[196]

The 2020 xTechSearch top 10 semifinalists (who will each receive $120,000) are:[197]

  • Bounce Imaging, for a tactical throwable camera (self orienting, pointable camera)
  • GeneCapture, for deployable medical tests
  • Inductive Ventures, for magnetic braking of helicopters
  • IoT/AI, for hardware IoT AI devices
  • LynQ Technologies, for a GPS beacon
  • KeriCure, for wound care
  • MEI Micro, for Micro Electronic-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (assured position, navigation, and timing—A-PNT)
  • Multiscale Systems, for meta-material
  • Novaa, for single-aperture antennas ( multi-band rather than 1 dedicated antenna per application)
  • Vita Inclinata, stabilized anti-spin hoisting for pulling injured people on a stretcher into a hovering helicopter

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered the Army to run an xTechsearch Ventilator Challenge; entrants can submit their ideas online for immediate consideration and a possible cash prize to encourage participation for a $100,000 prize and possible Army contract.[198] In 1964 Henrik H. Straub of Harry Diamond Labs, a predecessor to CCDC Army Research Laboratory, invented the Army Emergency Respirator (now termed a 'Ventilator' in current terminology).[199] This ventilator is one application of the fluidic amplifier (a 1957 Harry Diamond Labs invention), which allows the labored breathing of the patient to control the flow from an externally purified air stream, to augment the air flow into a patient's lungs.[199]

TRX Systems won an xTechsearch award for technology which allows Navigation in a GPS-Denied Environment, an A-PNT priority. The award was delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic, which actually allowed the company more time for business development.[200]

AFC events[edit]

See the AFC events below

By 13 October 2021 the Chief of Staff of the Army could announce that the majority of the Army's '31+4' signature systems (that is, Futures Command's 31 signature systems,[201]: 7 —Figure 3. Current Cross Functional Teams and Signature Efforts  and the 4 rapid capability projects of the RCCTO —Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office) would be fielded by fiscal year 2023 (FY2023).[202]

Acquisition[edit]

DoD (2007) Acquisition process denoting Milestones A, B, C along a timeline. When a milestone has been met, the triangle then points downward, at this time. Otherwise the milestone is planned, but not yet met at this time.

Futures Command partners with the ASA(ALT),[203][43] who, in the role of the Army Acquisition Executive (AAE),[204] has milestone decision authority (MDA)[60] at multiple points in a Materiel development decision (MDD).[205] (Thus, from the perspective of AFC, which seeks to modernize, consolidate the relevant expertise into the relevant CFT. The CFT balances the constraints needed to realize a prototype, beginning with realizable requirements, science and technology, test, etc. before entering the acquisition process (typically the Army prototypes on its own, and currently (2019) initiates acquisition at Milestone B, in order to have the Acquisition Executive, with the concurrence of the Army Chief of Staff, decide on production as a program of record at Milestone C).[206] Next, refine the prototype to address the factors needed to pass the Milestone decisions A, B, and C which require Milestone decision authority (MDA) in an acquisition process.[206] This consolidation of expertise thus reduces the risks in a Materiel development decision (MDD), for the Army to admit a prototype into a program of record.) The existing processes (as of April 2018) for a Materiel development decision (MDD) have been updated to clarify their place in the Life Cycle of a program of record:[204][205][57] over 1200 programs/projects were reviewed;[207] by October 2019, over 600 programs of record have been moved from the acquisition (development for modernization) phase to the sustainment phase (for mature projects, to continue their manufacture and fielding to the brigades).[207] An additional life cycle management action is underway, to re-examine which of these projects/programs should be divested.[207] (Surplus materiel might well go to the Security Assistance Command, perhaps to Foreign Military Sales.)

The emphasis remains with Futures Command, which selects programs to develop.[207] In order to achieve its mission of achieving overmatch,[208][114][56] each Futures Command CFT partners with the acquisition community.[209] This community (the Army acquisition workforce (AAW)) includes an entire Army branch (the Acquisition Corps),[210][211][212][213][214] U.S. Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC), Army Contracting Command, (.. This list is incomplete).[205] The Principal Military Deputy to the ASA(ALT) is also deputy commanding general for Combat Systems, Army Futures Command,[204] and leads the Program Executive Officers (PEO); he has directed each PEO who does not have a CFT to coordinate with, to immediately form one, at least informally.[215]

The current acquisition system has pieces all throughout the Army. ... There’s chunks of it in TRADOC and chunks of it in AMC and then other pieces. So really all we’re trying to do is get them all lined up under a single command…..from concept, S&T, RDT&E, through the requirements process, through the beginnings of the acquisition system—Milestone A, B, and C....aligned under that same commander. ... We will finally achieve… unity of command —Secretary Esper.[55]

The PEOs work closely with their respective CFTs.[209] The list of CFTs and PEOs below is incomplete.[Note 1] Operationally, the CFTs offer "de-layering" (fewer degrees of separation between the echelons of the Army—Rugen estimates two degrees of separation),[72] and provide a point of contact (POC) for Army reformers[56] interested in adding value in the midst of constraints to be balanced while modernizing.[72] "... and if we're really good, we'll continue to adapt. Year over year over year." —Secretary Esper[17]: minute 19:00 [6] (See Value stream.)

Prototyping and experimentation[edit]

"Our new approach is really to prototype as much as we can to help us identify requirements, so our reach doesn’t exceed our grasp. ... A good example is Future Vertical Lift: The prototyping has been exceptional." —Secretary of the Army Mark Esper.[216] The development process will be cyclic,[217] consisting of prototype, demonstration/testing, and evaluation,[187] in an iterative process designed to unearth unrealistic requirements early, before prematurely including that requirement in a program of record.[16]

AFC activities include at least one Cross-functional team, its Capability development integration directorate (CDID),[218]: Para. 2b  and the associated Battle Lab,[218]: Para. 2b  for each (Army Center of Excellence (CoE)) respectively. Each CDID and associated Battle Lab work with their CFT[64] to develop operational experiments and prototypes to test.

ASA(ALT), in coordination with AFC, has dotted-line relationships between its PEOs and the CFTs. In particular, the Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office of ASA(ALT) has a PEO who is charged with developing experimental prototype 'units of action' for rapid fielding to the Soldiers. The prototypes are currently for Long range hypersonic weapons, High energy laser defense, and Space, as of June 2019,[219][88][220][85][103][132][221] tripling between 2017 and 2019.[222]

Tests are run by JMC and White Sands Missile Range, which hosts ATEC.[223] As United States Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) reports directly to the Army Chief of Staff,[10] the test support level from ATEC[224] is to be specified by the CFT,[64] or PEO.[225] Fort Bliss and WSMR together cover 3.06 million acres, large enough to test every non-nuclear weapon system in the Army inventory.[226]: minute 1:26:00  JMC runs live developmental experiments to test and assess MDO concepts or capabilities that support the Army's six modernization priorities which are then analyzed by The Research and Analysis Center, denoted TRAC based out of Fort Leavenworth,[64] or AMSAA, denoted the Data Analysis Center at APG. CCDC, now called DEVCOM (formerly RDECOM, at APG) includes the several Army research laboratory locations (ARLs),[227] as well as research, development and engineering centers (RDECs) listed:[218][64][6]

In internal partnerships, CCDC, now called DEVCOM (formerly RDECOM) has taken Long range precision fires (LRPF) as its focus in aligning its organizations (the six research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)); as of September 2018, RDECOM's 'concept of operation' is first to support the LRPF CFT,[228] with ARDEC. AMRDEC is looking to improve the energetics and efficiency of projectiles. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Center is working on high-voltage components for Extended range cannon artillery (ERCA) that save on size and weight.[228] Two dedicated RDECOM people support the LRPF CFT, with reachback support from two dozen more at RDECOM.[229] In January 2019 RDECOM was reflagged as CCDC; General Mike Murray noted that CCDC will have to support more Soldier feedback, and that prototyping and testing will have to begin before a project ever becomes a program of record.[230][6]

Although the Army Research Laboratory has not changed its name, Secretary Esper notes that the CCDC objectives supersede the activities of the Laboratory;[64][57][58] the Laboratory remains in its support role for the top-six priorities for modernizing combat capabilities.[Note 1]

Acquisition specialists are being encouraged to accept lateral transfers to the several research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), where their skills are needed: Ground vehicle systems center (formerly TARDEC, at Detroit Arsenal. Michigan), Aviation and missile center (formerly AMRDEC, at Redstone Arsenal), C5ISR center (formerly CERDEC, at Aberdeen Proving Ground), Soldier center (formerly NSRDEC, Natick, MA), and Armaments center (formerly ARDEC, at Picatinny Arsenal) listed below.[231]

In 2021 candidate Robotic combat vehicles (RCVs), both medium and light RCVs, along with surrogate heavy RCVs (modified M-113s) and proxy manned control vehicles (MET-Ds) were to marshal at Camp Grayling MI to test a company-sized tele-operated / unmanned formation.[232] The light RCVs had their autonomous driving software installed in November and December 2020.[232] The robotic vehicle formation begins a shakeout in April 2021. The RCVs (and the software, which is common to all 18 vehicles) enters ATEC (Army Test and Evaluation Command) safety testing through May 2022.[232] Live-fire drills are scheduled to conclude in August 2022.[232]

AFC branch locations[edit]

The following activities for Futures Command are at 23 locations.[233] (A 'CoE', or TRADOC Center of Excellence, can be co-located near a CFT, along with the associated Capability Development Integration Directorate (CDID) and Battle Lab)

Need for modernization reform[edit]

Between 1995 and 2009, $32 billion was expended on programs such as the Future Combat System[280] (2003-2009), with no harvestable content by the time of its cancellation.[281] The Army has not fielded a new combat system in decades.[282][119][283][284][22]

Secretary of the Army Mark Esper has remarked that AFC will provide the unity of command and purpose needed to reduce the requirements definition phase from 60 months to 12 months.[285][11][63] A simple statement of a problem (rather than a full-blown requirements definition) that the Army is trying to address may suffice for a surprising, usable solution. —General Mike Murray, paraphrasing Trae Stephens[54]: minute 41:50  (One task will be to quantify the lead time for identifying a requirement; the next task would then be to learn how to reduce that lead time.—Gap analysis )[17]: minute 11:00 [286][287][6] Process changes are expected.[286][57] The development process will be cyclic, consisting of prototype, demonstration/testing, and evaluation, in an iterative process designed to unearth unrealistic requirements early, before prematurely including that requirement in a program of record. The ASA(ALT) Bruce Jette[209] has cautioned the acquisition community to 'call-out' unrealistic processes which commit a program to a drawn-out failure,[288] rather than failing early, and seeking another solution.[289]

Secretary Esper scrubbed through 800[290] modernization programs to reprioritize funding[291] for the top 6 modernization priorities,[73] which will consume 80% of the modernization funding,[292] of 18 systems.[292] The Budget Control Act will restrict funds by 2020.[293][294][295][296][297][298][299][300][301][18][19][302][303][304] Secretary McCarthy has cautioned that a stopgap 2019 Continuing resolution (CR) would halt development of some of the critical modernization projects.[305][306] Realistically, budget considerations will restrict the fielding of new materiel to one Armor BCT per year;[307] at that rate, updates would take decades.[307][303] The Budget Control Act (BCA) expires in 2022.[308][309] The "night court" budget review process realigned $2.4 billion for modernization away from programs which were not tied to modernization or to the 2018 National Defense Strategy.[310] The total FY2021 budget request of $178 billion is $2 billion less than the enacted FY2020 budget of $180 billion.[310][311][312][313][314][315][316][317]

The CIO/G6 has targeted Futures Command (Austin) in 2019 as the first pilot for "enterprise IT-as-a-service"-style service contracts; General Murray now (July 2019) has a sensitive compartmented information facility in his headquarters, as a result of this pilot.[15] Two other locations are to be announced for 2019. Six to eight other pilots are envisioned for 2020. However, 288 other enterprise network locations remain to be migrated away from the previous "big bang" migration concept from several years ago, as they are vulnerable to near-peer cyber threats.[318][226]: minute 16:50  The CIO/G6 emphasizes that this enterprise migration is not the tactical network espoused in the top six priorities (a 'mobile & expeditionary Army network').[318][319]

  1. After AFC, the following G6 service contracts are high priority:[318]
  2. The Combat Training Centers (Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, and Grafenwöhr)
  3. TRADOC and its Centers of Excellence (CoEs)
  4. The power projection bases from which deployments spring

By February 2020 the Vice Chief of Staff could assess that Army modernization was perceptibly speeding up.[320]

Silos[edit]

Chief Milley noted that AFC would actively reach out into the community in order to learn,[16] and that Senator John McCain's frank criticism of the acquisition process was instrumental for modernization reform at Futures command.[17]: minute 7:30 [11] In fact, AFC soldiers would blend into Austin by not wearing their uniforms [to work side by side with civilians in the tech hubs],[16][321] Milley noted on 24 August 2018 press conference.[17]: minute 6:20  Secretary Esper said he expected failures during the process of learning how to reform the acquisition and modernization process;[17]: minute 18:20  the Network CFT and PEO have detected a process failure in the DOT&E[322] requirements process: some test requirements were inappropriately applied.[194][323]

In the Department of Defense, the materiel supply process was underwritten by the acquisition, logistics, and technology directorate of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), with a deputy secretary of defense (DSD) to oversee five areas, one of them being acquisition, logistics, and technology (ALT).[324] ALT is overseen by an under secretary of defense (USD).[325] (Each of the echelons at the level of DSD and USD serve at the pleasure of the president, as does the secretary of defense (SECDEF).) The Defense Acquisition University (DAU) trains acquisition professionals for the Army as well.

In 2016 when RDECOM reported to AMC (instead of to AFC, as it does as of 2018), AMC instituted Life cycle management command (LCMC)[209] of three of RDECOM's centers for aviation and missiles, electronics, and tanks:[326] AMRDEC,[327] CERDEC,[328][329] and TARDEC[330] respectively, as well as the three contracting[331] functions for the three centers.[288]

This Life Cycle Management (formulated in 2004)[332][333] was intended to exert the kind of operational control (OPCON)[63] needed just for the sustainment function (AMC's need for Readiness today),[288] rather than for its relevance to modernization for the future, which is the focus of AFC. AFC now serves as the deciding authority when moving a project in its Life Cycle, out of the Acquisition phase and into the Sustainment phase.[207]

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Acquisition Executive, and the AFC commander created a COVID-19 task force to try to project supplier problems 30, 60, and 90 days out; they are respectively tracking 800 programs, and 35 priorities on a daily basis.[334]

Relevance for modernization[edit]

The CFTs,[Note 1] as prioritized 1 through 6 by the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA), each have to consider constraints: a balance of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment.[41][65]

The Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership and education, Personnel and Facilities (DOTMLPF) method of mission planning was instituted to quantify tradeoffs in joint planning.[63] TRADOC's Mission Command CoE uses DOTMLPF.[335] DOTMLPF will be used for modernization of the Army beyond materiel alone, which (as of 2019) is the current focus of the CFTs.[336][240] The updated modernization strategy, to move from concept to doctrine as well, will be unveiled by summer 2019.[336] DOTMLPF (doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities) itself is planned as a driver for modernization.[11][336] The plan is to have an MDO-capable Army by 2028, and an MDO-ready Army by 2035.[336][118]

TRADOC, ASA (ALT), and AFC are tied together in this process, according to Vice Chief McConville.[337] AFC will have to be "a little bit disruptive [but not upsetting to the existing order]" in order to institute reforms within budget in a timely way.[338]

The ASA(ALT), or Assistant Secretary of the Army for acquisition, logistics, and technology is currently (2018) Dr. Bruce Jette. The ASA (ALT) is the civilian executive overseeing both the acquisition and the sustainment processes of the Department of the Army. The ASA(ALT) will coordinate the acquisition portion of modernization reform with AFC.[218]: Para. 1c [43]

Congress has given the Army Other Transaction Authority (OTA),[339][Note 2] which allows the PEOs to enter into Full Rate Production quicker by permitting the services to control their own programs of record, rather than DoD.[215] This strips out one layer of bureaucracy as of 2018.[215][340][92] MTA (middle tier acquisition authority) is another tool available to Program Managers and Contracting Officers.[341]

Besides the AFC CFTS, the Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC)[342][343][344] could also play a part in acquisition reform;[345][346] as of September 2018 the Deputy Chief of Staff G-8 (DCS G-8), who leads AROC and JROC (Joint Requirements Oversight Council) has aligned with the priorities of AFC.[347] The DCS G-8 is principal military advisor to the ASA (FM&C).[204]

In addition, the Program Executive Officers (PEOs) of ASA (ALT) are to maintain a dotted-line relationship[Note 1] (i.e., coordination) with Futures Command.[209][55]

There is now a PEO for Rapid Capabilities, to get rapid turnaround. The Rapid Capabilities Office (RCO)'s PEO gets two program managers, one for rapid prototyping, and one for rapid acquisition, of a capability.[348] The Rapid capabilities office (RCO) does not develop its own requirements; rather, the RCO gets the requirements from the Cross-functional team (CFT).[349] Rapid Capabilities (RCO) was headed by Tanya Skeen as PEO RCO[209] but Skeen moved to DoD, in late 2018.[350] In 2019 RCO became the Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (RCCTO)[351] Redstone Arsenal, headed by LTG L. Neil Thurgood,[88] lately of ASA (ALT)'s Army Hypersonics office.[220][87]

Progress toward MDO[edit]

The CG of Army Futures Command (AFC) Gen. Murray, is set to announce full operational capability (FOC) 31 July 2019.[352][353][24]

At Picatinny Arsenal in September 2020 a XM1299 Extended Range Cannon Artillery self-propelled howitzer with an AI kill chain used a hypervelocity munition to intercept a cruise missile surrogate.[354]

The Army G8 is monitoring just how producible (Milestone C) the upcoming materiel will be; for the moment, the G8 is funding the materiel.[21] Follow-up on Modernization reviews is forthcoming, on a regular basis, according to the G8.[355][356][357]

The progress in the top six priorities (1— long-range precision fires; 2— next-generation combat vehicle; 3— future vertical lift platforms; 4— a mobile & expeditionary Army network; 5— air & missile defense capabilities; and 6— soldier lethality) being:[Note 1][61][22][187][358][28][134]

Long range fires[edit]

Based on Futures Command's development between July 2018 and December 2020, Dan Gouré's assessment and summary of the Army's capability is that by 2023 the earliest versions of these weapons will be fielded:[359]

Long-Range Hypersonic Weapon training with All-up-round in its canister, 7 Oct 2021
  • The kill chains will take less than 1 minute, from detection of the target, to execution of the fires command;[360] these operations will have the capability to precisely strike "command centers, air defenses, missile batteries, and logistics centers"[359] nearly simultaneously.[361][362]
    • The speed of battle damage assessment will depend on the travel time of the munition. This capability depends on the ability of a specialized CFT, Assured precision navigation and timing (APNT) to provide detail.[78][79][80][363]
    1. Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF): Howitzer artillery ranges have doubled, in excess of 60 km (37 mi) , with accuracy within 1 meter of the aimpoint,[364] currently with sufficient accuracy to intercept cruise missiles, as of September 2020, reaching the 43 mile range as of December 2020.[365]
    2. Precision Strike Missiles (PrSMs) can reach in excess of 150 miles,[366] with current 2020 tests
    3. Mid-range capability (MRC) fires can reach in excess of 500 to 1000 miles,[367] using mature Navy missiles[368]
    4. Long-Range Hypersonic Weapons (LRHWs) are to range in excess of 1725 miles.[369] Strategic long range cannon (SLRC) ranges are to be announced.
  • Long Range Precision Fires (LRPFs) is a program to extend the range of artillery.[370] Tests in 2018 showed the range was doubled.[228][371]
  • The current M109A6 Paladin cannon range is doubling in the M109A7 variant.[372]: minute 2:30 [373] An operational test of components of the Long range cannon is scheduled for 2020.[374] The LRC is complementary to Extended range cannon artillery (ERCA),[374][370] the M1299 Extended Range Cannon Artillery howitzer.[354] Baseline ERCA is to enter service in 2023.[375][376][364][377] Investigations for ERCA in 2025: rocket-boosted artillery shells:[228] Tests of the Multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) XM30 rocket shell have demonstrated a near-doubling of the range of the munition, using the Tail controlled guided multiple launch rocket system, or TC-G.[378] The TRADOC capability manager (TCM) Field Artillery Brigade - DIVARTY has been named a command position.[Note 3]
    • An autoloader for ERCA's 95-pound shells is under development at Picatinny Arsenal,[354] to support a sustained firing rate of 10 rounds a minute [364][379] A robotic vehicle for carrying the shells is a separate effort at Futures Command's Army Applications Lab.[354][380]
  • The Precision Strike Missile (PrSM) is intended to replace the Army Tactical Missile System (MGM-140 ATACMS) in 2023.[228] PrSM flight testing is delayed beyond 2 August 2019, the anticipated date for the expiration of the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty, which set 499 kilometer limits on intermediate-range missiles.[381] (David Sanger and Edward Wong projected that the earliest test of a longer range missile could be a ground-launched version of a Tomahawk cruise missile,[382] followed by a test of a mobile ground launched IRBM with a range of 1800–2500 miles before year-end 2019.[382][383]) The 2020 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA)[384] was approved on 9 December 2019, which allows the Pentagon to continue testing such missiles in FY2020; Paul McCleary pointed out that Congress will still need an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) for the prospective missile acquisitions.[383] The Lockheed PrSM prototype had its first launch on 10 December 2019 at White Sands Missile Range, in a 150-mile test, and an overhead detonation; the Raytheon PrSM prototype was delayed from its planned November launch,[366] and Raytheon has now withdrawn from the PrSM risk reduction phase.[385] The PrSM's range and accuracy, the interfaces to HIMARS launcher, and test software, met expectations.[366][386] PrSM passed Milestone B on 1 October 2021.[387] Baseline PrSM is to enter service in 2023.[388][375][376]
  • For targets beyond the PrSM's range, the Army's RCCTO will seek a mid-range missile prototype by 2023, with a reach from 1000 to 2000 miles.[389][390][391] Loren Thompson points out that a spectrum of medium-range to long-range weapons will be available to the service by 2023;[376][392] RCCTO's prototype Mid-Range Capability (MRC) battery will field mature Navy missiles, likely for the Indo-Pacific theater in FY2023.[367] DARPA is developing OpFires, an intermediate-range hypersonic weapon which is shorter-range than the Army's LRHW. DARPA is seeking a role in the armory for OpFires' throttle-able rocket motor, post-2023.[393][394] These weapons will likely require planning for new Army (or Joint) formations.[376]
  • The Long range hypersonic weapons (LRHWs) will use precision targeting data against anti-access area denial (A2AD) radars and other critical infrastructure of near-peer competitors by 2023.[395][92] LRHW does depend on stable funding.[356][89][396]
    • Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS) 7.0 is the vehicle for an Multi-domain task force's artillery battery very similar to a THAAD battery: beginning in 2020, these batteries will train for a hypersonic glide vehicle which is common to the Joint forces.[87] The Long range hypersonic weapon (LRHW)[395] glide vehicle is to be launched from transporter erector launchers.[87][397][89] Tests of the Common hypersonic glide body (C-HGB) to be used by the Army and Navy were meeting expectations in 2020.[101]
    • In August 2020 the director of Assured precision navigation and timing (APNT) CFT announced tests which integrate the entire fires kill chain, from initial detection to final destruction. William B. Nelson announced the flow of satellite data from the European theater (Germany), and AI processing of AFATDS targeting data to the fires units.[79][80]
      • In September 2020 an AI kill chain was formulated in seconds; a hypervelocity (speeds up to Mach 5) munition,[398] launched from a descendant of the Paladin, intercepted a cruise missile surrogate.[360][399]
    • Three flight tests of LRHW were scheduled in 2021;[400] that plan was changed to 1 test in late 2021, followed by a multi-missile test in 2022.[375][401]
    • the LRHW has been named 'Dark Eagle'[402]
    • The first LRHW battery will start to receive its first operational rounds in early FY2023; all 8 rounds for this battery will have been delivered by FY'23.[403] By then, the PEO Missiles and Space will have picked up the LRHW program, for batteries two and three in FY'25 and FY'27, respectively.[403] Battery one will first train, and then participate in the LRHW flight test launches in FY'22 and FY'23.[403]

Next-Generation Combat Vehicle[edit]

Next-Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV) portfolio:[404][405][406][407][408] [409]

  • At Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Firestorm (a Project Convergence AI node)[410][411][412] sent targeting coordinates to Remote Weapons Stations, which were proxies for the Robotic Combat Vehicles and Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicles. A CROWS was slewed to the aimpoint, awaiting the human commander's order to fire.[413] Firestorm aids and partakes of the Common operational picture (COP) shared by the AI hub at Joint Base Lewis-McChord.[413][414] Satellite-based, F-35 based, and Army ground-based targeting data were shared in real-time during Firestorm's operation with the AI hubs to produce effects at YPG.[415][416]
  • Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): in Limited User Tests[404][406][317] General purpose variant supports Blue force tracking[61]: p.40 
    • An Advanced Powertrain Demonstrator, compact enough for AMPVs, Bradleys, OMFVs, or RCVs, can generate 1,000 horsepower from diesel.[418] Alternatively, the demonstrator can generate electrical power: 160 kiloWatts for SHORAD high-energy lasers, or for propulsion of a 50-ton vehicle in quiet mode, for brief periods.[418]
  • A ground mobility vehicle competition, bids closing 26 October 2018[419]
    • The JLTV was approved for full rate production in June 2019.[420] Joint Modernization Command (JMC) is supporting a TCM Stryker study on the optimum number of JLTVs for light infantry brigades.[421]
    • Electrification microgrid standards[422]
      • AFC's Futures and concepts center is proposing a strategy to guide the electrification of the GCVs, using the JLTV as an example for a step-by-step pathway and transition plan for electrification.[423][424][57][58] Loren Thompson cautions that electrification per se could harm further fielding due to scope creep in specifications for the JLTV.[425]
      • The Maneuver CDID (MCDID) is undertaking the requirements development for electrification of Tactical and Combat Vehicles in September 2020;[426] General Wesley had previously announced a plan in April 2020 for the modernization of Tactical and Combat Vehicles using the JLTV electrification plan as a prototype template of the electrification process.[426][57]
      • After prototype JLTV electrification, the Army is seeking ideas[427] for an electrified Light Reconnaissance Vehicle (LRV) by 2025.[428] The LRVs would complement the Infantry Squad Vehicles (ISVs),[428] and electrified versions of Stryker ICVDs (Infantry Carrier Vehicle - Dragoon) which are already fielded.[429] GM Defense has since converted one of its bid vehicles for the ISV to an all-electric version.[430][431]
  • Mobile Protected Firepower (MPF):[432][433] approved by joint requirements oversight council.[406] Two vendors were selected to build competing prototype light tanks (MPF), with contract award in 2022.[434] A unit of 82nd Airborne Division will begin assessment of prototype MPFs beginning in March 2020.[435]
  • Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle (OMFV):[187] soliciting input, in requirements definition stage; the 2018 requirement was that 2 OMFVs fit in a C-17.[406][436][57][58] A request for proposal (RFP) for a vehicle prototype was placed 29 March 2019.[187][437] On 16 January 2020 the Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle solicitation was cancelled, as a middle tier acquisition in its early stage; the requirements and schedule are being revisited.[196] The FY2021 budget request has been adjusted accordingly.[309][438][439]
    • An Army development team will not be an OMFV competitor as of 17 September 2020.[440]
    • NGCV optionally manned fighting vehicle: OMFV is getting some industry silhouettes[441] which may be incorporated in digital designs for 2023, prototypes by 2025.[438] A fifth OMFV bidder (a small business) is still a contender in the competition, includes large consortia.[442] However, Mark Cancian points out that OMFV might not be suitable for a pivot to the Pacific theater.[443]
  • Robotic Combat Vehicles (RCVs):[444][187] General Murray envisions that by FY2023 critical decisions will be made on RCVs after years of experimentation.[135][445] See Uran-9 (Уран-9)
  • Next Generation main battle tank:[446][447] § Futures

Future Vertical Lift[edit]

Future Vertical Lift (FVL)[57][36][448]

  • The FVL CFT has secured approval for the requirements in all four of its Lines of Effort:[449][450]
    1. Future Vertical Lift will use the DoD modular open systems approach (MOSA),[36][451] an integrated business and technical strategy in FARA,[452][453][454][455][456] and in FLRAA:[457][458][195] Both FLRAA and FARA are to enter service by Fiscal Year 2030.[459]
    2. Joint Multi-Role Technology Demonstrator (JMR-TD): prototypes by two teams to replace Sikorksy UH-60 Blackhawks with Future Long-Range Assault Aircraft (FLRAA).[460] The tilt-rotor FLRAA demonstrator by Bell is flying unmanned (October 2019); it logged 100 hours of flight testing by April 2019.[461] Both Bell and Sikorsky-Boeing received contract awards to compete in a risk reduction effort (CDRRE) for FLRAA in March 2020.[462][461][463] The risk reduction effort will be a 2-phase, 2-year competition. The competition will transition technologies (powertrain, drivetrain and control laws) from the previous demonstrators (JMR-TDs) of 2018–2019 to requirements, conceptual designs, and acquisition approach for the weapon system.[462][464] The Aviation PEO would then be able to present an acquisition strategy to the Acquisition Executive (potentially a full and open competition for FLRAA in a future Fiscal Year).[462][465][466] The Army calls for flight testing of FLRAA prototypes, beginning in 2025, with fielding to the first units in 2030.[467]
    3. The Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA) is smaller than FLRAA. The Army issued requests for proposals (RFPs) for FARA.[468] RFPs were due in December 2018;[469][470][453][471] in April 2019, the Army awarded 5 Other transaction authority (OTA) contracts[472] to vendors with a Milestone C in 2028.[473][474] Each agreement spans the entire acquisition process, from design, to prototype, to flight test, to low-volume production, to fielding, to full-rate production (Milestone C);[473][475] but each agreement is subject to cancellation, if need be. Competing FARA demonstrators will also be built by Bell, and by Sikorsky, in three year efforts beginning in 2020.[476][477][478]
    4. Future tactical unmanned aircraft systems (FTUAS): drones which do not require runways.[479][480][481][482][483]
  • Under Secretary McCarthy notes that Soldier feedback remains an item for discussion in the Future Vertical Lift CFT.[484][485][50] UH-60 Blackhawks are serving as surrogate FARAs for experiments designed to pierce the enemy's anti-access/area denial (A2AD) environment, and bring a mesh network forward.[450]
    • In the 2020 Project Convergence at Yuma Proving Ground, Air-launched Effects (ALEs), 8 drones simultaneously launched from the FARA surrogates. The ALEs spanned a 40-mile front; the ALE drones served as sensors which spotted targets and guided long-range artillery fires across the 40-mile front.[486]
    • The FARAs, which can be flown unmanned, are meant to be flown at low altitudes to avoid detection, but have a deeper, wider horizon than ground-based materiel. Next year, in 2021 ALEs can be expected to guide other Long range precision fires (LRPFs), such as a PrSM, with its 300-mile range. LRPFs could also be tested to see how much farther a front can be widened.[486]
  • In the FY2022 budget allocation, a long range precision munition for the Army's aircraft will begin its program of design and development.[487] In the interim, the Army is evaluating the Spike NLOS missile on its Boeing AH-64E Apache attack helicopters. Spike has an 18 mile range.[487]

Mobile, Expeditionary Network:[edit]

In Fiscal Year 2019, the network CFT will leverage Network Integration Evaluation 18.2[488] for experiments with brigade level scalability.[489]

Integrated Tactical Network (ITN) "is not a new or separate network but rather a concept"—PEO C3T.[490][491][492] Avoid overspecifying the requirements for Integrated Tactical Network[61][490][493][494][495][496][497] Information Systems Initial Capabilities Document. Instead, meet operational needs,[498][489][156] such as interoperability with other networks,[499][226]: minute 26:40 [497] and release ITN capabilities incrementally.[500][61][490]

  • Up through 2028, every two years the Army will insert new capability sets for ITN (Capability sets '21, '23, '25, etc.).[501][61][490] and take feedback from Soldier-led experiment & evaluation.[502][503][504][37][505]
    • Firestorm was made possible by a mesh network—improvising an MEO, and then a GEO satellite link between JBLM to YPG.[417] There are plans to have a Project Convergence 2021.[145][506][507] The Army fielded a data fabric at Project Convergence 2020;[508] this will eventually be part of JADC2.[509][510][511]
    • Five Rapid Innovation Fund (RIF) awards have been granted to five vendors via the Network CFT and PEO C3T's request for white papers. That request, for a roll-on/roll-off kit that integrates all functions of mission command on the Army Network, was posted at the National Spectrum Consortium and FedBizOpps, and yielded awards within eight months.[512][Note 2] Two more awards are forthcoming.
    • The Rapid Capabilities Office (RCO)'s Emerging Technologies Office structured a competition to find superior AI/Machine Learning algorithms for electronic warfare, from a field of 150 contestants, over a three-month period.[513][Note 2]
    • The Multi-Domain Operations Task Force (MDO TF) is standing up an experimental Electronic Warfare Platoon to prototype an estimated 1000 EW soldiers needed for the 31 BCTs of the active Army.[514][114]
    • An Army leader dashboard from PEO Enterprise Information Systems is underway.[515][516] The dashboard has been renamed Vantage.[517] Cloud-service-provider agnostic abstraction layers are in use, which allows merging the staff work in G-3/5/7 for cyber/EW (electronic warfare), mission command, and space.[518] The "seamless, real-time flow of data" across multiple domains (land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace) is an objective for G-6, as well as the sensor-to-shooter work at Futures command.[259][518][519][508]
    • Fort Irwin, Fort Hood, Joint Base San Antonio, and Joint Base Lewis McChord have 5G experiments on wireless connectivity between forward operating bases and tactical operations centers, as well as nonaircraft Augmented reality support of maintenance and training.[520]
    • G-6 John Morrison is seeking to unify the battlefield networks of ITN, and the Army's Enterprise Network, as of September 2021.[521][522]
  • Capability Set '21 fields ITN to selected infantry brigades to prepare for IVAS Integrated vision goggles. Expeditionary signal brigades get enhanced satellite communications.
    • 1/82nd Airborne, 173rd Airborne, 3/25th ID, and 3/82nd Airborne infantry brigades will all have fielded the Integrated Tactical Network Capability Set '21 by year-end 2021.[523][493] 2nd Cavalry Regiment is getting Capability Set '21 on Strykers.[524]
  • Integrated Tactical Network (ITN) Capability Set '23 is prototyping JADC2 communications and the data fabric, to LEO (Low earth orbit) and to MEO (Medium earth orbit) satellites, as continued in Project Convergence 2021 in Yuma Proving Ground.[508][524]
  • Integrated Tactical Network (ITN) Capability Set '25 will implement JADC2, according to the acting head of the Network CFT.[525][526][527][528] Command post footprint reduced.[491]

Air, Missile Defense[edit]

Air, Missile Defense (AMD):[529][530][531][38]

Schematic 6-layer Air Defense dome, one of multiple arrays linked by Integrated Air and Missile Battle Command System (IBCS)
Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System

US IBCS[61]: p.42  second limited user test was scheduled to take place in the fourth quarter of FY20.[531][532] On 1 May 2019 an Engagement Operations Center (EOC) for the Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Battle Command System (IBCS) was delivered to the Army, at Huntsville, Alabama.[533]

IAMD[528][534][535] is intended to integrate :

In July 2020 a Limited user test (LUT) of IBCS was initiated at WSMR; the test ran until mid-September 2020.[544] The LUT was originally scheduled for May but was delayed to handle the COVID-19 safety protocols.[532] The first of several LUTs of IBCS, by an ADA battalion was successfully run in August 2020.[545] IBCS successfully integrated data from two sensors (Sentinel and Patriot radars), and shot down two drones (cruise missile surrogates) with two Patriot missiles in the presence of jamming;[545] In the week after, by 20 August 2020 two more disparate threats (cruise missile and ballistic missile) were launched and intercepted;[546][547] the ADA battalion then ran hundreds of drills denoting hundreds of threats for the remainder of the IBCS tests (the increased effort occupied the entire unit);[548] the real-world data serve as a sanity check for Monte Carlo simulations of an array of physical scenarios amounting to hundreds of thousands of cases.[361][549] IBCS created a "single uninterrupted composite track of each threat" and handed off each threat for separate disposition by the air and missile defense's integrated fire control network (IFCN).[550] The same battalion running the LUT, for both IBCS, and LTAMDS radar, is scheduled to run the Initial Operational Test & Evaluation (IOTE) in 2021,[544][551] and is to run well into 2022.[549]

In September 2020 a Joint exercise against cruise missiles demonstrated AI-based kill chains which can be formulated in seconds; One of the kills was by a "M109-based" tracked howitzer[360][552] (a Paladin descendant).[553]

Although on 21 August 2019 the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) cancelled the $5.8 billion contract for the Redesigned kill vehicle (RKV),[554][555][556][107] the Army's 100th Missile Defense Brigade will continue to use the Exo-Atmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV). The current Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) programs continue per plan, with 64 ground-based interceptors (GBIs) in the missile fields for 2019 planned. Command and Control Battle Management and Communications (C2BMC), was developed by the Missile defense agency (as a development organization) and is integrated with GMD, as demonstrated by FTG-11 on 25 March 2019.[557]: 15:00  By March 2021, the decision to approve further development of the Next Generation Interceptor is on the agenda for the 35th Deputy Secretary of Defense Kathleen Hicks. Hicks has extensive background in defense modernization; the 28th Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin has recused himself from acquisition matters.[558] [559]

The TRADOC capability manager (TCM) for Strategic Missile Defense (SMD) has accepted the charter for DOTMLPF for the Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC/ARSTRAT).[560][118]

High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator
High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator (HEL-TVD) 2019

A contract for the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command's High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator (HEL TVD) laser system, a 100 kilowatt laser demonstrator for use on the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles, was awarded 15 May 2019 to Dynetics-Lockheed.[561][88] A 300 kilowatt laser demonstrator (HEL-IFPC) effort supersedes the HEL TVD (after the critical design review).[562][563][564] System test at White Sands Missile Range in 2023.[561][565][566][567]

  • Indirect fire protection capability (IFPC) Multi-mission launcher (MML) fielding 50 kW lasers on Strykers[133][395] in 2021 and 2022 to two battalions per year.[117][568][569][570][531][565][566][567][571]
  • Maneuver short-range air defense (MSHORAD)[572][531][573] with laser cannon prototypes in 2020,[563] In July 2021 RCCTO conducted a combat shootoff on just how to control pointing these high-energy lasers.[574][575]
  • RCCTO has awarded a contract to build a 300 kW high-energy laser (HEL) for the Army in FY2022, capable of defending against airborne threats, by acquiring, tracking, and maintaining the HEL's aimpoint on the threat until it goes down.[576]

Soldier lethality[edit]

  1. Soldier Lethality:[40][494][39][577][578][317]
    • Next-generation squad weapon: Expect 100,000 to be fielded to the Close Combat Force:[39] Infantry, Armor, Cavalry, Special Forces, and Combat engineers. Tests at Fort Benning in 2019. —Chief of Staff Milley[579]
    • Nine thousand systems, with two drones apiece are being purchased over a three-year period for the 9-man infantry squads heading to Afghanistan.[580]
    • Enhanced night vision goggles (ENVG)-B, will be fielded to an Armor brigade combat team (ABCT) going to South Korea in October 2019[581][582][39]
      • A CCDC program which instrumented a battalion with sleep monitors, Redibands, and smartwatches to detect exertion, detected soldiers with elevated heart rates, indicating the beginnings of a streptococcus infection. This condition was detected by the medics, and would have impacted the battalion, detected before deploying to Afghanistan.[583]
    • Synthetic training environment (STE)—a CFT devoted to an augmented reality system[250][584] to aid planning, using mapping techniques, even at squad level[585][586] will begin fielding by 2021.[587][248][588] In October 2019 the Synthetic Training Environment (STE) prototype is being used by Special Operations for planning actual missions.[589][252] Development for the Synthetic Training Environment (STE) is to be accelerated to meet MDO and JADC2 training demands.[590]
  2. On the battlefield of the future, where no headquarters is safe for long, the commander's task is:[591]: p.87 
    • "Avoid being detected and targeted."
    • "Work through and survive attacks."
    • "Rapidly recover from losses."
    • Thus the commander has to be continuously aware of the current status (that is: alive or not) of the deputy commander (and the staff) so that the mission can be completed.

Enterprise campaign planning[edit]

In 2019 DoD planners are exercising DOTMLPF in planning, per the National Defense Strategy (NDS),[592] in the shift from counterinsurgency (COIN) to competition with near-peer powers.[592] The evaluations from planners' scenarios will be determining materiel and organization by late 2020.[592][118][593][594]

Futures Command is formulating multiyear Enterprise campaign plans, in 2019.[595][239] The planning process includes Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC), AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs), Futures and Concepts (FCC), Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC), and Army Reserve's Houston-based 75th Innovation Command. At this stage, one goal is to formulate the plans in simple, coherent language which nests within the national security strategic documents.[595][596][597][598]

Futures[edit]

AFC faces multiple futures,[599] both as threat and opportunity. The Army's warfighting directive, viz., "to impose the nation's political will on its enemy" —Chief of Staff Milley, is to be ready[11] for multiple near-term futures.[600] Under Secretary McCarthy notes that Gen. Murray functions as the Army's Chief Investments Officer[155] (more precisely, its "chief futures modernization investment officer").[204]: Section 4 [Note 2][56] Funding for the top six priorities could mean that existing programs might be curtailed.[601]

In the top six priorities:

  1. LRPF Long range precision fires[602][603]
  2. NGCV Next generation combat vehicle[612][151]
    • Much smaller and lighter ground combat vehicles, optionally unmanned[255] (Dedicated short-range communications for robotic vehicles[613]
      Small Multipurpose Equipment Transport (S-MET) candidate robotic mules for transporting infantry squad equipment[614]
      • If robotic combat vehicles (RCVs) do not need to be manned, neither would they need to be armored (see Uran-9); use of sensors and batteries could replace the armor.[615][616] Soldiers have learned to remotely operate the weapons on such RCVs in several days;[615] the CCDC RCV Center and CFT are placing RCV prototypes and the Soldier's vehicle prototypes in company-level scenarios in Europe, in 2020 and forward.[615] Modified Bradley Fighting Vehicles and M113s at Fort Carson went through unit-level operations to gain experience with RCVs in July and August 2020.[617] Future breaching operations will be affected in detail by the robotic breaching concept, according to the panel at the AUSA October 2020 meeting.[618] [619]
      • In October 2020 the Army's Chief of Staff reminded the force that "The time is now" to modernize for the future, including how the Army develops the systems themselves;[620][31] if a soldier can now use IVAS to shoot around corners and hit the target, if soldiers and their units can use STE (synthetic training environment) to depict the mission's terrain and train for the mission before the conflict occurs, if deploying robotic reconnaissance vehicles at the time of the mission can smoke out defenses before committing manned combat vehicles against those defenses, then even light vehicles can transport soldiers in conflict, and precision fires can neutralize threats against those soldiers in a conflict. STE can depict these scenarios.[621]: min 14:01 [622]
    • Robotic warfare, as a concept or capability at the Joint Corps echelon, was demonstrated at the operational level using Joint Warfighting assessment (JWA) 18.1 in April 2018.
    • JWA 19 (April–May 2019): I Corps, at Joint base Lewis-McChord, is getting modernization training on the robotic complex breaching concept (RCBC),[623] and the command post computing environment (CPCE)[624] from Joint modernization command (JMC) training staff.[625]
      • Create decisive lethality:[626][627][135] Robotic experiments[628][629]
        • Jen Judson reports that Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley is proposing that the brigades begin to electrify their vehicles using hybrid,[630] or all-electric propulsion,[424][631] or perhaps other mobile power plants.[632]
        • Modified M2 Bradleys (MET-Ds) and other RCVs operating at Fort Carson, and in Europe have used robotic software to operate the vehicles, for both logistics and also for combat maneuver.[633] As of August 2020, the RCVs are able to perform limited waypoint navigation; multiple vehicles can be controlled by one human operator.[633]
        • Smaller brigades and stronger division-level maneuver, with robotic aerial reconnaissance vehicles, robotic combat vehicles (RCVs), and long-range precision fires (LRPFs) are under consideration.[634]
  3. FVL[635] "Our new approach is really to prototype as much as we can to help us identify requirements, so our reach doesn’t exceed our grasp. ... A good example is Future Vertical Lift: The prototyping has been exceptional." —Secretary of the Army Mark Esper[216]
    • The Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA) scout helicopter prototypes are to be designed to fly along urban streets, to survive air defenses.[473] Five design vendors were selected, with downselect to two for prototyping by February 2020.[473]
    • These aircraft are envisioned as platforms for utilizing sensor networks to control and enable weapons delivery, as demonstrated in a 2019 experiment.[636][637] In preparation for FVL platforms, the FVL CFT demonstrated a 2020 Spike non-line of sight missile launch from an Apache gunship at Yuma Proving Ground, for extended range capability;[638] a forward air launch of an unmanned sensor aircraft (UAS) from a helicopter was demonstrated at YPG as well.[639]
  4. Mobile & Expeditionary Network[591] / MDO Multi-domain operations[25][307]
    • In the battlefield of the future, where nowhere is safe for long, "you will miss opportunities to get to positions of advantage if you don't synthesize the data very quickly"—LTG Wesley (AI for multi-domain command and control: MDC2)[123][640][115][641]
      • ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance) needs to match the range of the upcoming LRPF (Long range precision fires) and thousand-nautical-mile missile standoff capability of the Army.[642] Soldiers on the ground are now able to receive satellite ISR.[416][643]
      • Cybersecurity[644][645][646][647] RAND simulations show Blue losses[117]
    • Cyber warfare[648] / urban warfare[118][649][650][651][652] / Underground warfare / Multi-domain combined maneuver[653][135][444][654][240][655][115][excessive citations]
    • Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing (A-PNT)[78][656][657] A solar-powered drone successfully stayed aloft at Yuma Proving Ground for nearly 26 days, at times descending to 55,000 feet to avoid adverse weather conditions, while remaining well above the altitudes flown by commercial aircraft, and landing per plan in the summer of 2018, to meet other testing commitments.[658]
      • An A-PNT event is scheduled at WSMR for August 2019[61]: pp220-3 [659]: Positioning, Navigation and Timing Assessment Exercise (PNTAX) [660][61]: pp220-1 [661][363]
      • Prototype jam-resistant GPS kits are being fielded to 2nd Cavalry Regiment in US European Command (EUCOM) before year-end 2019.[217] More than 300 Strykers of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment are being fitted with the Mounted Assured Precision Navigation & Timing System (MAPS), with thousands more planned for EUCOM.[662]
      • A Modular Open Systems Approach (MOSA) to Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) is under development.[663][131][192]
        • Low Earth orbit satellites for Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing—"When you look at the sheer number of satellites that go up and the reduced cost to do it, it gives us an array of opportunities on how to solve the problems" in A-PNT[664]
      • CCDC Army Research Laboratory (ARL) researchers have proposed and demonstrated a way for small ground-based robots with mounted antennas to configure phased arrays, a technique which usually takes a static laboratory to develop. Instead the researchers used robots to covertly create and focus a highly directional parasitic array (see Yagi antenna).[665]
      • CCDC Army Research Laboratory (ARL): ARL's Army Research Office is funding researchers at University of Texas at Austin, and University of Lille who have built a new 5G component using hexagonal boron nitride which can switch at performant speeds, while remaining 50 times more energy-efficient than current materials—the "thinnest known insulator with a thickness of 0.33 nanometers".[666]
      • CCDC Army Research Laboratory (ARL): ARL's Army Research Office (ARO) is seeking diamond colloids, microscopic spheres which can assemble bottom-up into promising structures for laser action.[667]
      • Newly developed materials with nanoscale trusses could serve as armor or coatings.[668]
      • A demonstration of proof of concept allows Soldiers to communicate their position using a wearable tracking unit. The technology allows soldiers (or robots) to prosecute a fight even indoors or underground, even if GPS were lost during a NavWar.[200]
  5. Air,Missile Defense[603][121][565][536][669][670][excessive citations]
      • Integrated Air and Missile Battle Command System (IBCS)[671] award, including next software build.[672][121] $238 million also funds initial prototypes of the command and control system for fielding in FY22.[531]
        • Hypersonic glide vehicle launch preparations,[92] beginning in 2020, and continuing with launches every six months.[87]
        • At Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake an FVL CFT-sponsored demonstration of interconnected sensors handed-off the control of a glide munition which had been launched from a Grey Eagle unmanned aircraft system (UAS). During the flight of that munition, another group of sensors picked up a higher-priority target; another operator at the Tactical Operations Center (TOC) redirected the glide munition to the higher-priority target and destroyed it.[636][673][449]
  6. Soldier lethality
    • Sensor-to-shooter prototype for multi-domain battle, 2019 operational assessment: Air Force RCO / Army RCO / Network CFT[140][141][142]
    • Night vision goggles thermal polarimetric camera.[674] Integrated Visual Augmentation System (IVAS)[675][676][677][678][494][679][680][681][682] The Synthetic Training Environment (STE) is available to some of the troops outfitted with IVAS.[683]
    • CCDC ARL researchers are developing a flexible, waterproof, lithium-ion battery of any size and shape, for soldiers to wear; the electrolyte is water itself. In 2020 the batteries were engineering prototypes; by 2021 soldiers will wear the battery for themselves for the first time.[684]
      • CCDC ARL and DoE's PNNL are examining the solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) as it first forms during the initial charging of a Lithium-ion battery. They have found an inner SEI (thin, dense, and inorganic—most likely lithium oxide) between the copper electrode, and an outer SEI which is organic and permeable—a finding which will be useful when building future batteries.[685]
    • CCDC ARL and MIT researchers are formulating atomically thin materials to be layered upon soldiers' equipment and clothing for MDO information display and processing.[686]
    • Integrated, wearable cabling for capabilities such as IVAS, NGSW, or Nett Warrior are under development;[687] the potential exists to reduce 20 pounds of batteries to half that weight.[688]
    • CCDC ARL is undertaking an Essential research program (ERP) in the processes underlying Additive manufacturing (3D printing), which is applicable to munitions.[689]
    • Natick Soldier RDEC has awarded an Other Transaction Authority (OTA) contract to prototype soldier exoskeletons which augment human leg strength under harsh conditions.[690][691][692]
    • Plans for the Infantry squad vehicle (ISV) are underway.[693][694] An ISV is meant to be airdropped for a squad of 9 paratroopers.[695] The GM design was selected; first unit is expected at 1/82nd AB division in February 2021.[696]
      • Assured pointing, navigation and tracking (A-PNT) devices are being miniaturized, with increased redundant positioning sources. This aids wearability.[660][61]: pp220-3 
      • In September 2019 in the Maneuver CoE's Battle Lab at Fort Benning, OneSAF simulations[697] of a platoon augmented by UAS drones, ground robots, and AI were able to dislodge a defending force 3 times larger, repeatedly. But by current doctrine, a near-battalion would have been required to accomplish that mission.[697]

Other armies[edit]

The British Army is also investigating innovations, such as robots and drones, including 70 technologies funded by the £800 million (US$1 billion) Defence Innovation Fund launched in 2016.[698] Two hundred troops will engage in "surveillance, long-range, and precision targeting, enhanced mobility and the re-supply of forces, urban warfare and enhanced situational awareness"..[699] The British Army is reducing size by about 10,000 troops as well, by 2025.[700] The British Army will have Integrated Operating Concept (MDI --like MDO) for "gray zone" operations across domains, using a synthetic operating environment, with repeatable hard and soft strike capability.[701] The UK, Germany, and France respectively have established a joint command for space United Kingdom Space Command, a Space Situational Awareness Centre (Germany), and Commandement de l’espace (France).[702]

"By 2020 the Army's programs for modernization were now framed as a decades-long process of cooperation with allies and partners,[703][704] for competition with potential adversaries who historically have blurred the distinction between peace and war"[705]—from: Reorganization plan of United States Army

  1. In 2020, one measure of military power projection ranks the competition between the armies of the world (after the US Army, which is ranked atop this list).[706][707] The list of armies, a mixture of allies, partners, and competitors is estimated to be:
  2. Russia[706] jammed the GPS signal during NATO exercises in November 2018.[708][217][709] In 2014 the DoD's research and engineering chief Alan Shaffer warned that the 'US lost dominance of the electromagnetic spectrum'[710] (EMS), in part due to the US government selloff of EMS radio frequencies, and also due in part to the proliferation of digital technologies which allow for low-cost jammers.[710] (See: meaconing)[711][712] General Valery Gerasimov advocates hybrid warfare, a "blend of political, economic and military power to bear against adversaries".[713][714][715] Russia took Crimea without firing a shot.[716] In April 2020 Russia tested an anti-satellite system for Low earth orbit (LEO) satellites.[717][718][719] Cyber attacks on the whole of the US government via Supply_chain_attack § Whole of government began in March 2020, but only reached the attention of the news media on 14 December 2020.[720][721] Russia is mapping the undersea cables which bear the majority of the communications traffic between the US and Europe.[722]
    • Unmanned ground combat vehicles (UGCVs), among them Uran-6, Uran-9 (Уран-9), and Uran-14 are entering service in the Russian Army as of 2021. Uran-6 is a mine flail; Uran-14 is an unmanned firefighting vehicle. Uran-9s are semi-autonomous robotic combat vehicles; specialists can operate them using mobile control stations.[723] Their first attempted service was in Syria. Analysts from BAE Systems (UK) assessed the Uran-9s in Syria as unreliable, with their radio-controls sometimes blocked by buildings; their sensors and guidance were unstabilized.[724] An armed Uran-9 weighs 12 tons,[724] and measures 5 meters long, which is a fifth of the weight and half the length of a T-90 tank.[725] Each Uran-9 control system operates at ranges up to 1.8 miles from the UGVs;[726]: min 1:00 [727]: minute 2:20  each control system currently (2021) guides 4 UGVs, in a leader-follower configuration.[725][723][728] Uran-9 was used in the Vostok 2018 exercises in 2018. At least 20 Uran-9 UGCVs exist.[728][723]
      • Ukraine has a trench network on its border with Russia, in a standoff as of April 2021.[729][730][731][732][733] A border exercise involving 110,000 Russian troops on the Ukraine border[734][735] has pulled back; however hundreds of armored vehicles, including tanks are remaining one hundred miles from Donbas, in spite of a partial armor pullback.[736] OSCE (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe) drones which are monitoring the line between Ukrainian troops and the Donbas separatists are seeing jamming of their drone's dual GPS receivers, with tens of thousands of infantry troops remaining on the Ukrainian border.[734] Andrei Illarionov cites Pavel Felgengauer, who projects a scenario by which Russia can create a 'Novorossia' stretching across Southern Ukraine to Transnistria (Moldova) after a gas pipeline to the EU is completed (September 2021).[737] Germany has agreed to safeguard Ukraine, as well.[738]
    • Russia and Belarus began Zapad 2021, a 200,000-troop exercise held every four years.[739][740]
    • Russia's defense ministry has signed a contract to field the Tsirkon hypersonic missiles to its troops in 2025.[741]
    • In 2021 Russia spent 2.7 percent of its GDP on defense, a level which is expected to drop to 2.3 percent by 2023, as part of a mandate to boost domestic production.[742]
  3. China[706]—RAND simulations show Blue losses.[117] Six of the top 15 defense companies in the world are now Chinese, in 2019 for the first time.[743] The competition with China was shaped in the decade 2010–2020, according to David Kriete.[744][745][746]
    • Secretary Mark Esper said that China is aiming to be the dominant military power in Asia by 2049.[747][748] The 14th five year plan (2021-2025) of China's ruling party, aims to accelerate the army's modernization and informationization, in order to improve national security for 2027 (100th anniversary of its ruling party), according to Dean Cheng.[749][750] By 2023 China's working-age demographic (a shrinking labor force/ capital savings rate) will start to work against the Party's aspiration for 2027.[751]
    • In 2017 China adopted the National Intelligence Law which obligates Chinese companies to subordinate themselves to intelligence-gathering measures for the state.[752] China is militarizing the South China Sea.[716] In 2020 a match-up of the Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning (a rebuilt aircraft cruiser) versus the supercarrier USS Ronald Reagan is assessed to give the Ronald Reagan air superiority within one hour.[753]
    • The 3rd generation GPS network of BeiDou satellites (BDS-3) was completed in July 2020 with the launch of the 30th BDS-3 satellite.[754] The 30th BDS-3 satellite, meant to complete China's own global navigation satellite system,[755] had been previously postponed.[756]
    • Satellite images of 4 June 2021 reveal an estimated 250 additional missile silos under construction near Yumen, China, warn specialists at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies.[757]
    • The Defense Intelligence Agency projects that China will at least double its nuclear arsenal and that its production capability will be far expanded in the 2020s.[758][759]
    • China controls 80 percent of world rare earth mineral production, and routinely floods this market when other nations attempt to ramp up their own rare earth production.[760][761][762]
      • The tech leaders of China are being enlisted to aid 'Socialism with Chinese characteristics' by pledging part of their wealth to 'common prosperity'.[763] The Cyberspace Administration of China is regulating algorithms on its financial reporting websites which republish foreign financial journalists.[764]
    • Chinese cyber groups are attacking Russia, reports Ben Watson.[765]
    • 149 Chinese fighters and bombers swept over Taiwan's Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) 1-4 October 2021.[766] Taiwan has countered with Civil Air Patrol warnings.[766][767][768][769]
  4. India: faces Pakistan;[706][770][761] Pakistan can be supplied with Turkey's drones (such as the Bayraktar TB2), which were used with great effect by Azerbajian against Armenian tanks and Armenian air defense[771] during the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war.
  5. Japan: faces North Korea;[706][171] Japan has expressed interest in developing its own F-X fighter program;[772] Brian Burton notes that interoperable materiel is needed for allies and partners of the US, and that the US could constructively influence Japan's impending 20-year development effort with lessons learned from UAVs and air defense, for example.[772] On 26 December 2019, at Putin's annual news conference with foreign media, Hirofumi Sugizaki, a Japanese journalist asked about the end of the INF Treaty and the cooperation of Russia and China on an anti-missile system. Putin characterized the anti-missile system as defensive, and the relation of US and Russia as a 'draw' (ヒキワケ—hikiwake).[773][774]

Headquarters (HQ) and commander[edit]

AFC's headquarters is based in Austin, Texas.[775] where it spreads across three locations totalling 75,000 square feet;[150] One loaction is a University of Texas System building at 210 W. Seventh St. in downtown Austin, on the 15th and 19th floors; the UT Regents were not going to charge rent to AFC until December 2019.[776][777][778] The command began initial operations on 1 July 2018.[779]

On 16 July 2018, Lieutenant General John M. Murray was nominated for promotion and appointment as Army Futures Command's first commanding general.[780][781] and his appointment was confirmed on 20 August 2018[782] and he assumed command during the official activation ceremony of AFC on 24 August 2018, in Austin, Texas.[150] Murray is expected to retire at the end of 2021.[783]

Value stream[edit]

In a hearing before Congress' House Armed Services Committee, the AFC commander projected that materiel will result from the value stream below, within a two-year time frame,[43] from concept to Soldier. The commanding general is assisted by three deputy commanders.

  • the Futures and Concepts Center,[235] is led by LTG Scott McKean. The first commander was AFC deputy commanding general Lt. Gen. (Ret.) Eric Wesley,[784][95] who sought 4 value streams for reducing the time invested to define a relevant requirement:[286][57][58]
  1. Science and technology (S&T: discovery / collection of ideas with usable effects)[Note 4][785]
  2. Experiments (Testing of a system to a known expectation of effects, or else observation of that system, in the absence of a specific expectation of effects)
  3. Concepts development[56] (Development of a relevant idea about that system)[242][238]
  4. Requirements development (Development of the terms and conditions for that system)[27]
  • Combat Development element,[268][786] Army Futures Command.[235] Lt. Gen. James M. Richardson is the deputy commander. He assists the commander with efforts to assess and integrate the future operational environment, emerging threats, and technologies to develop and deliver concepts, requirements, and future force designs to posture the Army for the future.[787][250][292]
    • The Capability development integration directorate (CDID) of each Center of Excellence (CoE), works with its CFT[Note 1] and its research, development and engineering center (RDEC) to develop operational experiments and prototypes to test.
    • The Battle Labs and The Research Analysis Center (TRAC)[237][242] prototype and analyze the concepts to test.
    • JMC is capable of providing live developmental experiments to test those concepts or capabilities, "scalable from company level to corps, amid tough, realistic multi-domain operations".[153][12][122]
    • RDECOM becomes the Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC), part of the Combat Development element, on 3 February 2019.[268][64][230][788][57][58]
  • Combat Systems Directorate[786] was to be led by the ASA(ALT)'s Principal Military Deputy[789][790] (Principal Military Deputy (PMILDEP) to the ASA(ALT))[204]: AD2018-15, 6b:PMILDEP will additionally be AFC director, Combat Systems [215] who will produce those developed solutions and seek feedback.[60][791]
    • Gen. Robert Abrams has tasked III Corps with providing Soldier feedback for the Next Generation Combat Vehicles CFT, XVIII Corps for the Soldier feedback on the Soldier lethality CFT, the Network CFT, as well as the Synthetic training CFT, and I Corps for the Long Range Precision Fires CFT.[485]
    • Combat Systems refines, engineers, and produces the developed solutions from Combat Development.[792][793]
    • An analysis by AMSAA can then assess that concept or capability, as a promising system for a materiel development decision.[205]

... what I do think you will see is some of the capabilities the cross-functional teams are working will be in production and being delivered and in the hands of soldiers in the next two years" —Gen. John "Mike" Murray (2018).[43]

Army Chief of Staff Milley is looking for AFC to attain full operational capability (FOC) by August 2019.[17][23][75][794]

Commanding generals
No. Commanding General Term
Portrait Name Took office Left office Term length
1
John M. Murray
General
John M. Murray
1 July 2018Incumbent3 years, 118 days

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i The capabilities as prioritized by the Chief of Staff, will use Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) in the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment, using CFTs for:
    1. Improved long-range precision fires (artillery):—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG John Rafferty ... PEO Ammunition (AMMO)
    2. Next-generation combat vehicle—(Detroit Arsenal, Warren, Michigan) Lead: BG Ross Coffman ... PEO Ground Combat Systems (GCS)
    3. Vertical lift platforms—(Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: BG Wally Rugen ... PEO Aviation (AVN)
    4. Mobile and expeditionary (usable in ground combat) communications network (Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland)
      1. Network Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence—Lead: BG Jeth Rey ... PEO Command Control Communications Tactical (C3T)
      2. Assured Position Navigation and Timing—(Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: William B. Nelson, SES
    5. Air and missile defense—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG Brian Gibson, ... PEO Missiles and Space (M&S)
    6. Soldier lethality
      1. Soldier Lethality—(Fort Benning, Georgia) Lead: BG Larry Q. Burris, Jr. ... PEO Soldier
      2. Synthetic Training Environment—(Orlando, Florida) Lead: BG William Glaser ... PEO Simulation, Training, & Instrumentation (STRI)
    • Above, 'dotted line' relationship (i.e., coordination) is denoted by a ' ... '
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Army Applications Lab: Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 October 2018) Army Futures Command Wants YOU (To Innovate)
    • —Adam Jay Harrison's list for types of Funding Authority
  3. ^ Tribune staff (22 August 2019) Colonel named division artillery director TCM to do what needs to be done across the Army for MLRS, HIMARS
  4. ^ As an example, any number of effects can be weaponized (see p.1 The New York Times 2 September 2018 "Invisible strikes may be cause of envoy's ills", describing the Microwave auditory effect), or else countered. Hypersonic vehicles are a countermeasure to ballistic missiles.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Futures Command reveals new insignia as it 'forges' ahead; by Sean Kimmons, Army News Service; dated 6 December 2018, last accessed 3 February 2019
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ a b c Army Futures Command: Meet Our Leadership
  4. ^ Army Futures Command Task Force (Wednesday, 28 March 2018) Army Futures Command
  5. ^ a b Vergun, David A. (13 July 2018). "Austin to be U.S. Army Futures Command location, says Army". Army.mil. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d e Army Directive 2017-33 (Enabling the Army Modernization Task Force) (7 November 2017) References Decker-Wagner 2011
  7. ^ Vergun, David A. (7 December 2017). "US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army". Army.mil. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  8. ^ Roper and Grassetti (1 October 2018) Seizing the High Ground – United States Army Futures Command
  9. ^ Source: Organization, United States Army. For detail, see AR10-87
  10. ^ a b Army Commands, Army Service Component Commands, and Direct Reporting Units ARN2541_AR10-87_WEB_Final.pdf section 20-2a, p.27
  11. ^ a b c d e Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (1 April 2019) The number one priority: An interview with Gen. Mark Milley: Readiness (both current and future)
  12. ^ a b c Gen. David G. Perkins, U.S. Army (Nov-Dec 2017) Multi-Domain Battle: The Advent of Twenty-First Century War
  13. ^ Sébastien Roblin (11 Oct. 2019) China's stealth drones and hypersonic missiles surpass—and threaten—the U.S.
  14. ^ "75th Innovation Command Page - About Us". US Army Reserve. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  15. ^ a b Scott Maucione (19 July 2019) Army Futures Command fully operational, dinged by GAO on announcement
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (10 July 2019) Embracing a new culture at Army Futures Command
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i DVIDs video, 24 August 2018 press conference
  18. ^ a b c Army Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (26 February 2019) FY20 budget proposal realigns $30 billion
  19. ^ a b Sydney J Freedberg Jr (29 May 2019) Army Big 6 Gets $10B More Over 2021-2025
  20. ^ Michael A. Grinston, James C. McConville, and Ryan McCarthy(2019) 2019 Army Modernization Strategy revision 7, CFTs' 31 signature efforts
  21. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 September 2019) Can Army Control Costs Of Its New Weapons? Currently the Army has 692 programs of record
  22. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 March 2019) Army ‘Big Six’ Ramp Up in 2021: Learning From FCS
  23. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 January 2019) 12 Moments Of Truth For Army Modernization In 2019
  24. ^ a b c MDO Challenge (15 May 2019) *Start here* MDO 101 General explanation of multi-domain operations (MDO) for the layman
  25. ^ a b c d TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1 (6 December 2018) The U.S. Army in Multi-Domain Operations 2028 "describes how US Army forces, as part of the Joint Force, will militarily compete, penetrate, dis-integrate, and exploit our adversaries in the future." Link moved here
  26. ^ a b APG News (13 June 2018) News Briefs: The U.S. Army Modernization Strategy
  27. ^ a b CRS Insight (IN11019) (17 January 2019) The U.S. Army and Multi-Domain Operations
  28. ^ a b c Yasmin Tadjdeh (10/10/2018) Army to Focus on Defeating Enemies’ Standoff Capabilities Summary of standoff
  29. ^ Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (14 January 2020) Army Chief Seeks ‘Minimally Manned’ Vehicles, Joint C2 LRPF, ITN, IBCS, FARA, FLRAA, and "We need a joint command and control system" —Army Chief of Staff James C. McConville
  30. ^ Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (2021) Army Chief To Navy, Air Force: We’ve Got ‘Speed & Range’ "The future is all about range and speed" —Gen. McConville
  31. ^ a b Chief of Staff paper #1, Headquarters, Department of the Army (16 March 2021) Army Multi-Domain Transformation: Ready to Win in Competition and Conflict Unclassified version by 40th Chief of Staff of the Army, Gen. James C. McConville
  32. ^ Chief of Staff paper #2 (1 March 2021) The Army in Military Competition
  33. ^ Capt. Steve Draheim and Maj. Paul Santamaria (22 June 2018) Long-range, short term
  34. ^ Ed Lopez (21 June 2018) Picatinny Arsenal, PEO (AMMO) Army modernization advances with early team collaboration
  35. ^ John Liang (27 August 2018) Inside the Army highlights
  36. ^ a b c New Army aircraft will be durable, lethal, unmanned for modern conflicts
  37. ^ a b Maj. Gen. Cedric T. Wins, U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (22 July 2019) CCDC's road map to modernizing the Army: the network 4th in a series
  38. ^ a b MG Cedric T. Wins (09.10.2019) CCDC’S road map to modernizing the Army: air and missile defense DVIDS release
  39. ^ a b c d Bridgett Siter, Communications Director, Soldier Lethality CFT (10 September 2019) Soldier Lethality team delivers first big win for AFC Enhanced night vision goggle - binocular (ENVG-B) significantly aids marksmanship by the Close Combat Force
  40. ^ a b Maj. Gen. John A. George, U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (2 January 2020) CCDC's Road Map to Modernizing the Army: Soldier lethality
  41. ^ a b c d e (6 Oct 2017) Army Directive 2017-24 (Cross-Functional Team Pilot In Support of Materiel Development)
  42. ^ Phillip B. Fountain, U.S. Army Futures Command (8 October 2019) Army Futures Command to highlight modernization efforts at 2019 AUSA
  43. ^ a b c d e Matthew Cox (14 Sep 2018) Head of Army Futures Command Fields Tough Questions From Congress
  44. ^ Michael A. Grinston, James C. McConville, and Ryan McCarthy (October 2019) 2019 Army Modernization Strategy as cited by Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (16 October 2019) Army Launches 16-Year Plan To Tackle Russia, China Summary
  45. ^ Whitley and McConville (5 May 2021) Statement before the House Armed Services Committee ON THE POSTURE OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY as cited by Office of the Director of the Army Staff (6 May 2021) Army Posture Statement 2021
  46. ^ Decker and Wagner (Jan 2011) Army Strong: Equipped, Trained and Ready
  47. ^ C. Todd Lopez (25 July 2011) Army to implement 63 Decker-Wagner acquisition recommendations
  48. ^ Kimmons, Sean (19 July 2019), In first year, Futures Command grows from 12 to 24,000 personnel, Army News Service
  49. ^ Freedberg Jr, Sydney J. (13 September 2018), Futures Command Won't Hurt Oversight, Army Tells Congress, Breakingdefense.com
  50. ^ a b US Army (2020) AMERICA’S ARMY: READY NOW,INVESTING IN THE FUTURE FY19-21 accomplishments and investment plan
  51. ^ Andrew Smith (9 Apr 2020) Convergence within SOCOM – A Bottom-Up Approach to Multi Domain Operations
  52. ^ Todd South (17 Jun 2021) Even generals must learn new skills in tech-dominated special operations future
  53. ^ Sean Kimmons (October 9, 2018) After hitting milestones, Futures Command looks ahead to more
  54. ^ a b AUSA 2018 CMF #1: Army Futures Command Unifies Force Modernization DVIDS video of panelists Gen. Murray, Sec. McCarthy, Dr. Jette, and Trae Stephens
  55. ^ a b c d Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (26 March 2018) Army Outlines Futures Command; Org Chart In Flux
  56. ^ a b c d e Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (25 October 2017) Can The Pentagon Protect Young Innovators? Fixing the 'up or out' culture, which favors generalists
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Lt. Col. Thomas "Bull" Holland, PhD, U.S. Army (15 January 2019) Proposed Army Futures Command Process Tenets
    1. 'Scientific research is a fundamentally different activity than technology development';
    2. Incorporate 'scientific research into "Appendix C: Functional Concepts" and specify pathways for technology development';
    3. Buy into the 'fail fast' mentality;
    4. '6.3-funded projects to produce knowledge (technical data) that can be consumed by requirements developers as opposed to PMs';
    5. Use 'evidence-based requirements process' (early hypothesis testing) with citations for evidence:
      • All projects will be executed in no less than two increments.
      • No new requirements once an increment is started.
    6. Summary: 'advances on the battlefield requires comprehensive, coordinated changes in the entire acquisition system';
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The RAND Corporation (2000) Discovery and Innovation: Federal Research and Development in the Fifty States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico RAND MR1194 Appendix B: Government-Wide and DOD Definitions of R&D See Appendix B p.615 for DOD Financial Management Regulation (Volume 2B, Chapter 5)
  59. ^ Neil Hollenbeck and Benjamin Jensen (6 December 2017) Why the Army needs a Futures Command Enable a culture of experimentation, and develop concepts and technology together.
  60. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 Sep 2018) Futures Command Won’t Hurt Oversight, Army Tells Congress
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l ASA(ALT) Weapon Systems Handbook 2018 update Page 32 lists how this handbook is organized. 440 pages.
    • By Modernization priority
    • By Acquisition or Business System category (ACAT or BSC). The Weapon systems in each ACAT are sorted alphabetically by Weapon system name. Each weapon system might also be in several variants (Lettered); a weapon system's variants might be severally and simultaneously in the following phases of its Life Cycle, namely—°Materiel Solution Analysis; °Technology Maturation & Risk Reduction; °Engineering & Manufacturing Development; °Production & Deployment; °Operations & Support
    • ACAT I, II, III, IV are defined on page 404
  62. ^ a b c Sydney Freedberg (7 May 2018) Permanent Evolution: SecArmy Esper On Futures Command
  63. ^ a b c d JP-1 p.xxi has the definition of operational control (OPCON). Note that "command authority may not be delegated" (COCOM being command authority). p.xxii has the definition of administrative control (ADCON): one application being coordinating authority.
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h Army R&D Chief: 'I Don't Think We Went Far Enough'—But Futures Command Can
  65. ^ a b Scott Maucione (14 Sep 2018) Army leaders ask for trust in lieu of metrics for Futures Command
  66. ^ Research, Development, and Acquisition AR 71–9 (2009) Warfighting Capabilities Determination Aug 15, 2019 update
  67. ^ Research, Development, and Acquisition (22 Jul 2011) Army Acquisition Policy AR 70-1
  68. ^ Jared Serbu (11 Mar 2016) Army puts its chief of staff 'at the center' of acquisition decisions
  69. ^ USAASC, Army ALT Magazine, Best Practices (16 February 2018) A Model and Process for Transitioning Urgent Acquisition - USAASC (United States Army Acquisition Corps)
  70. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (13 October 2017) Cross-functional teams to spearhead modernization, says McCarthy: allocated money in Program Objective Memorandum (POM) to protect resources.
  71. ^ a b Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (31 August 2018) Modernizing at the speed of relevance: An interview with Under Secretary of the Army Ryan McCarthy
  72. ^ a b c d Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (14 August 2018) Inside Army Futures Command: CFT Chiefs Take Charge
  73. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg (29 August 2018) Army Futures Command: $100M, 500 Staff, & Access To Top Leaders
  74. ^ (22 April 2018) New Army Futures Command success hinges on relationship building
  75. ^ a b GAO report: GAO-19-132 (23 Jan 2019) ARMY MODERNIZATION: Steps Needed to Ensure Army Futures Command Fully Applies Leading Practices
  76. ^ Defense Management: DOD Needs to Implement Statutory Requirements and Identify Resources for Its Cross-Functional Reform Teams GAO 19-165 accessdate=2021-09-24 Search for GAO 19-165, but the 35th deputy secretary of defense addressed the issue of DoD-wide CFT continuity in 2021 by establishing the RDER fund. Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 Jun 2021) Hicks Seeks To Unify Service Experiments With New ‘Raider’ Fund
  77. ^ Office of the Chief of Public Affairs, US Army (10.16.2019) 2019 AUSA Warriors Corner - TacticalSpace: Delivering Future Force Space Capabilities
  78. ^ a b c Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (10.16.2019) 2019 AUSA Warriors Corner - TacticalSpace: Delivering Future Force Space Capabilities
      1. Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing
      2. Tactical Space: SDA is structuring a multi-layer satellite system:
        1. Backbone layer for data transport downward to the long-range precision fires
        2. Custody layer for missiles' trajectories, whether friendly or threat
        3. Tracking layer for hypersonic glide vehicles which represent threats to the multi-layer satellite system
        4. Space situational awareness for cis-lunar trajectories,
      3. NavWar
  79. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 August 2020) Army Tests New All Domain Kill Chain: From Space To AI
    1. Initially, satellites feed data to TITAN.
    2. Prometheus, which is AI software, combs through the data for potential threats and targets.
    3. SHOT, which is also software, tracks each target on a custody list, correlating each target's current location, signature, and threat assessment, with a list of candidate fires countermeasures, ranked by capability, range to the target, kill radius, etc. "SHOT then computes the optimal match of weapons to targets", and passes the list to AFATDS.
    4. Human commanders choose whether to fire, or not, from the list of fires assets (Nelson notes that ERCA and Grey Eagle drones are to be added to the list of fires assets—currently M777 howitzers and MLRS 270 rocket launchers in the upcoming tests, August 2020).
    5. satellites perform Battle damage assessment, to update the list of threats and targets.
  80. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 August 2020) Can Army Intel Data Feed The Kill Chain? Quickly pooling data will take AI and cloud—"Project Convergence"
  81. ^ a b c d Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (11 February 2019) Army aligning modernization programs with other services
  82. ^ David Vergun, Defense.gov (21 February 2020) Military leaders discuss hypersonics, supply chain vulnerabilities
  83. ^ In, for example Waverider hypersonic weapons delivery, China has flown a Mach 5.5 vehicle for 400 seconds, at 30 km altitude, demonstrating large-angle deviations from a ballistic trajectory, as well as recovery of the payload. See Current test targets, such as Zombie Pathfinder are not hypersonic. Rand Corporation (28 September 2017) Hypersonic Missile Nonproliferation estimates there is less than a decade to prevent Hypersonic Missile proliferation.
  84. ^ Stephen Carlson (14 Nov 2018) DARPA issues contract proposition for hypersonic missile defense
  85. ^ a b c Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (22 August 2018) Army Warhead Is Key To Joint Hypersonics
  86. ^ Paul McLeary (31 January 2020) SecNav Tells Fleet Hypersonic Competition Demands ‘Sputnik Moment;’ Glide Body Test Set Hypersonic Glide Body test for 2020
  87. ^ a b c d e f Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (31 May 2019) Joint hypersonic weapon tests to start next year
  88. ^ a b c d Colin Clark (24 May 2019) Army Moves Out On Lasers, Hypersonics: Lt. Gen. Thurgood
  89. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 Feb 2020) Army Ramps Up Funding For Laser Shield, Hypersonic Sword In FY2021 HELs funding is up 209 percent; LRHW funding is up 86 percent. RCCTO spending is $1 billion in 2021.
  90. ^ a b c Joe Lacdan (16 October 2018) The Army joins the Air Force, Navy in attempt to develop hypersonic weaponry
  91. ^ a b Kelley M. Sayler, Analyst in Advanced Technology and Global Security. Congressional Research Service R45811 (11 July 2019) Hypersonic Weapons: Background and Issues for Congress Lists names for hypersonics programs
  92. ^ a b c d e f g Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (30 August 2019) Hypersonics: Army Awards $699M To Build First Missiles For A Combat Unit prototypes—Dynetics: Common hypersonic glide body (C-HGB); Lockheed: Long range hypersonic weapon (LRHW)
  93. ^ Mary Kate Aylward (5 February 2019) Experiments in hyperspeed more on Prompt Global Strike
  94. ^ Megan Eckstein (3 November 2017) Navy Conducts Flight Test to Support Conventional Prompt Strike From Ohio-Class SSGNs 1st hypersonic glide vehicle test (Flight experiment 1)
  95. ^ a b c (15 August 2018) Army Futures Command aims to tap into innovative culture in Austin and beyond
  96. ^ a b Long-range precision fires modernization a joint effort, Army tech leader says
  97. ^ Aaron Gregg (2 August 2019) In conversations with investors, defense firms double down on hypersonic weapons As of August 2019, Lockheed reports $3.5 billion in hypersonics work, while Raytheon reports $1.6 billion; Boeing declined to give the value of its hypersonics awards.
  98. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (1 March 2018) DoD Boosts Hypersonics 136 % In 2019: DARPA
  99. ^ Jason Cutshaw (19 September 2018) Secretary of the Navy visits AMC, SMDC memorandum of agreement in June to co-develop a hypersonic vehicle
  100. ^ a b Jon Harper (4 March 2020) JUST IN: Pentagon to Spend Billions Mass-Producing Hypersonic Weapons "Aero shells that provide thermal protection for the high-speed platforms will be a key component of the systems"
  101. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 Mar 2020) Hypersonics: Army, Navy Test Common Glide Body "The U.S. Navy and U.S. Army jointly executed the launch of a common hypersonic glide body (C-HGB), which flew at hypersonic speed to a designated impact point"
  102. ^ Haley Britzky (14 August 2019) The Army is getting a new $130 million hypersonics playground in Texas
  103. ^ a b c d e Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 September 2018) Aiming The Army’s Thousand-Mile Missiles Multi-domain Ft Sill
  104. ^ a b c John L. Dolan, Richard K. Gallagher & David L. Mann (23 April 2019) Hypersonic Weapons – A Threat to National Security Hypersonic and Ballistic Tracking Space Sensor (HBTSS)
  105. ^ Theresa Hitchens (24 February 2020) 2021 Budget Will Finally Fully Fund Next-Gen OPIR, Says Roper Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) replacement: three satellites in Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) and two satellites in a polar orbit
  106. ^ Theresa Hitchens (17 May 2021) New SBIRS Sat Creates Bridge To Next-Gen Missile Warning SBIRS GEO 5
  107. ^ a b c Jen Judson (20 August 2019) US Missile Defense Agency boss reveals his goals, challenges on the job Increase the discrimination of the radars and other sensors. Use Large aperture sensors. Use Space-based missile sensors. An SM-3 Block IIA missile test against ICBM is scheduled for 2020. Plan out the detection, control and engagement; the sensors, the command-and-control, the fire control, and the weapons (the kill vehicles).
  108. ^ Theresa Hitchens (9 October 2020) SDA Missile Tracking A ‘Strategic Win’ For L3Harris, SpaceX
  109. ^ Theresa Hitchens (22 Mar 2021) DoD Needs To Sharpen Hypersonics Oversight: GAO
  110. ^ Nathan Strout (5 Oct 2020) SpaceX, L3 to provide hypersonic tracking satellites for Space Development Agency SDA's National Defense Space Architecture (NDSA)
  111. ^ Paul McLeary (18 Dec 2019) MDA Kickstarts New Way To Kill Hypersonic Missiles HBTSS is 'Space sensor layer'
  112. ^ a b c Jen Judson (13 Aug 2021) Missile Defense Agency dials up the speed in quest for hypersonic interceptor
  113. ^ Theresa Hitchens (12 Aug 2021) Next Budget Will Limit Glide Phase Interceptor Contractors: MDA Head 2028 target date is being accelerated. FY2022 decisions on GPI/Ground-Based Interceptor, GBI replacement (the Next generation interceptor NGI) will be made by Deputy Secretary Kathleen Hicks.
  114. ^ a b c d Anthony Small, U.S. Army Futures Command (13 March 2019) Futures Command Deputy Commanding General talks the U.S. Army's Future at South by Southwest U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley, Deputy Commanding General (DCG), Army Futures Command describes 'convergence'.
  115. ^ a b c d e Todd South (13 September 2019) Massive simulation shows the need for speed in multi-domain ops "400 participants working with 55 formations, 64 concepts and 150 capabilities"
  116. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 December 2018) Army Multi-Domain Update: New HQs, Grey Zones, & The Art of The Unfeasible
  117. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 March 2019) US ‘Gets Its Ass Handed To It’ In Wargames: Here’s A $24 Billion Fix Army prepositioned stocks (APS) vulnerability
  118. ^ a b c d e Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (31 August 2018) An interview with retired Gen. David McKiernan
  119. ^ a b Matthew Cox (28 April 2018) How Future Combat Systems Failed
  120. ^ Army Futures Command (28 February 2020) Joint All Domain Command and Control AFC is the functional lead representing the Army in JADC2's development
  121. ^ a b c d I Corps has I2CEWS Battalion or Intelligence, Information, Cyber, Electronic Warfare and Space Battalion —Joe Lacdan (6/19/2019) Army leaders say service must shore up its space defense
  122. ^ a b US Army (4 Sep 2018) U.S. Army Pacific Commander Gen. Robert Brown: State of the Pacific
  123. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (30 November 2018) Artificial Intelligence: Forget The Terminator For Future Army: LTG Wesley
  124. ^ Association of the U.S. Army (7 Sep 2018) AUSA Aviation Hot Topic 2018 - PANEL 1 - Multi Domain Maneuver
  125. ^ a b Jason Cutshaw (USASMDC) (8 August 2019) Leader gives space and missile defense update at SMD Symposium Integrated fires across domains
  126. ^ Stephen Clark (8 August 2019) Atlas 5 launch adds to U.S. military’s secure communications satellite network Air Force’s fifth AEHF (Advanced Extremely High Frequency) communications satellite
  127. ^ Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (10.16.2019) 2019 AUSA Warriors Corner - TacticalSpace: Delivering Future Force Space Capabilities
  128. ^ Paul McLeary (18 December 2019) MDA Kickstarts New Way To Kill Hypersonic Missiles MDA's Hypersonic Defense Weapon System - 4 Interceptors
  129. ^ a b Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (26 November 2019) The Army gathers industry to inspire network modernization Network Cross-Functional Team (N-CFT) and PEO C3T hosted 670 industry partners at the Technical Exchange Meeting (TEM) 4, Capability Set (CS) 23. www.army.mil
  130. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 May 2019) How To Wage Global Cyber War: Nakasone, Norton, & Deasy
  131. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens and Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 August 2019) Army Seeks Small Satellites To Support Ground Troops 3 programs: Gunsmoke, Lonestar and Polaris.
  132. ^ a b Jen Judson (4 June 2019) Coming soon to the US Army: Combat-capable hypersonic and laser weapons
  133. ^ a b Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (7 June 2019) Army accelerates delivery of directed energy, hypersonic weapon prototypes
  134. ^ a b Kerensa Crum, CCDC Aviation & Missile Center Public Affairs (14 August 2019) Leader updates Army’s modernization priorities Standoff
  135. ^ a b c d e Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (25 June 2019) Robotic combat vehicles could change way Army looks, fights
  136. ^ a b Kelly Morris (Rucker) (1 August 2019) Aviation Industry Days: Army Aviation aims for more lethal Multi-Domain Operations capability Maj. Gen. David J. Francis, USAACE and Fort Rucker commanding general: MDO to defeat standoff
  137. ^ Theresa Hitchens (2 December 2019) Hey SDA, AFRL Boosts Space-Based Internet Tests
  138. ^ Joseph Lacdan, Army News Service (21 October 2019) AFC deputy: Combined capabilities make military might more lethal
  139. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (22 November 2019) SecArmy’s Multi-Domain Kill Chain: Space-Cloud-AI Army Multi-Domain Operations Concept, December 2018 slide from TRADOC pam 525-3-1
  140. ^ a b Claire Heininger (9 August 2018) Army, Air Force team on sensor to shooter prototype for multi-domain battle
  141. ^ a b c Mark Pomerleau (11 April 2018) In the move to multi-domain operations, what gets lost? The space, cyber, and information domains transcend geographic AoRs
  142. ^ a b Dan Gouré (2 August 2019) Army Futures Command’s Report Card After Its First Year Need: MDO doctrine in DoD, Two theater operation at island & continent, augment BCTs with higher echelon capability
  143. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (16 July 2020) Army Says Long Range Missiles Will Help Air Force, Not Compete
  144. ^ a b Joseph Lacdan, Army News Service (25 September 2020) Army to build on results from first Project Convergence exercise
  145. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (25 Sep 2020) Longer-Range Missiles & More AI: Project Convergence 2021 PrSM, AFATDS to F-35
  146. ^ Patrick Tucker (24 Sep 2020) Inside the Army’s Fearless, Messy, Networked Warfare Experiment Murray: Army software factory will start contributing.
  147. ^ Joe Lacdan (1 October 2020) Army, Air Force form partnership, lay foundation for CJADC2 interoperability
  148. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 Apr 2021) New Army Lab Tests Joint Tech: Project Convergence Joint Systems Integration Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground
  149. ^ Joseph Lacdan (17 Apr 2021) Service leaders prioritize integration in joint effort to achieve overmatch JSIL, Aberdeen: Preparation of data fabric for Project Convergence, ABMS JADC2, and Project Overmatch: Army - Air Force - Navy
  150. ^ a b c Kimmons, Sean (15 August 2018), "Army Futures Command aims to tap into innovative culture in Austin and beyond", Army News Service
  151. ^ a b SARA ARL (29 Jun 2021) Army program introduces new software for robot autonomy AIMM ERP (Artificial Intelligence for Maneuver and Mobility Essential Research Program)
  152. ^ Lamothe, Dan (14 July 2018), "Why the Army decided to put its new high-tech Futures Command in Texas", Washington Post
  153. ^ a b c Maj. Brett Lea,24th Press Camp Headquarters (5 Sep 2018) "Army establishes Futures Command; U.S. Army JMC at Fort Bliss is operational arm" Fort Bliss Bugle
  154. ^ a b Army Directive 2018-18 (Army Artificial Intelligence Task Force in Support of the Department of Defense Joint Artificial Intelligence Center) 2 October 2018
  155. ^ a b Lauren C. Williams (14 Sep 2018) Army Futures Command to set up DIU-like innovation lab
  156. ^ a b Dan Lafontaine, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (7 November 2019) Army leaders get firsthand look at C5ISR Center research, development projects
  157. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (10 October 2018) Army Futures Command to become 'global command,' says its leader
  158. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (4 April 2019) Allies to join Army Futures Command
  159. ^ Brad Williams (30 Sep 2021) Researchers Warn Of ‘Dangerous’ Artificial Intelligence-Generated Disinformation At Scale
  160. ^ a b (12 February 2019) SUMMARY OF THE 2018 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STRATEGY
  161. ^ Ashton Carter (2012-11-21) Autonomy in Weapon Systems Most recent DoD guideline: 2012
  162. ^ Cronk, Terri Moon (13 December 2018), "Artificial intelligence experts address getting capabilities to warfighters", army.mil
  163. ^ (1 February 2019) Carnegie Mellon Hosts Activation of U.S. Army AI Task Force. Brigadier General Matt Easley is Director of Army Artificial Intelligence task force (A-AI TF)
  164. ^ Gary Sheftick (13 August 2019) AI Task Force taking giant leaps forward Coordinating with: NREC, Talent management task force, the CFTs, and DOD's Joint AI Center
  165. ^ Douglas Scott (6 August 2019) New wearable authentication more than a "token" gesture Tactical Identity and Access Management (TIDAM) see Army AI task force (A-AI TF)
  166. ^ U.S. Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (27 February 2020) Army researchers enhance AI critical to Soldier-machine teamwork Explainability & tellability: coalition situational understanding (CSU) & human-agent knowledge fusion (HAKF)
  167. ^ RDECOM Research Laboratory Public Affairs (18 December 2018) Black Hawk helicopter pilot interns with Army researchers
  168. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 September 2020) JAIC Wants AI ‘Victory Gardens’ Across DoD
  169. ^ Theresa Hitchens (25 September 2019) IC Must Embrace Public Data to Use AI Effectively: Sue Gordon IC is the Intelligence Community
  170. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 August 2019) Big Data For Big Wars: JEDI vs. China & Russia
  171. ^ a b DAISHI ABE and RIEKO MIKI (14 Aug 2020) Japan wants de facto 'Six Eyes' intelligence status: defense chief
  172. ^ Andrew Eversden (7 August 2020) A human F-16 pilot will fight against AI in an upcoming contest
  173. ^ Theresa Hitchens (20 August 2020) AI Slays Top F-16 Pilot In DARPA Dogfight Simulation The AI systems are eventually to serve as wingmen for human commanders.
  174. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 August 2020) Deloitte Wins $106M JAIC Contract To Build AI Toolkit
  175. ^ Aaron Mehta (23 Sep 2020) Hyten to issue new joint requirements on handling data by using JROC-specified Capabilities stated in high-level natural language rather than relying on traditional item-by-item Requirements documents
  176. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 Sep 2020) AI’s Data Hunger Will Drive Intelligence Collection Army's Chief data officer: In the Future, "every Soldier is a Chief data officer"
  177. ^ Kelsey Atherton (14 August 2020) DARPA Trains AI To Understand Humans – In Minecraft
  178. ^ a b Andrew Eversden (28 May 2021) Pentagon wants to spend big on joint war-fighting systems
  179. ^ Andrew Eversden (12 Aug 2021) Army Futures Command outlines next five years of AI needs
  180. ^ Patrick Tucker (28 Sep 2021) An Army Pilot Just Re-Invented Flight Training for the Digital Era
  181. ^ a b Andrew Eversden (14 Apr 2021) Army Software Factory experiments with a new culture to unleash coders in its ranks
  182. ^ a b Army Futures Command (Friday, August 21, 2020) Army Software Factory
  183. ^ USAF Assistant Secretary of Acquisition, Chief Software Office (19 Dec 2019) SpaceCAMP USAF Software Factory
  184. ^ AI TF Artificial Intelligence Task Force
  185. ^ Colin Clark (8 Aug 2021) Wormuth Hints At Cuts To 35 Core Army Modernization Programs
  186. ^ Technology Review (19 December 2016) The Pentagon's Innovation Experiment
  187. ^ a b c d e f Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (3 April 2019) Army 'Shark Tank' enabling quick prototyping of new systems
  188. ^ Devon L. Suits (11 December 2018) Army secretary approves new Intellectual Property Management Policy
  189. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 March 2019) IP Rights For Robot Tanks: NGCV To Test-Drive New Policy
  190. ^ a b David Vergun (29 March 2018) Army network modernization efforts spearheaded by new Cross-Functional Teams. The Army conducts a network demonstration at Fort Bliss, Texas. The Army is pursuing network modernization through Cross-Functional Teams.
  191. ^ (27 June 2018) U.S. Army to host tactical Cloud computing industry forum army.mil
  192. ^ a b Nathan Strout (30 Nov 2019) Can hundreds of unrelated satellites create a GPS backup?
  193. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (3 August 2018) Army leveraging industry ideas to modernize network
  194. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 June 2019) Army Wrestles With Testers Over Network Upgrades breakingdefense.com
  195. ^ a b Jen Judson (4 April 2019) US Army plans to field a future long-range assault helicopter by 2030 FLRAA
    • RFI posted on the Federal Business Opportunities, 4 April
    • Contract award: fourth quarter of FY21
    • preliminary design review (PDR) second quarter of FY23
    • first flight in the third quarter of FY24
    • critical design review (CDR) in the fourth quarter of FY24
    • fielding to first unit in second quarter of FY30
  196. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 January 2020) Army ‘Fully Committed To Replacing The Bradley’: Gen. McConville Bradley fighting vehicle replacement is still a project
  197. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 March 2020) "xTechSearch: Army Picks Top 10 Tech Innovators" breakingdefense.com
  198. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 April 2020) COVID-19: Army Tries Prizes To Get Ventilator Tech ASAP breakingdefense.com
  199. ^ a b U.S. Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (13 April 2020) Redditors revive interest in 1960s Army emergency ventilator invention
  200. ^ a b Michael Howard (11 September 2020) Technology Providing Navigation in GPS-Denied Environment wins Grand Prize in xTechSearch Competition
  201. ^ Grinston, McConville, and McCarthy (2019) 2019 Army Modernization Strategy: Investing in the future
  202. ^ Thomas Brading (13 Oct 2021) Chief of staff: Most signature systems to be fielded by 2023, people still No. 1 priority
  203. ^ Ms. Karen Diane Kurtz (ASA (ALT)) and Steven Y. Lusher (JPEO CBRND PAO) (8 October 2018) ASA(ALT) Participates in U.S. Army Futures Command Panel at AUSA
  204. ^ a b c d e f Army Directive 2018-15 (U.S. Army Futures Command Relationship With the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology) and DCS G-8, 27 August 2018
  205. ^ a b c d Richard Simonetti (23 April 2018) "US Army turns to new technologies" linkedin.com
  206. ^ a b Acquisition process: Materiel development decision (MDD)
  207. ^ a b c d e (24 October 2019) Army Pushes 600 Programs From Acquisition To Sustainment
  208. ^ USArmy tweet: Futures Command will have the overarching objective to achieve clear overmatch in future conflicts, making Soldiers and units more lethal to win the nation's wars, then return home safely.
  209. ^ a b c d e f Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology) ASA(ALT)Org Chart as of May 2020 see also February 2020, and 11/5/19, as well as Org Chart as of 11/26/18
  210. ^ Mr. Craig A. Spisak, Director, Acquisition Career Management (3 October 2018) A vigorous talent management strategy keeps the acquisition workforce prepared for threats
  211. ^ Jacqueline M. Hames, U.S. Army Acquisition Support Center (31 January 2020) TWI: worth it Training with Industry: a work-experience program for Army Acquisition officers (from captain to lieutenant colonel). "After their TWI rotation, officers are expected to identify industry best practices and implement them at their next duty station"
  212. ^ A sample career path here: Aviation Engineering director to SES
  213. ^ (1 Aug 2018) Military (Officer) Corner: Army Acquisition Centralized Selection List
  214. ^ (29 Apr 2015) Army Acquisition Corps Recognized
  215. ^ a b c d Ms. Audra Calloway (Picatinny) (19 September 2018) With new Army Futures Command, senior acquisition leader discusses role of Program Executive Offices
  216. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (24 January 2019) Bell V-280 Flies 322 MPH: Army Secretary Praises Program
  217. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 June 2019) Army Fields Anti-Jam GPS In Germany This Fall
  218. ^ a b c d Secretary of the Army, Mark T. Esper, ESTABLISHMENT OF UNITED STATES ARMY FUTURES COMMAND Army General order G.O.2018-10
  219. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (14 June 2019) Partnering for speed: Army rapid prototyping office hosts industry open house
  220. ^ a b Jen Judson (13 March 2019) Army Rapid Capabilities Office is getting a new name and mission
  221. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 March 2019) Army Sets 2023 Hypersonic Flight Test; Strategic Cannon Advances
  222. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (2 Oct 2020) Army Tripled OTA Prototyping To $4.8B In Just 3 Years: GAO
  223. ^ a b Team White Sands Organizations (TWSO)
  224. ^ For example,
  225. ^ (January 2011) Implementing Acquisition Reform: The Decker-Wagner Army Acquisition Review
  226. ^ a b c d DoD (16 May 2018) Army Officials Testify on FY 2019 Budget Request
  227. ^ U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (4 February 2019) CCDC Research Laboratory
  228. ^ a b c d e f Maj. Gen. Cedric T. Wins, CG RDECOM (25 September 2018) RDECOM's road map to modernizing the Army: Long-range precision fires
  229. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin (17 October 2018) RDECOM at the forefront of creating a more modern, lethal Army
  230. ^ a b "... another thing we’ve not done very well—is doing the prototyping and experimentation with soldiers from the beginning, so we got soldier input into a program before it ever becomes a program of record" —Gen. 'Mike' Murray: Freedberg (31 Jan 2019) Army Completes Biggest Reorg In 45 Years: Can Futures Command End Weapons Disasters?
  231. ^ Ms. Jacqueline M. Hames, USAASC (10 October 2018) Get that moving truck ready
  232. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 Mar 2021) Army Outlines Ambitious Schedule For Robots, Armor
  233. ^ Futures Command locations
  234. ^ University Communications (23 May 2019) UT Austin Becomes Major Research Hub for Army Futures Command Robotics, AI, hypersonics, and biodefense
  235. ^ a b c YouTube clip (7 December 2018) ARCIC Transition of Authority Ceremony 7 Dec 2018 to Futures and Concepts Center, AFC
  236. ^ (2016) ARL locations
  237. ^ a b c Tisha Swart-Entwistle (6 December 2018) TRAC makes official move to Futures Command
  238. ^ a b Mission Command Battle Lab
  239. ^ a b Jen Judson (26 February 2018) US Army’s war-gaming is under-resourced, three-star says
  240. ^ a b c Headquarters, Dept of the Army (July 2019) ADP 6-0 Mission Command: Command and Control of Army Forces 4 chapters. See also ADP 3-0; ADP 6-22; FM 6-22; ADP 1-1; and ADP 5-0
  241. ^ Mission Command Center Of Excellence (MC-CoE CDID)
  242. ^ a b c TRADOC Analysis Center. Combined Arms training center. Fort Leavenworth
  243. ^ Dr. Charles K. Pickar, Naval Postgraduate School (October 29, 2019) An exercise to experience Experential learning
  244. ^ Army ALT Magazine (January 29, 2019) Then And Now: Training for the Future —Retired Gen. Peter W. Chiarelli, 32nd vice chief of staff of the Army: "I believe that a training environment .. should be a maneuver trainer, and it should be a gunnery trainer."
  245. ^ Trainers using this role-playing program can review missed concepts and practice lessons they didn't get right during their first trial. "Repetition increases a team’s situational understanding of the tactics they’ll use ..."—Maj. Anthony Clas
  246. ^ Maj. Anthony Clas, 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division Public Affairs (10/31/2019) Regulars’ battalion masters the fundamentals during squad live-fire exercise
  247. ^ Maj. Gen. Maria R. Gervais (31 August 2018) The Synthetic Training Environment revolutionizes sustainment training
  248. ^ a b Jacqueline M. Hames and Margaret C. Roth (14 January 2019) Virtual battlefield represents future of training Training as a service; more content at scale needed.
  249. ^ Army ALT Magazine (29 January 2019) THEN AND NOW: TRAINING FOR THE FUTURE critique
  250. ^ a b c d By Patrick D Morgan (TRADOC) (18 March 2019) STE CFT Cuts Ribbon in Orlando
  251. ^ a b Patti Bielling (3 December 2019) Army pursuing improved realism in live and virtual training Simulation and Training Technology Center (STTC) in Orlando; Institute for Creative Technology (ICT) in Playa Vista; Synthetic Training Environment Cross Functional Team (STE CFT); Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI);
  252. ^ a b Jen Judson (17 May 2019) US Army’s jumping to the next level in virtual training reconfigurable virtual collective trainers (RVCTs)
  253. ^ Cyber CoE - (its CDID)
  254. ^ Maneuver CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  255. ^ a b Bob Purtiman, NGCV Cross-Functional Team (17 September 2018) Preparing for future battlefields: The Next Generation Combat Vehicle
  256. ^ Aviation CoE - (its CDID)
  257. ^ Fires CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  258. ^ a b Col. Yi Se Gwon, Fort Sill Fires Bulletin (September-October 2018) The Army Multi-Domain Targeting Center
  259. ^ a b Army Multi-Domain Targeting Center (16 July 2019) Target Mensuration Only
  260. ^ a b Maj. Anthony Clas, 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division Public Affairs: (SEPTEMBER 4, 2019) Target Mensuration course: Bulldog Brigade trains target acquisition with precision Target Mensuration Only (TMO) Including TMO in a unit training plan
  261. ^ Mitch Meador, Fort Sill Tribune (August 27, 2020) Lawton Fort Sill welcomes 'Fires Five,' families
  262. ^ Karen Flowers, Fort Sill Tribune (4 September 2020) Air defense Army Capability Manager gets new director
  263. ^ Intelligence CoE - no information on its CDID
  264. ^ Maneuver Support CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  265. ^ Sustainment CoE CDID not found
  266. ^ a b APG Guide (12 January 2019) Aberdeen Proving Ground 2019 Your road map to the ‘Home of Innovation’ with more than 90 tenant organizations
  267. ^ (12 September 2018) ASA(ALT) MilDep talks APG’s role in Futures Command Paul Ostrowski is PMILDEP to ASA(ALT)
  268. ^ a b c Argie Sarantinos-Perrin, CCDC HQ Public Affairs (31 January 2019) RDECOM transitions to Army Futures Command
  269. ^ a b Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (22 August 2019) Army showcases new electronic warfare tech PEO IEW&S, PNT, EWPMT, VMAX, VROD
  270. ^ Caitlin O'Neill, PM PNT staff writer (17 November 2017) Army's PNT programs transition to PEO IEW&S
  271. ^ Dan Lafontaine, C5ISR Center Public Affairs (19 November 2019) C5ISR Center hosts CCDC commander for town hall, lab tours "a renewed emphasis on collaboration across CCDC's eight research centers"
  272. ^ Andrew Eversden (25 Oct 2021) Army Seeks ‘Cutting Edge’ Network-Aided PNT Technologies For Battle
  273. ^ RCCTO is located in Huntsville (26 August 2019): RCCTO- About us
  274. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (23 August 2019) Soldiers 'at the heart of' modernizing warfighter gear
  275. ^ Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (25 February 2019) Army-funded researcher wins Nobel Prize
  276. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin, CCDC (21 August 2019) Army develops cold spray technology to repair Bradley gun mounts
  277. ^ U.S. Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (16 December 2019) Army releases top 10 list of coolest science, technology advances
  278. ^ a b U.S. Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (3 February 2020) Army develops big data approach to neuroscience Dr. Jonathan Touryan, co-author
  279. ^ (15 April 2016) US Army Research Lab Opens at USC ICT in Playa Vista
  280. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 August 2014) Pentagon Struggles To Get Small-Biz Tech: FCS misuse of OTA, other acquisition issues.
  281. ^ Dan Lamothe Washington Post (2018-07-12) Army to unveil details about new Futures Command in biggest reorganization in 45 years
  282. ^ Thomas E. Ricks (MARCH 2, 2015)Why hasn’t the Army’s regular acquisition process produced anything in decades? --Future of War conference.
  283. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard Army.mil (6 September 2018) Safer, smarter, faster: An interview with Gen. James McConville
  284. ^ "US edge has eroded to a dangerous degree"
  285. ^ US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army
  286. ^ a b c Army has picked a location for its new Futures Command, but now comes the hard part
  287. ^ Association of the United States Army (AUSA): Scott R. Gourley (Friday, 13 January 2017) CLOSING THE CAPABILITIES GAP: SEVEN THINGS THE ARMY NEEDS FOR A WINNING FUTURE
  288. ^ a b c GAO report: GAO-17-457 (Jun 2017) ARMY CONTRACTING Leadership Lacks Information Needed to Evaluate and Improve Operations
  289. ^ Bruce Jette, Building the Army of the future
  290. ^ Hannah Wiley (6 April 2018) Program cuts likely under Army secretary's new Futures Command
  291. ^ Jen Judson (17 July 2018) US Army asks Congress to shift millions in FY18 dollars. What’s behind the request?
  292. ^ a b c David Vergun (5 September 2018) Richardson confirmed as Futures Command deputy commander
  293. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (28 March 2018) CHIPS Articles: Army Secretary defines goals for coming decade—modernization, Futures Command
  294. ^ Jeff Martin (15 October 2018) How did the Army find $25 billion for new equipment? video
  295. ^ Daniel Goure (18 October 2018) Can Trump Rebuild The Military As Deficits Balloon?
  296. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 October 2018) Joint Experiments Will Pick Budget Winners & Losers: Dunford Task is to cut $33 Billion from 2020 budget
  297. ^ Youtube: What will $716 Billion Buy You? US Defense Budget 2019 Weapons
  298. ^ Michael J. Meese (23 Dec 2016) Chapter 4 : The American Defense Budget 2017–2020 Note Fed chart 1970-2026
  299. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (26 October 2018) Trump Orders DoD To Take Surprise $33B Budget Cut 2020 DoD budget cut from $733 billion to $700 billion
  300. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (14 November 2018) The Pentagon’s First-Ever Audit: A Big Disappointment?
  301. ^ Wesley Morgan (9 December 2018) Trump reverses course, tells Pentagon to boost budget request to $750 billion
  302. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (23 July 2019) Esper Confirmed As SecDef; Budget Deal Leaves DoD Spending Flat Next Year
  303. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 January 2020) Army To Navy: Hey, We Already Get Less $$ Than You Army: 26.6%; Navy: 28.7%; Air Force: 28.5%; Other: 16.3%
  304. ^ United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) (September 2018) DEFENSE MANAGEMENT. DOD Needs to Address Inefficiencies and Implement Reform across Its Defense Agencies and DOD Field Activities
  305. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (24 October 2019) Sec. Army Interview: ‘We Have To Get This Budget Deal’
  306. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (22 November 2019) SecArmy looks toward FY21 budget as continuing resolution impacts priorities CR avoids shutdown until 20 December 2019.
  307. ^ a b c Todd South, Military Times (8 May 2019) 4 things the general in charge of the Army's newest command says are needed to win the wars of the future
  308. ^ Amy McCullough (7 Feb. 2020) What to Look for in the 2021 Budget Request
  309. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 February 2020) Army Boosts Big Six 26%, But Trims Bradley Replacement FY2021 budget request
  310. ^ a b FY2021 budget request: Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (13 February 2020) Army budget request eyes $2B boost for modernization
    • $10.6 billion for modernization in 2021 request, up from $8.5 billion in 2020
      • LRPF: $1700 million
      • FVL: $514 million
      • OMFV: $328 million
      • MPF: $135 million
      • LTAMDS: $376 million
      • IFPC $236 million
  311. ^ Mark Cancian and Adam Saxton (14 February 2020) 2021 Budget Spells The End of US Force Expansion Reduced topline $740.5 billion; Army remains at 31 BCTs, 5 SFABs, and 11 CABs.
  312. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (19 February 2020) Army leaders save $1.2 billion to fund modernization push After a set of 'Night court' cuts
  313. ^ Mark Cancian (15 May 2020) Huge Deficit = Defense Budget Cuts? Maybe Not A 5% cut would be $35 billion across DoD in 2021; FY2021 defense budget will likely be passed during a time of free-spending in Congress.
  314. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 May 2020) Army Braces For Post-COVID Cuts: Gen. Murray 34 Signature Programs: 31 in Futures Command, 3 in RCCTO
  315. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (9 June 2020) Army Study Asks: How Much Modernization Can We Afford?
  316. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 June 2020) Army Ponders What To Cut If Budget Drops: Gen. Murray
  317. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (4 Dec 2020) NDAA: Conference Cuts New Army Tech, Pluses Up Old Cuts in IVAS, OMFV, AMPV, IFPC. Increases in Stryker, Lasers, UASs. Top 6 modernization prorities are unscathed.
  318. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 March 2019) Army Bets Big On Service Contracts To Fix Aging IT
  319. ^ Maj. Gen. Randy S. Taylor, CECOM (8 July 2019) Sustaining data delivery on the future Army network Halt, fix pivot (WIN-T)| ITN: Integrated Tactical Network | IEN: Integrated Enterprise Network
  320. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (7 February 2020) Vice chief of staff: Speed of modernization no longer at 'glacial pace'
  321. ^ Joyce M. Conant, ARL Public Affairs (19 Feb 2016) ARL West hires its first employee, meet Dr. Benjamin T. Files
  322. ^ The DOT&E Mission
  323. ^ Shelby Oakley (26 June 2019) GAO Defends Annual Weapons Review: Let’s Look at All the Facts GAO reply
  324. ^ DoDI 5000.02: Defense Acquisition Life Cycle Compliance Baseline (Pre‐Tailoring)
  325. ^ DoD org chart
  326. ^ Dennis Via, CG AMC (6 April 2016) AMC announces Mission Command alignment
  327. ^ (10 April 2018) AMRDEC Industry days
  328. ^ (23 December 2009) About CECOM LCMC
  329. ^ Megan Paice (26 July 2018) From RDECOM to CECOM
  330. ^ (June 2016) U.S. ARMY TACOM LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT COMMAND (TACOM)
  331. ^ Ed Worley(2 November 2018) ACC celebrates 10 years of enabling readiness, modernization Contracting officers are embedded with every CFT
  332. ^ Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC) 2004
  333. ^ Ed Worley (1 October 2018) Two contracting centers achieve full operational capability
  334. ^ Jon Harper (3 April 2020) COVID-19 NEWS: Army Trying to Mitigate Disruptions for Top Modernization Programs
  335. ^ Mission Command Center of Excellence (MCCoE)
  336. ^ a b c d Connie Lee (3/26/2019) NEWS FROM AUSA GLOBAL: Army Fleshing Out Updated Modernization Strategy
  337. ^ Lauren C. Williams (21 Aug 2018) PEO structure survives Army Futures reorg, for now
  338. ^ Sydney Freeberg (6 September 2018) ‘A Little Bit Disruptive’: Murray & McCarthy On Army Futures Command
  339. ^ AcqNotes (17 Jan 2017) Other Transaction Authority (OTA) Guide – 17 Jan 2017
  340. ^ Paul McCleary (31 December 2018) Amidst Turmoil, Pentagon Persists On Acquisition Reform: Ellen Lord
  341. ^ Mr. Kinsey Kiriakos (ASA (ALT)) (20 November 2019) Army Acquisition Leaders Must "Speak Truth To Power" MTA and OTA
  342. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2018) Army in final stages of hashing out Stryker lethality requirements at an AROC council in January 2019
  343. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 December 2018) Army Bradley Brigade Will Get Israeli Anti-Missile System: Iron Fist
  344. ^ Lt. Gen. John M. Murray, deputy chief of staff, G-8 (8 September 2016) Modernization vital to joint force success
  345. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 August 2018) Can Army Futures Command Overcome Decades Of Dysfunction?
  346. ^ HQ Dept of the Army (22 July 2011) Army Acquisition Policy Army Regulation 70–1
  347. ^ Devon L. Suits (19 September 2018) New G-8 embraces streamlining tech acquisition
  348. ^ Jen Judson (26 March 2018) The next Army program executive office will be the Rapid Capabilities Office
  349. ^ Jen Judson (7 Oct 2018) Army Rapid Capabilities Office realigned to focus on top modernization priorities
  350. ^ RCCTO (2019) About Us
  351. ^ RCCTO (2019) Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office
  352. ^ Jon Harper (7/17/2019) BREAKING: Army Futures Command to Reach Full Operational Capability by End of Month
  353. ^ Matt Beinart (21 July 2019) U.S. Army Futures Command To Announce It’s Fully Operational
  354. ^ a b c d Freedberg Jr., Sydney J. (6 March 2020), "New Army Cannon Doubles Range; Ramjet Ammo May Be Next", Breaking Defense
  355. ^ Joe Lacdan (19 September 2019) G-8: Army operations in the Pacific crucial to future battlefield success Follow-up on Modernization Reviews is forthcoming, on a regular basis.
  356. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 September 2019) Congress’ Budget Gridlock Threatens Army Hypersonics G8 is posing a heuristic to get beyond delay in NDAA (national defense authorization act) for 2020 (get Army funding by calendar year-end)
  357. ^ Follow-up FY2021 Budget Request: Thomas Brading, Army News Service (5 March 2020) Hypersonic tests, modernization top Army budget request for funding of the top 6 modernization priorities; progress on the spend plan for tests of the prototypes vs actual spending
  358. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (18 July 2019) Futures Command showcases efforts ahead of upcoming FOC
  359. ^ a b Dan Gouré (2 Dec 2020) Army’s Newest Long-Range Fires System Isn’t New, But It Will Be Effective
  360. ^ a b c Hitchens, Theresa (3 September 2020), "ABMS Demo Proves AI Chops For C2", breakingdefense.com
  361. ^ a b Todd South (20 Aug 2020) Army missile defenders defeat cruise and ballistic missiles nearly simultaneously The test created terabytes of data to be queried.
  362. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (22 Mar 2021) Army Missiles, Missile Defense Race Budget Crunch To 2023
  363. ^ a b Caitlin O'Neill, APNT CFT Public Affairs (23 August 2019) APNT CFT Hosts First Annual Assessment Exercise
  364. ^ a b c Todd South (11 Mar 2020) The Army is ‘making artillery great again’ Landed within 1 meter from over 65 kilometers range. Press conference.
  365. ^ Ben Wolfgang (22 Dec 2020) Army's long-range cannon hits target 43 miles away
  366. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 December 2019) Direct Hit: Army Test-Fires Lockheed Precision Strike Missile EXCLUSIVE
  367. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 November 2020) Army Picks Tomahawk & SM-6 For Mid-Range Missiles Tomahawk (missile) and SM-6
  368. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 Mar 2021) Joint World Warms Up To Army Long-Range Missiles Capabilities of MDTF
  369. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 May 2021) Army Discloses Hypersonic LRHW Range Of 1,725 Miles; Watch Out China Ranges for: ERCA, GMLR-ER, PRSM, MRC, LRHW
  370. ^ a b Defense updates (14 Dec 2018) EXTENDED RANGE CANNON ARTILLERY OF U S ARMY- FULL ANALYSIS 5:00 clip. XM1113 shell and XM657 propellant on XM907
  371. ^ Daniel Cebul (8 October 2018) Army looks to a future of integrated fire LRPF in an Integrated Network of fires, targeting hubs, and sensors: artillery & MSHORAD, IBCS, Patriot, and THAAD radars
  372. ^ M109A7 has 30-foot barrel and double the range
  373. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (13 September 2018) Cross-functional teams already producing results, says Futures Command general, House Armed Services Sub-committee hearing, 13 September 2018
  374. ^ a b Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (20 September 2018) Army doubles cannon range in prototype demo
  375. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 Oct 2020) LRPF: Army Missiles, Cannon Face Big Tests In ’21
  376. ^ a b c d e Loren Thompson (7 Aug 2020) Army breakthroughs in Long-range fires raise novel questions about targeting, organization, and command about SLRC, a long-barrelled cannon which uses GPS-guided munitions
  377. ^ US Army (27 May 2020) Excalibur Round Precision Hit From 65 kilometers at U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground Both the Excalibur precision guided munition and the XM1113 rocket-assisted high explosive projectile were fired from an XM1299 howitzer in March 2020
  378. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (8 May 2019) Army demonstrates extended ranges for precision munitions
  379. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (16 Apr 2021) ERCA: Army Contracts To Help New Cannon ‘Fire Faster’ 5 SBIR contracts
  380. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 January 2020) Artillery Seeks Robot Ammo Haulers Field Artillery Autonomous Resupply
  381. ^ Paul McLeary (19 July 2019) Army Readies Long-Range Missile Tests—Post INF
  382. ^ a b David Sanger and Edward Wong The New York Times (2 August 2019) US ends cold war missile treaty, to counter arms buildup by China. p.A7
  383. ^ a b Paul McCleary (12 Dec 2019) US Busts INF Wall With Ballistic Missile, Puts Putin & Xi On Notice
  384. ^ NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2020 Senate report 116-48
  385. ^ Jen Judson (25 Mar 2020) Raytheon exits precision strike missile competition by mutual decision of Raytheon's DeepStrike and the LRPF CFT
  386. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 Mar 2020) PRSM: Lockheed Long-Range Missile Passes Short-Range Stress Test 3 layers of LRPF are scheduled to enter service in limited numbers in 2023; also explains its relationship to Future vertical lift (FVL) and Mobile & expeditionary network
  387. ^ Andrew Eversden (1 October 2021) Lockheed Martin’s Precision Strike Missile Enters Next Phase with Army
  388. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (30 Apr 2020) Army: Lockheed PrSM Missile Aces Third Flight Test
    • 2023 goal is to deliver 30 PrSMs with 500 km range
    • 2025 goal is to use multi-mode seekers against moving targets
    • Use open architecture to allow multiple vendors to offer upgrades
    • Provide extended range (beyond 650-700 km) within the existing HIMARS MLRS form factor
  389. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (08 September 2020) Army Seeks New Mid-Range Missile Prototype By 2023 1000 mile missile needed.
  390. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 October 2020) Army Asks Hill For New Mid-Range Missile $$$ ASAP: Thurgood Fund the Mid-Range Capability (MRC) with 2020 Above Threshold Reprogramming (ATR).
  391. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 October 2020) China, Russia Threats To Drive What Army Keeps & Cuts: Gen. Murray TRAC needs to produce its reports in 3 months or faster.
  392. ^ Loren Thompson (12 Apr 2021) Air Power Advocates Are Attacking Army Long-Range Strike Plans. Here’s Why They’re Wrong.
  393. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 October 2020) DARPA’s Hypersonic OpFires Aims For Army 1,000-Mile Missile
  394. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 November 2018) Beyond INF: Countering Russia, Countering China (Analysis) Distances in-theater, laid out fot EUCOM and PACOM.
  395. ^ a b c Ryan Pickrell (5 June 2019) The US Army says it will have hypersonic missiles and laser weapons ready for combat in less than 4 years LRHW announcement
  396. ^ Corey Dickstein (3 March 2020) Army to fire two hypersonic test shots this year, McCarthy says
  397. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (RCCTO) (12 February 2020) Virtual Reality helps Soldiers shape Army hypersonic weapon prototype LRHW
  398. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 January 2018) $86,000 + 5,600 MPH = Hyper Velocity Missile Defense
  399. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 September 2020) Target Gone In 20 Seconds: Army Sensor-Shooter Test
  400. ^ Matthew Cox (5 Aug 2020) Army to Speed Up Testing of Planned Hypersonic Missile
  401. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (16 February 2021) Speeding ahead: Hypersonics team stays on track to deliver despite pandemic
  402. ^ Hitchens, Theresa (11 August 2021), "'Confident' Of 2023 Fielding Goal, Army Dubs Hypersonic Weapon 'Dark Eagle'", breakingdefense.com
  403. ^ a b c Andrew Eversden (15 Oct 2021) First Live Hypersonic Missile Rounds To Be Delivered to Army Unit Next Year
  404. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 Apr 2021) Faster, Tougher, Smarter: Army’s Future Armored Force EXCLUSIVE AMPV, OMFV, MBT, RCV
  405. ^ GVSC Public Affairs (7 October 2019) Virtual experiments helping shape Next-Generation Combat Vehicle
  406. ^ a b c d Bob Purtiman, NGCV Cross-Functional Team (17 September 2018) Preparing for future battlefields: The Next Generation Combat Vehicle
  407. ^ (11 Oct 2017) US Army's Bassett on Trophy Active Protection Decision, AMPV, Future Vehicle Tech
  408. ^ Marty Beckerman (17 October 2018) A serious participation Trophy
  409. ^ Defense & Aerospace Report (12 Oct 2016) US Army Ground Combat Systems Chief on Armored Vehicle Programs
  410. ^ Spc. Carlos Cuebas Fantauzzi, 22nd Mobile Public Affairs Detachment (11 September 2020) Next Generation Combat Vehicle Cross-Functional Team converges efforts during Project Convergence 20 Shortened time developing Common operating picture to 30 seconds
  411. ^ Sgt. 1st Class Will Reinier (10 September 2020) Campaign of learning: U.S. Army, AFC introduce Project Convergence
  412. ^ Army Futures Command (Monday, 14 September 2020) Project Convergence
  413. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (16 September 2020) A Slew To A Kill: Project Convergence
  414. ^ Matthew Cox (20 Sep 2020) Army’s New Target Tracking System Aims to Quicken Artillery Kills "artificial intelligence to improve human decision-making; autonomy; and robotics"
  415. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (24 September 2020) Marine F-35s Share Targeting Data With Army: Project Convergence
  416. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 September 2020) Pushing Data ‘From Space To Mud’: Project Convergence
  417. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 Sep 2020) ‘Improvised Mode’: The Army Network Evolves In Project Convergence used a mesh network—50th Expeditionary Signal Battalion—Enhanced (ESB-E) was able to improvise a MEO satellite link in June 2020, to complete the link from JBLM to YPG
  418. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 Dec 2019) Army Revs Up High-Tech Tank Engine
  419. ^ Jen Judson (9 October 2018) US Army triggers start of possible ground mobility vehicle competition after long delay
  420. ^ Program Executive Office for Combat Support & Combat Service Support (21 June 2019) Army approves JLTV Full-Rate Production
  421. ^ Jonathan Koester, Joint Modernization Command (10 September 2019) Newest Army vehicle arrives on Fort Bliss
  422. ^ Yasmin Tajdeh (5 Oct 2021) Army Investing in Hybrid Power Microgrids Electrification microgrid and network standards: TMS, HPS
  423. ^ Matthew Cox (22 April 2020) Army Officials Working on Proposal That Could Lead to Electric JLTVs
  424. ^ a b Jen Judson (17 Mar 2020) US Army ventures down path to electrify the brigade
  425. ^ Loren Thompson (29 Jan 2021) Turning The Joint Light Tactical Vehicle Into A Science Fair Would Be Dangerous For Warfighters
  426. ^ a b Matthew Cox (22 Sep 2020) Army Takes First Step Toward Equipping Tactical, Combat Vehicles with Electric Engines
  427. ^ SYDNEY J. FREEDBERG JR. (22 April 2021) Electric Battlefield: Army Awards $600K For R&D
  428. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 October 2020) Army Seeks Electric Scout By 2025 ELRV to complement Infantry Squad Vehicle (ISV), hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-powered mobile charging sites for these expeditionary vehicles.
  429. ^ Jeff Martin (2019/10/22) Video: 30mm cannons and a new network: Here's what the Stryker brigade of the future will look like Video interview, Col. William Venable
  430. ^ Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (4 May 2021) GM Defense: New President, New Factory, New Electric Truck
  431. ^ Jen Judson (21 May 2021) Army wraps up industry demo for future electric light recon vehicle eLRV: A possible future prototyping program
  432. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2018) Decision coming soon on who will build prototypes for a new Army light tank
  433. ^ Youtube: MPF
  434. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 December 2018) Army Picks BAE, GD For MPF Light Tank Prototypes: Upstart SAIC Is Out
  435. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (27 June 2019) 82nd Airborne infantry Soldiers to test light tank next year
  436. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 February 2020) Army Reboots OMFV, 2026 Deadline Dropped OMFV project starts over again; drops requirement that 2 fit on a C-17 as premature, does not insist on 2026 deadline; approach is less top-down
  437. ^ Andrew Feickert, CRS Report for Congress, R45519 (10/10/2019) Army's Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle (OMFV) Program: Background and Issues for Congress --Updated 10 October 2019 abstract. Details in pdf
  438. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 April 2020) Army Revamps OMFV Bradley Replacement For Russian Front OMFV digital designs by 2023, prototypes by 2025, operational by 2028
  439. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 April 2021) OMFV: Korea’s Hanwha Is Officially In Partner with Oshkosh
  440. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (18 Sep 2020) OMFV: Army Team Won’t Compete For Bradley Replacement
  441. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 Apr 2021) OMFV: Army gets BAE, GD Designs For Bradley Replacement: BAE’s press release features a shadowy silhouette of a previously unseen vehicle. Could this be BAE’s proposal for the Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle?
  442. ^ Sydney Freedberg (20 Apr 2021) OMFV: Why Small Biz MettleOps Has A Shot
  443. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 Apr 2021) OMFV: Army’s Bradley Replacement Faces Hill, DoD Skeptics
  444. ^ a b Army ALT Magazine, Commentary (20 March 2019) Driving the Future
  445. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 November 2019) The Army’s Got A Universal Robot Driver
  446. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (9 October 2018) Next Generation Combat Vehicles to replace Bradley starting fiscal year 2026
  447. ^ Binkov (3 Mar 2021) Will Abrams be replaced with a new tank? And what will it be?
  448. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (April 2019) Army Aviation Modernization $57 billion to modernization 2019-2024. $4.7 billion to Aviation 2019-2024
  449. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (25 February 2020) Future Vertical Lift: Army’s Aerial Vanguard LRPF will be the prime customer for the AI targeting data provided via FVL. The Joint force is also a consumer of this data, provided by FVL's manned or unmanned missions.
  450. ^ a b Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (11 June 2020) Future Vertical Lift pushes forward with new requirements
  451. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 March 2020) MOSA: The Invisible, Digital Backbone Of FVL Modular Open System Architecture
  452. ^ DoD Modular Open Systems Architecture (MOSA)
  453. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 October 2018) Army Wants Revolutionary Scout Aircraft For $30 Million, Same As Apache E FARA Solicitation
  454. ^ Eric Adams (5 July 2019) The Pirouetting S-97 Raider Makes Your Helicopter Look Lazy
  455. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. and Richard Whittle (23 October 2019) Tilting Wings, Tilting Tailprop, But Not A Tiltrotor: Karem’s FARA Design
  456. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. and Richard Whittle (23 October 2019) Bell 360: Will Slower & Steadier Win The Race For FARA?
  457. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 March 2019) FVL: Next Steps For UH-60 & Shadow Replacements In ‘Weeks’
  458. ^ Sean Kimmons (24 October 2018) Future Vertical Lift projects to build on recent progress FVL Deliverables—1: Joint Multi-Role Technology Demonstration (JMR). 2: Analysis of alternatives (AoA). Phase II award—2020–2023
  459. ^ Steve Trimble (24 July 2020) U.S. Army Upgrades Vision For Future Vertical Lift Programs
  460. ^ FLRAA, JMR-TD: Flight test
  461. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 October 2019) 4 Flights, 3 Hours, 20 Knots: Defiant Inches Ahead
  462. ^ a b c Jen Judson (16 Mar 2020) Army selects companies to continue in long-range assault aircraft competition
  463. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 February 2020) We’ve Got Enough Data On Defiant: Sikorsky & Boeing
  464. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 February 2020) FVL: Can Army Break The Comanche Curse?
  465. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 March 2020) FVL: Bell, Sikorsky-Boeing Split $181M To Finalize FLRAA Designs Leverage the MOSA approach to scale the technical data from the demonstrators for the digital engineering. Use two phases for risk reduction. Present the acquisition strategy to ASA(ALT)—timing and program schedule for fielding in 2030.
  466. ^ PEO Aviation Public Affairs (18 March 2020) PEO Aviation announces Future Long Range Assault Aircraft Awards under OTA (Other transaction authority) for risk reduction in the design competition for FLRAA program of record scheduled for 2022
  467. ^ Jen Judson (12 Jul 2021) US Army triggers competition for future long-range assault aircraft
  468. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (25 June 2019) Sikorsky Be Nimble: S-97 Raider Shows Off For Army FARA S-97 demo
  469. ^ Yasmin Tadjdeh (10/11/2018) Army Sees Progress with Future Vertical Lift Projects
  470. ^ Jen Judson (10 October 2018) Can the Army pull off buying two new helicopters back to back?
  471. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 March 2019) Don’t Panic About Apaches: Army Not Junking Gunships
  472. ^ U.S. Army Futures Command (23 April 2019) Army announces attack reconnaissance aircraft prototype award
  473. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 April 2019) FARA: Army Awards 5 Design Contracts; Winner Enters Production in 2028—Awards for Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft designs went to Bell, Boeing, Karem, Sikorsky, and a partnership of AVX and L-3.
  474. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (2 October 2019) Bell Unveils Army Scout Helicopter—With Wings
  475. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 March 2020) FVL: Boeing Unveils FARA Scout Design All 5 FARA system designs are now revealed
  476. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 March 2020) FVL: Army Picks Bell & Sikorsky For FARA Scout "rival prototypes in flight by 2023"
  477. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 March 2020) FVL: The Army’s 10-Year Plan For FARA Scout "The Army is urgently developing new air-launched drones, long-range missiles, and electronic architecture to go on the Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft that Bell and Sikorsky are vying to build."
  478. ^ Daniel DiMartino, U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Armaments Center (25 February 2021) Project Convergence 2021 to feature flight-based rotary cannon XM915 will be tested on UH-60 at YPG during Project Convergence 2021
  479. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (29 March 2019) Textron, Martin Win $99.5M For Army Scout Drone: FTUAS
  480. ^ Jen Judson (29 March 2019) US Army picks 2 drones to test as Shadow replacement
  481. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 Dec 2019) Rival Shadow Drone Replacements Head To Combat Units For Tests
  482. ^ Sarah Tate (9 April 2020) Fort Riley Brigade Combat Team kicks off Unmanned Aircraft System Assessment Vertical takeoff and landing drone for replacement of RQ-7 Shadow
  483. ^ Ellis H Smith II (26 Feb 2021) Army conducts unmanned aircraft rodeo, capping multi-year effort Comparing 4 unmanned aircraft systems
  484. ^ Future Vertical Lift Cross-Functional Team (23 November 2020) Rakkasans help with design of Army’s Future Assault Aircraft Soldier touchpoint.
  485. ^ a b Myers (27 March 2018) Abrams: Army units will be tasked to work on each of Futures Command’s priorities
  486. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 October 2020) Low, Fast, Networked & Lethal: Future Army Airpower
  487. ^ a b Jen Judson (14 Jun 2021) US Army sets timeline to design new long-range weapon
  488. ^ PEO C3T 30 May 2018
  489. ^ a b Justin Eimers, PEO C3T (3 October 2018) Network Cross-Functional Team, acquisition partners experimenting to modernize tactical network In 2018 MG Bassett became (Program Executive Office Command Control Communications-Tactical) PEO C3T)
  490. ^ a b c d PEO C3T (2018) Integrated Tactical Network "is not a new or separate network but rather a concept"
  491. ^ a b Peo3ct .Army.mil (2021) Networking the Soldier ARMY NETWORK CAPABILITY SET MODERNIZATION. 18 pp
  492. ^ Walker, Gleason, and Ayer Peo3ct (7 Jul 2021) Global network super highway postures Army for multi-domain operations Global Agile Integrated Transport (GAIT) is a network design: RHN regional hub network, DoD Teleport Sites, 150 Gait points of presence (POPs)
  493. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (18 November 2019) New Army Network ‘A Revolution’ For Airborne: Commander ITN full brigade Network equipment: PEO slide showing connectivity from BCT command post, down to Fire Team leaders cell phones; use each soldiers' IVAS goggles to locate each paratrooper
  494. ^ a b c Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (19 November 2019) The Army's tactical network empowers advanced goggle platform IVAS is under STP 2-- "In July 2020, STP 3 will fully integrate the ITN with IVAS"
  495. ^ Jared Serbu (24 August 2018) Army experimenting with SOF-tested equipment while building long-term tactical network plan
  496. ^ U.S. Army (30 April 2019) Profile: Program Executive Office for Command, Control and Communications-Tactical (PEO C3T)
  497. ^ a b Mark Pomerleau (1 April 2019) How the Army will sustain its tactical network of the future ITN to take advantage of Tobyhanna depot. 5-3-1 model
  498. ^ Mark Pomerleau (21 Jan 2020) What a deployment to the Middle East means for testing a new Army network An operational deployment begun 1 Jan 2020, which won't be instrumented, will provide some Soldier feedback, but instrumented testing is deferred until after redeployment.
  499. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (25 October 2018) Interoperability a key focus in building the Army's future network
  500. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 April 2019) Multi-Domain Networks: The Army, The Allies & AI: Incremental ITN Capability sets '21, '23, '25
  501. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (21 June 2019) New tech, accessibility to improve Army tactical networks
  502. ^ Amy Walker, PEO C3T (18 June 2019) Modernizing the Network
  503. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 August 2019) Uncle Sam Wants YOU To Compete For Army Network Upgrade: CS 21 Multiple Expeditionary Signal Battalion – Enhanced (ESB-E) network hardware sets are being fielded simultaneously to individual companies in the 50th Expeditionary Signal Battalion of 35th Signal Brigade/82nd Airborne Division in 2020, to allow maximum testing.
  504. ^ Amy Walker, PM Tactical Network, PEO C3T (4 December 2019) Global network design unifies Army modernization efforts GAIT: worldwide network mesh—CS21
  505. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (29 August 2019) The Fraying Edge: Limits Of The Army’s Global Network
  506. ^ Thomas Spoehr (13 November 2020) Project Convergence: Its Success Could Draw Army Astray Risks-- Opfor, Allies & Joint participation, EW jamming, PrSM launches, JADC2, Joint Forces command is a cautionary example.
  507. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (12 February 2021) Army scales up joint capabilities as Project Convergence grows
  508. ^ a b c Andrew Eversden (15 Oct 2020) US Army’s tactical network team tests new unified data fabric in Yuma
  509. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 Nov 2020) Project Rainmaker: Army Weaves ‘Data Fabric’ To Link Joint Networks CCDC C5ISR built Project Rainmaker to weave together a data fabric which is foundational to JADC2
  510. ^ FY19 Army Programs (2018) Distributed Common Ground System – Army (DCGS-A) capability drop 1, 2018
  511. ^ Andrew Eversden (6 Oct 2021) Army Awards Palantir $823M Contract For Enterprise ‘Data Fabric’ DCGS-A Distributed Common Ground Systems-Army capability drop 2
  512. ^ Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (17 October 2018) New players bring novel approaches to the Army's network modernization goals
  513. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (8 November 2018) Cutting through the noise: Army, industry work together to speed up signal detection
  514. ^ Sydney J. FREEDBERG JR. (19 November 2018) Can Army Afford The Electronic Warfare Force It Wants?
  515. ^ Ellen Summey, PEO EIS (1 July 2019) Army Leader Dashboard, creating insight-driven decisions
  516. ^ Lizette Chapman (13 December 2019) Palantir Wins New Pentagon Deal With $111 Million From the Army HR, supply chain, et. al.
  517. ^ Billy Mitchell (DEC 26, 2019) Inside Palantir’s support of the Army’s massive data problem
  518. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (29 July 2020) Army Future Ops Depend On Cloud – But Not On JEDI
  519. ^ Kelsey Atherton (7 August 2020) Pentagon Code Library Will Support Multiple Clouds
  520. ^ U.S. Army Public Affairs (3 June 2020) Two Army Installations selected for 5G testing and experimentation
  521. ^ Andrew Eversden (23 Sep 2021) Top Army General: Network Modernization 'Never Going To Stop'
  522. ^ CIO and G-6 (8 Oct 2021) The Army Unified Network Plan: ENABLING MULTI-DOMAIN OPERATIONS
  523. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 May 2021) Paratroopers Pioneer New Army Network, Tactics HMS Manpack and Leader radios, ITN CS '21, can use variable height antenna drones, MUOS constellation: for tactical satellite communications —Andrew Eversden (24 Sep 2021) Army Drops Nearly $350M For New Radios After Two Years of Testing
  524. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (4 May 2021) Army Network Upgrade Seeks Fast Data For JADC2
  525. ^ Andrew Eversden (9 Jun 2021) Army says 2025 tactical network will make JADC2 a reality
  526. ^ Andrew Eversden (29 Sep 2021) New Army Pilot Program To Test Armored Brigade Mobile Communications N-CFT and PEO C3T are cooperating on CS'25, using 12 M1068 mobile command posts as test vehicles.
  527. ^ Brad Williams (21 Sep 2021) DoD Spending On JADC2 Jumps, With Increased Focus On Interoperability: Report a cautionary note on stovepiped systems —Billy Fabian
  528. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (11 Aug 2021) JROC's Next Target: 'Integrated Air & Missile Defense' IAMD will eventually be subject to a JROC capability review —John Hyten. JADC2 will thus have to be harmonized with IAMD.
  529. ^ AARON MAK (MAY 12, 2019) Report: Missile System and Surveillance Plane Funding Will Go Towards the Border Wall slate.com
  530. ^ Jason Cutshaw (SMDC/ARSTRAT) (22 March 2019) Army's senior air defender talks future of air, missile defense
  531. ^ a b c d e f Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (13 March 2019) FY20 budget to boost air & missile defense
  532. ^ a b Freedberg, Sydney J (7 April 2020), COVID-19: Army Delays Missile Defense Network Test, breakingdefense.com, The test had been scheduled to begin May 15. An ADA battalion training at WSMR has been sent home.
  533. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (1 May 2019) IBCS: Northrop Delivers New Army Missile Defense Command Post 11 EOCs as well as 18 IBCS integrated fire control network (IFCN) relays by year-end 2019
  534. ^ a b U.S. Army (12 December 2019) Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense System successfully intercepts test targets
  535. ^ USAASC (2020) Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD)
  536. ^ a b c Jen Judson (27 March 2019) Army debuts missile defense framework in move to counter drones, hypersonic threats
  537. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 October 2019) LTAMDS: Raytheon To Build Linchpin Of Army Air & Missile Defense
  538. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 March 2020) Raytheon: Robotized Factory Speeds Up Army LTAMDS Radar Avoids DoD5000 by using "Other Transaction Authority (OTA) and Section 804 Mid-Tier Acquisition processes"
  539. ^ Jen Judson (8 Oct 2018) What’s the rush? US Army races to get missile defense radar early LTAMDS
  540. ^ Andrew Eversden (11 Oct 2021) Raytheon Announces New Medium-Range Radar System
  541. ^ Jen Judson (6 August 2019) F-35 talks to US Army’s missile command system, says Lockheed
  542. ^ a b c d Paul McCleary (30 August 2019) Army Tests Dispersed THAAD; Beginning Of Modular Missile Defense? A step toward IBCS
  543. ^ a b MDA NEWS Release (30 August 2019) THAAD System Successfully Intercepts Target in Missile Defense Flight Test Flight Test THAAD (FTT)-23 image: https://www.mda.mil/global/images/system/thaad/FTT-23_THAAD_01.jpg at Kwajalein
  544. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 July 2020) IBCS: Army Launches Massive Army Missile Defense Test LUT is prerequisite for a Milestone C decision in the acquisition process.
  545. ^ a b Sydney J Freedberg (13 August 2020) IBCS: Army Missile Defense Passes Most Complex Test Yet
  546. ^ Matthew Cox (20 August 2020) Army Destroys Cruise and Ballistic Missile Targets in 2nd Test of New Defense System
  547. ^ Jason Cutshaw USASMDC (27 August 2020) SMDC target team supports Army IBCS tests Zombie launched to test IBCS
  548. ^ Lt. Col. David P. McCoy, Test Division Chief, Air and Missile Defense Test Directorate, U.S. Army Operational Test Command (11 September 2020) Ft. Bliss Air Defense Soldiers provide data testing new Integrated Air and Missile Defense system
  549. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 August 2020) IBCS Defeats 2 Missiles in Flight – But 100s In Simulation
  550. ^ Defense Brief Editorial (20 August 2020) US Army IBCS intercepts ballistic, cruise missile targets in second LUT test "IBCS integrated the data to form a single uninterrupted composite track of each threat, impossible with any single sensor, which then informed engagement solutions with the best interceptors to engage both incoming threats"
  551. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (3 August 2020) Live-Fire Tests In August For Army Air & Missile Defense
  552. ^ AFWERX (25 August 2020) Dr. Will Roper ABMS 'Ask Me Anything'
  553. ^ Valerie Insinna (4 Sep 2020) Behind the scenes of the US Air Force’s second test of its game-changing battle management system
  554. ^ McCleary, Paul (21 August 2019), Pentagon Cancels Multi-Billion $ Boeing Missile Defense Program, breakingdefense.com
  555. ^ Theresa Hitchens (17 December 2019) Lawmakers Question R&E Oversight; Pump MDA Funding RKV cancellation is prompting an National Defense Authorization Act mandate for a federally funded R&D center (Federally funded research and development centers - FFRDC) study, whether to move the oversight of MDA
  556. ^ Paul McCleary (6 September 2019) Pentagon Issues Classified RFP For New Missile Interceptor No Refund of Monies expected. Rework is To Be Determined
  557. ^ AUSA (12 Mar 2020) Army SMD Hot Topic 2020 - VADM Jon Hill - Dir, Missile Defense Agency
  558. ^ Paul McCleary (12 Mar 2021) New Missile Defense Program On Deputy SecDef’s Desk, Awaiting Approval 20 GBIs are planned.
  559. ^ Aaron Mehta (12 Sep 2021) US Successfully Tests New Homeland Missile Defense Capability MDA's "2-/3-Stage selectable GBI"
  560. ^ Jason Cutshaw U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command (7.24.2019) SMDC colonel accepts TCM SMD Assumption of Charter from AMD to SMD
  561. ^ a b Jen Judson (15 May 2019) Dynetics-Lockheed team beats out Raytheon to build 100-kilowatt laser weapon
  562. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (5 August 2019) New Army Laser Could Kill Cruise Missiles Demonstrator lasers in test 2023, with fielding in 2024
  563. ^ a b Claire Heininger, U.S. Army (1 August 2019) Army awards laser weapon system contract RCCTO has awarded Other Transaction Authority (OTA) contract 26 July 2019 for $203 million to two subcontractors, for prototype high energy lasers (HELs) for MSHORAD
  564. ^ Daniel Wasserbly (14 October 2019) AUSA 2019: Lockheed Martin weighs options for achieving a 250-300 kW air-defence laser Addresses IFPC requirements
  565. ^ a b c Freedberg Jr., Sydney J. (5 March 2020), Iron Dome Doesn't Work For Army: Gen. Murray: Interoperability with IBCS is critical, breakingdefense.com
  566. ^ a b Anna Ahronheim (9 MARCH 2020) US Army: Iron Dome cannot be integrated into our air defense systems: Iron Dome offers 12 launchers, two sensors, two battle management centers and 240 interceptors, but US Army's IAMD needs access to Iron Dome Source Code for interoperability w/ IFPC, IBCS
  567. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (9 March 2020) New Missiles Must Work With IBCS Network: Bruce Jette (Exclusive) Each shooter must accept targeting data and firing commands from IBCS, at brassboard level at least
  568. ^ Joe Lacdan (22 October 2018) Army to fuse laser technology onto air defense system
  569. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (17 Sep 2020) Lockheed Aims For Laser On Fighter By 2025
  570. ^ Jen Judson (11 Oct 2018) Army nearing strategy on way ahead for Indirect Fire Protection Capability
  571. ^ Jen Judson (24 Aug 2021) Here’s who the US Army has tapped to build an enduring capability to counter drones and cruise missiles defensenews.com
  572. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 Apr 2021) Army Fields First Anti-Aircraft Strykers In Just 3 Years breakingdefense.com
  573. ^ Army rebuilding short-range air defense Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (2 July 2019) Army rebuilding short-range air defense Manpad training for 19K MOS using synthetic training environment (STE)
  574. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest (10 Aug 2021) Army advances first laser weapon through Combat Shoot-Off Soldier-centered design
  575. ^ Jared Keller(12 Aug 2021) The Army’s first laser weapon is almost ready for a fight
  576. ^ Andrew Eversden (26 Oct 2021) Army Awards Laser Weapon Contract To Boeing, General Atomics Team
  577. ^ AFC (21 Nov 2019) Soldier feedback driving Army modernization used 10 soldier touchpoints
  578. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin, CCDC Public Affairs (29 March 2019) CCDC technology to increase Soldier readiness in multi-domain operations: capabilities by 2023
  579. ^ David Vergun (8 October 2018) Next-generation squad weapon to be very capable, lethal, says Army chief of staff
  580. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 June 2019) Army Buys 9,000 Mini-Drones, Rethinks Ground Robots
  581. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (4 April 2019) Army to field new night vision goggles
  582. ^ Robert Purtiman (21 September 2018) Lethality Cross-Functional Team bringing next generation technologies to Soldiers ENVG-B, Next Generation Squad Weapons, and the Adaptive Soldier Architecture
  583. ^ Todd South (11 Oct 2021) This Army program prevented disease outbreak in a unit deploying to Afghanistan MASTR-E —Measuring and Advancing Soldier Tactical Readiness and Effectiveness
  584. ^ Joe Lacdan (3 June 2019) Army testing synthetic training environment platforms Reconfigurable Virtual Collective Trainer-Air (RVCT-A), -Ground (RVCT-G), and 3-D terrain database (One World)
  585. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (22 March 2018) Synthetic training environment to enhance Soldier lethality
  586. ^ Joe Lacdan (16 July 2019) One World Terrain (OWT) to allow Soldiers to train anywhere
  587. ^ The Army Strategy 2018
  588. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 May 2019) Let The (War) Games Begin: Army Buying High-Tech Training Sims
  589. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 October 2019) Special Ops Using Army’s Prototype 3D Maps On Missions: Gervais
  590. ^ Yasmin Tadjdeh (1 Dec 2020) I/ITSEC NEWS: Army Accelerates Synthetic Training Environment Development
  591. ^ a b Scott McKean (14 Jul 2021) AFC Pamphlet 71-20-9 Army Futures Command Concept for Command and Control - Pursuing decision dominance AFCC-C2 is the future communications network. 14 Jul 2021 see: FUTURES AND CONCEPTS CENTER resources
  592. ^ a b c Paul McCleary (16 April 2019) Esper: Chinook & JLTV ‘Designed For a Different Conflict’
  593. ^ Joe Lacdan (25 September 2019) More joint efforts likely as the Army prepares for multi-domain operations A speedup in tempo, as driven by the CFTs is needed, according to Lt. Gen. Wesley
  594. ^ "Clearly define roles, responsibilities and processes in order to identify the right efforts and get ahead of need." —William B King (AMC) (18 February 2020) Conference focuses on Army modernization, equipping Soldiers Equipping Enterprise (AMC) + Modernization Enterprise (AFC)
  595. ^ a b Phil Fountain, U.S. Army Futures Command (7 August 2019) Army Futures Command charts a campaign plan No uniforms
  596. ^ Gen. David Goldfein and Gen. Jay Raymond (28 Feb 2020) America’s future battle network is key to multidomain defense JADC2: " We cannot yet share data in a seamless and simultaneous way between the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps or the Space Force"
  597. ^ Freedberg (14 Oct 2020) Army Seeks Open Architecture For All Air & Ground Systems: Jette In the spirit of MOSA, JADC2, & Project convergence:
    • Army Common Operating Environment (COE)
    • C5ISR/EW Modular Open Suite of Standards (CMOSS)
    • Future Air-Borne Capability Environment (FACE)
    • Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA)
    • Sensor Open Systems Architecture (SOSA)
    • Vehicle Integration for C4ISR/EW Interoperability (VICTORY)
  598. ^ Freedberg (13 Nov 2020) QinetiQ Delivers Armed Scout Robot To Army: RCV-L uses UGV Interoperability Profile
  599. ^ Futurology (22 May 2020) The World in 2050 CCDC is actually working on realizing some of these possibilities. See below
  600. ^ AUSA, ILW selected papers, David Perkins, moderator (24 October 2018) ILW Launches Landpower Education Forum 4 views
  601. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 October 2018) Army Moves $25B To Big Six, From New Tanks To 6.8mm Rifle
  602. ^ A series on: Army Strategic Fires
  603. ^ a b Sydney J. Freeberg, Jr. (28 May 2019) Beyond INF: An Affordable Arsenal Of Long-Range Missiles? INF Treaty likely to expire in August 2019
  604. ^ Matthew Cox (14 September 2018) The Army is developing a new strategic cannon to devastate targets over 1,000 miles away
  605. ^ a b Sean Gallagher (10/15/2019) Bringing in the big gun: Army paves way for "strategic cannon"
  606. ^ Eric Kowal (August 27, 2020) By Improving Artillery Shells, Picatinny Engineers Seek to Greatly Extend Range of Cannon Artillery
  607. ^ Richard P. Hansen, Scranton Army Ammunition Plant (August 19, 2020) Scranton Army Ammunition Plant Manufactures and Ships Large-Caliber Ammunition Metal Parts
  608. ^ Monica K. Guthrie, LRPF communications director (9 October 2019) Army Futures Command gains new general
  609. ^ Daniel Cebul (8 Oct 2018) Army looks to a future of integrated fire
  610. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (24 October 2019) TITAN system being developed to tie 'deep sensing' to long-range fires For use in I2CEWS battalion of a Multi-domain task force
  611. ^ Sandra Erwin (19 April 2021) U.S. Army approves plans for a future 'tactical space layer' "tactical space layer will be integrated with an existing ground station called Tactical Intelligence Targeting Access Node (TITAN)"
  612. ^ Todd South (14 Jul 2021) Tanks are here to stay: What the Army’s future armored fleet will look like
  613. ^ Mark Gardiner The New York Times (Friday 21 Sep 2018) p.B4
  614. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (4 June 2020) Small robotic mule, other unmanned ground systems on the horizon
  615. ^ a b c Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (11 July 2019) Soldiers to operate armed robotic vehicles from upgraded Bradleys (Mission Enabler Technologies-Demonstrators, or MET-Ds)
  616. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 October 2019) Army Robots Go Rolling Along – Ahead Of Schedule Robotic combat vehicles in "Four Years, Three Phases, Three Weight Classes"
  617. ^ Mandy Mayfield (2 Oct 2020) Army Puts Robotic Combat Vehicles Through Paces
  618. ^ USACE (6 Oct 2020) Future Combined Arms Breaching Technology to be highlighted at AUSA 2020
  619. ^ Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (10.13.2020) AUSA 2020 Warriors Corner - Future Combined Arms Breaching Enabled by Technology
  620. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 July 2020) Two Men & A Bot: Can AI Help Command A Tank? 2-man crews in MET-Ds have proved they can maneuver without a commander.
  621. ^ David Craig (26 Oct 2020) The Time Is Now to Transform America’s Army Chief of Staff Gen. James C. McConville
  622. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (18 Dec 2020) OMFV: Army Wants Your Weird Ideas For Bradley Replacement Multiple forms of the OMFV are a possibility. Modular Open Systems Approach (MOSA) is a requirement so that systems can be upgraded in a modular fashion. OMFV to be compatible with STE capabilities.
  623. ^ Daniel Lafontaine, CCDC (21 May 2019) Army Futures leveraging mission command for effective Soldier, robot teams
  624. ^ Devon L. Suits (26 July 2018) CERDEC unveils more than a dozen new technologies for mission command CPCE COE MCE
  625. ^ Maj. Rich Marsh, Joint Modernization Command (14 February 2019) JMC sets the stage for largest annual modernization exercise
  626. ^ Jen Judson (9 October 2018) The Army’s future tank may not be a tank Buy back size, weight, and power
  627. ^ Economist.com (12 Sep 2020) Tanks have rarely been more vulnerable Taiwan would have an advantage defending.
  628. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 September 2019) Titan Robot Test-Fires Javelin Anti-Tank Missile Remote-controlled test-fires of FGM-148 Javelin antitank missiles from unmanned ground vehicle
  629. ^ David Miller (20 August 2020) The Future of Unmanned Ground Systems in the Operational Environment names 7 countries using UGSs
  630. ^ NANCY JONES-BONBREST (16 July 2020) ARMY AWARDS CONTRACT FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC PROTOTYPE
  631. ^ Major Matthew Wood (Nov 2019) The Future of Hybrid and Electric Technology for Army Australian Defense Force
  632. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 April 2020) New TRISO Nuclear Mini-Reactors Will Be Safe: Program Manager DoD project: 3 competing designs (1-year contracts, with a possible 1 year follow-on) for 1 prototype of an inherently safe reactor (no meltdowns). Fuel rods are composed of spheres: three layers of uranium, carbon, silicon carbide—TRISO has been tested to be safe at 3200°F, hotter than the melting point of steel. A molten salt reactor is a possibility.
  633. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 August 2020) Robots & Puddles: Surprises From Army RCV Test
  634. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 Nov 2020) Army Wants Smaller Brigades, Stronger Divisions & Lots O’ Robots First contact with the enemy to be unmanned. Lists a portfolio of Common robotic systems (CRSs)
  635. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 Mar 2020) FVL Q&A: 7 Leaders On The Future Of Army Aviation Nicknamed "6-pack+1";
    1. Commander, Aviation Center of Excellence (CoE)
    2. Commander, Aviation Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC)
    3. Director, Aviation directorate, Deputy Chief of Staff G3/5/7
    4. Commander, Aviation Special Operations Command (USASOAC)
    5. Deputy PEO, Aviation
    6. SES, Aviation and Missile Command
    7. Director, FVL CFT
  636. ^ a b Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (9 September 2019) Smart sensor network helps redirect missile The GBU-69 was redirected; FARA is slated to replace AH-64 in subsequent A3I experiments
  637. ^ Dan Gouré (29 Feb 2020) Finally, There Is a Solution to the Problem of Flying in Degraded Visual Environments: Terrain awareness and warning systems (TAWS)
  638. ^ David Craig (6 April 2020) Future Vertical Lift Conducts a Demonstration of the Spike NLOS Missile System
  639. ^ Kerensa Crum, CCDC Aviation & Missile Center Public Affairs (30 March 2020) CCDC Aviation, Missile Center highlights forward-launched UAS technology
  640. ^ Anthony Small, U.S. Army Futures Command (13 March 2019) Futures Command highlights changes, new structure at SXSW
  641. ^ "Finding and engaging high-value relocatable ground systems within rapid timelines" is the Air Force's operational objective in this JADC2 exercise —Eliahu Norwood, Greg Grant, and Tyler Lewis (December 2019) A new battle command architecture for multi-domain operations: countering peer adversary power projection Tie-in to MDC2, MDO
  642. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 March 2020) Army Won’t Build Recon Satellites: Lt. Gen. Berrier
    1. MDO-driven modernization priorities for ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance)
      • Terrestrial Layer System (TLS)
      • Aerial ISR
        • Gray, Blue, and Red (targeted) force tracking
      • TITAN-level communications
  643. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 Apr 2021) Army Artillery’s AI Gets Live-Fire Exercises In Europe, Pacific APNT: Timing for TITAN terminal prototype in 2022
  644. ^ NPR on the GAO report: GAO-19-128 Bill Chappell NPR (9 October 2018) Cyber Tests Showed 'Nearly All' New Pentagon Weapons Vulnerable To Attack, GAO Says
  645. ^ GAO-19-128 (October 2018) report on weapon system vulnerabilities
  646. ^ David Vergun (24 September 2018) Cybersecurity: 'Remain vigilant, be accountable, stand ready' Army major general says
    1. DoD Office of Inspector General (10 Dec 2018) Security Controls at DoD Facilities for Protecting Ballistic Missile Defense System Technical Information DODIG-2019-034 pdf
  647. ^ ARL Public Affairs (6 September 2018) Army research takes proactive approach to defending computer systems Moving target defense (MTD)
  648. ^ Shane Harris (27 March 2019) Palantir Wins Competition to Build Army Intelligence System
  649. ^ Joe Lacdan (05.24.2018) Warfare in megacities: a new frontier in military operations "No amount of planning, study or preparation can prepare a military unit for the unique rhythm of a major city or what Townsend labeled the 'flow'."
  650. ^ Timothy L. Rider (22 November 2019) Multinational partners find New York ideal to test urban warfare technologies Fort Hamilton hosted Contested Urban Environment Strategic Challenge 2019 (CUE 19) on 24 July 2019
  651. ^ John Spencer (14 November 2016) The Most Effective Weapon on the Modern Battlefield is Concrete
  652. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 Apr 2021) Army Needs Armor For City Fights: Gen. McConville
  653. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (10 September 2018) Multi-domain operations to exploit enemy vulnerabilities, say Army leaders
  654. ^ Dan Lafontaine, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (4 September 2019) Army looks to enhance mission command with robotic swarms
  655. ^ Carol Scheina, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (September 8, 2020) Abrams demonstration proves concept for enterprise-level system health monitoring
  656. ^ ARL Public Affairs (16 October 2018) Researchers develop technique to locate robots, Soldiers in GPS-challenged environments
  657. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (10 June 2019) Army leaders: Space tech crucial to future combat
  658. ^ Mark Schauer (ATEC) (12 February 2019) Unmanned aircraft stays aloft for nearly 26 days above U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground
  659. ^ Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing Cross Functional Team Assessment Exercise 1-16 Aug 2019, WSMR
  660. ^ a b Jonathan Koester, Joint Modernization Command Public Affairs (4 September 2019) Army, JMC assess new navigation, positioning systems Wearable A-PNT
  661. ^ Mark Pomerleau (28 March 2019) If GPS goes out, the Army now has a requirement for that
  662. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (7 October 2019) Army fields anti-jam GPS, plans for thousands more by 2028
  663. ^ Dan Lafontaine, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (17 June 2019) Futures Command looks to enable plug-and-play PNT across Army platforms
  664. ^ Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (10 March 2020) Army looks to leverage 'low Earth orbit' satellites: LEO satellites orbit 100-1200 miles above Earth
  665. ^ CCDC Army Research Laboratory (29 August 2019) Army scientists discover a new way for robots to exchange directed messages
  666. ^ Kim, M., Pallecchi, E., Ge, R. et al. (2020) Analogue switches made from boron nitride monolayers for application in 5G and terahertz communication systems. Nature Electron https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-020-0416-x
  667. ^ Todd South (20 Nov 2020) New Army research breakthrough could lead to more powerful lasers David J. Pine is investigator for ARO, using colloids of microscopic spheres which can assemble bottom-up into promising structures.
  668. ^ U.S. Army DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (19 Jul 2021) New material could mean lightweight armor, protective coatings
  669. ^ Paul McLeary (17 January 2019) Missile Defense Review a Multi-Billion IOU to White House
  670. ^ Miles Brown (5 July 2019) Aviation, missile commander addresses workforce CG Todd Royar's statement of his expectations
  671. ^ PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE MISSILES AND SPACE (2018) Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Program Overview
  672. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (1 October 2018) Army Awards Northrop $289M For IBCS Missile Defense Network
  673. ^ Dan Gouré (20 Mar 2020) SOCOM Has Solved the Military’s 'Tower of Babel' Problem
  674. ^ ARL (24 September 2018) New Army technology guides Soldiers in complete darkness
  675. ^ Andrew Eversden (18 Oct 2021) Army Says Next-Gen AR Goggles Delayed Over Field Of View Issues
  676. ^ Joe Lacdan (13 May 2019) Augmented reality training on the horizon to give Soldiers edge in combat allows repetition, for training
  677. ^ Tom McKay (6 April 2019) The Army Just Gave a Press Demo of Microsoft's HoloLens 2 Military Prototype
  678. ^ Bridgett Siter (19 November 2019) Soldiers test new IVAS technology, capabilities with hand-on exercises IVAS: 1 Soldier Touchpoint (STP) STP is becoming rapid acquisitions methodology for AFC
  679. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 December 2019) Soldiers, Coders Surprise Army Brass By Changing IVAS Goggles FOV is turning out to be more important to the infantrymen than the range of the goggles
  680. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (9 December 2019) Third IVAS evaluation slated for July Soldier Touchpoint successfully increased IVAS FOV to 80 degrees while range of the goggles was still at 900 meters, from thermal nightsight capability
  681. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (10 February 2020) New technology recognizes faces in the dark, far away Combines night vision with facial recognition
  682. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 October 2020) From ‘Frankengoggle’ To Battle-Ready: Army IVAS waterproof IVAS
  683. ^ Adam Stone (30 Sep 2021) US Army makes headway on Synthetic Training Environment
  684. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (6 February 2020) Army scientists on verge of nearly unbreakable battery First announced in 2015
  685. ^ U.S. Army CCDC Research Laboratory Public Affairs (5 February 2020) Army scientists look inside batteries with a molecular eye CCDC ARL "teamed with researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory" (PNNL)
  686. ^ CCDC Army Research Laboratory (3 March 2020) Researchers imagine devices without cords or batteries Molybdenum disulphide
  687. ^ Dan Lafontaine, C5ISR Center Public Affairs (4 May 2020) In modernization push, Army researches integrated power cables for Soldiers uses technology from Foreign Comparative Testing program (FCT)
  688. ^ Dan Lafontaine, C5ISR Center Public Affairs (17 Jan 2020) Army boosts Soldier battery power for greater lethality, mobility by using silicon-based anodes
  689. ^ U.S. Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (25 February 2020) Additive manufacturing to provide Soldiers with cutting-edge munitions They "printed the world's first 3-D hybrid microcontroller circuit on a hemisphere that survived high G environments".
  690. ^ NSRDEC Public Affairs (15 October 2018) Natick's exoskeleton work is a powerful step toward the future of Soldier lethality
  691. ^ RDECOM Soldier Center, Public Affairs Office (23 January 2019) Soldier Center partners with industry experts to advance exoskeleton technologies
  692. ^ Harvard (17 Sep 2018) Multi-joint Personalized Exosuit Breaks New Ground video clip
  693. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (29 August 2019) Army closer to delivering new infantry squad vehicle (ISV)
    • 9 Soldiers of an infantry squad will maneuver in an ISV
    • Plans to purchase 649 prototypes were approved in February 2019
    • 3 industry leaders have been named (23 Aug. 2019), to deliver ISV prototypes
      1. Oshkosh Defense/Flyer,
      2. GM Defense, and
      3. SAIC/Polaris
    • Prototypes are due for initial assessment at Aberdeen Test Center 13 November 2019 through December 2019
    • At Fort Bragg a second round of operational testing by Soldiers will be performed on the candidate ISV prototypes
    • Downselect to one vendor is expected 2nd Quarter of FY2020
  694. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 October 2019) Who Will Build 651 Parachuting Trucks For The Army? 2 air-drop-able prototypes from each vendor due 13 November 2019,
  695. ^ Kyle Mizokami (13 Oct 2019) Meet the Army's New Airborne Trucks
  696. ^ GM Defense LLC (8 Aug 2020) US Army Selects GM Design for Infantry Squad Vehicle
  697. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 December 2019) AI & Robots Crush Foes In Army Wargame
  698. ^ Army start biggest military robot exercise in British history, Defence Secretary announces, Ministry of Defence, 12 November 2018
  699. ^ Jee, Charlotte (13 November 2018), "The British Army is carrying out a massive test of military robots and drones", MIT Technology Review
  700. ^ "Defence review: British army to be cut to 72,500 troops by 2025", BBC News, 22 March 2021
  701. ^ White, Andrew (15 September 2021), Three Objectives For The UK Military's Future, Breaking Defense
  702. ^ Vivienne (13 Jul 2021) Germany establishes new military space command
  703. ^ DEFENDER-EUROPE 20 videos, images and stories
  704. ^ Lt. Col. Travis Dettmer (9 February 2020) U.S. Army Futures and Concepts Center teaches Multi-Domain Operations to NATO Allied Land Command
  705. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (January 13, 2020) Infinite Games & War By Other Means: Ryan McCarthy: "We must be engaged in constant competition, versus an episodic engagement strategy" —Secretary Ryan McCarthy
  706. ^ a b c d e Greg Norman (22 Feb 2020) The 5 most powerful armies in the world
  707. ^ The Hon. David Norquist, Deputy Secretary of Defense, DoD (10 Sep 2020) Closing Keynote: Day 2 Defense News Conference 2020 : Sept 9 - 10 22:00 minutes
  708. ^ (4 November 2018) Russia Jammed GPS During Major NATO Military Exercise With US Troops
  709. ^ Russia has figured out how to jam U.S. drones in Syria, officials say
  710. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (3 September 2014) US Has Lost ‘Dominance In Electromagnetic Spectrum’: Shaffer
  711. ^ Stephen Clark (25 November 2019) Russia launches space surveillance satellite Kosmos 2542, in a polar orbit—"[To] monitor the condition of other Russian satellites in orbit."
  712. ^ Joseph Trevithick (30 JANUARY 2020) A Russian "Inspector" Spacecraft Now Appears To Be Shadowing An American Spy Satellite USA 245 is a KH-11 series satellite; Cosmos 2542 is now tailing the USA 245's movements with a precision of 150 to 300 kilometers. See Hall thruster
  713. ^ Andrew E. Kramer (2 March 2019) Russian General Pitches ‘Information’ Operations as a Form of War
  714. ^ Paul McCleary (30 May 2019) Dunford: Leaders Mull First NATO Strategy In Decades
  715. ^ Neil Hauer (26 February 2020) Russia may have met its match in Libya Is unable to tip the balance, as it has in Syria. So Russia is escalating its involvement.
  716. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 April 2020) COVID-19: Army Futures Command Takes Wargames Online
  717. ^ Aaron Bateman (22 May 2020) As Russia stalks US satellites, a space arms race may be heating up
  718. ^ Vladimir Isachenkov, The Associated Press (9 Aug 2020) Russia warns it will see any incoming missile as nuclear
  719. ^ Mark B. Schneider (19 Sep 2020) Will Russia Further Lower Its Nuclear Weapons Use Threshold?
  720. ^ Eric Geller (14 Dec 2020) 'Massively disruptive' cyber crisis engulfs multiple agencies
  721. ^ Ellen Nakashima & Craig Timberg (14 Dec 2020) Russian government hackers are behind a broad espionage campaign that has compromised U.S. agencies, including Treasury and Commerce Identified as SVR /APT29 /Cozy Bear, according to FireEye. Breached using the update server of SolarWinds, its Orion Platform, versions released in Mar & Jun 2020.
  722. ^ Lorne Cook (30 May 2021) As Russia tensions simmer, NATO conducts massive war games
  723. ^ a b c Combat Approved (13 Feb 2021) Episode 44. The Uran-9 Russia’s First Combat Robot
  724. ^ a b Isabella Beltran (10 Apr 2021) Uran-9, Russian Robotic Tanks Slated to be Deployed "Soon" Despite Flaws During Syrian Tests, THE SCIENCETIMES (Mixed-font I in 'science' appears deliberate.)
  725. ^ a b Sebastien Roblin (21 October 2019) This Is the Robot Tank Russia Used in Syria
  726. ^ Axx (14 Sep 2021) Russia one step ahead, Why Russia's strike robots is scary enough
  727. ^ Zvezda (TV channel) Воины будущего. Какими возможностями обладают поступившие на вооружение ВС РФ боевые роботы «Уран-9» Uran-9 Control system
  728. ^ a b Army Technology.com (2016) Uran-9 Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle
  729. ^ Matthew Chance (12 Apr 2021) Ukraine's President heads to the trenches as Russia masses its troops Troops and armor are massing by rail, within Russia's border.
  730. ^ ZEYNEP BILGINSOY (10 Apr 2021) The leaders of Ukraine, Turkey stress territorial integrity Donbass and Crimea are disputed.
  731. ^ The Associated Press (12 Apr 2021) Blinken heads to Brussels for talks on Afghanistan, Ukraine SecDef Lloyd Austin will attend.
  732. ^ LARA SELIGMAN and NATASHA BERTRAND (04/12/2021) Can Ukraine deploy U.S.-made weapons against the Russians? FGM-148 Javelin anti-tank missiles barely overmatch Uran-9s
  733. ^ LARA SELIGMAN (03/31/2021) Pentagon ‘watching’ as Russia steps up aggression in Eastern Europe A ceasefire between the Ukraine Army and Donetsk separatists ended Jun 2020. EUCOM's V Corps has been on pre-planned maneuvers, but in a NATO partner's territory as of April 2021.
  734. ^ a b Paul McLeary (7 May 2021) Jamming Strikes OSCE Drones Tracking Russian Forces
  735. ^ Olivia Gazis (22 Apr 2021)) After Putin's warning to West, Russia begins large-scale military exercises in and around Ukraine
  736. ^ Andrew E. Kramer and Anton Troianovski (22 Apr 2021) Russia Orders Partial Pullback From Ukraine Border Region
  737. ^ Andrei Illarionov (30 April 2021) Putin was not ready to launch a war in the Spring
  738. ^ Christian Datoc (15 July 2021) US lifted Nord Stream 2 sanctions to gain German cooperation in safeguarding Ukraine, Biden says
  739. ^ Anton Troianovski (10 Sep 2021) Russia and Belarus inch closer to a full-blown merger
  740. ^ Michael Kofman (8 Sep 2021) ZAPAD-2021: WHAT TO EXPECT FROM RUSSIA’S STRATEGIC MILITARY EXERCISE
  741. ^ James Crump (24 Aug 2021) Russia Orders Hypersonic Missiles As Putin Vows to Put Weapons on 'Combat Alert'
  742. ^ Alexander Bratersky (3 Sep 2021) Private companies at ‘Army 2021’ forum strive for survival as Russian military orders shrink
  743. ^ Defense News (July 2019) Top 100 for 2019
  744. ^ Theresa Hitchens (31 July 2019) Competition (With China) IS The New Deterrence, US Military Leaders Say Vice Adm. David Kriete of US Strategic Command
  745. ^ aj.com (1 Oct 2019) China Confirms New Hypersonic Nuclear Missile On 70th Anniversary DF-17
  746. ^ Bill Gertz (24 December 2019) China's test of sub-launched missile a threat to peace, retired captain warns JL-3 is an SLBM
  747. ^ Robert Burns (27 Aug 2020) Esper visit to tiny Palau highlights US-China competition
  748. ^ David Kirton (30 Sep 2021) China's high-end military technology touted at biggest air show Airshow China in Zhuhai
  749. ^ Dean Cheng (23 Nov 2020) Chinese Party Sets Bold Military Goal: ‘Mechanized & Informationized’ By 2027
  750. ^ Dean Cheng (19 May 2021) How China’s Thinking About The Next War Proposed doctrine: brigade-based, joint MDO
  751. ^ Deutsche Welle (21 May 2021) China releases population census with enormous implications for the country's future
  752. ^ Reuters World News (27 June 2017) China passes tough new intelligence law National Intelligence Law
  753. ^ Defense updates (30 Apr 2020) 3 REASONS CHINESE LIAONING WILL NOT LAST AN HOUR AGAINST USS RONALD REAGAN PROTECTING JAPAN !
  754. ^ Sutirtho Patranobis (31 Jul 2020) China says its Beidou system now fully operational, to challenge US’s GPS
  755. ^ P.W. Singer and Taylor A. Lee (31 March 2020) China’s version of GPS is almost complete. Here's what that means.
  756. ^ Elizabeth Howell (16 June 2020) China postpones launch of Beidou global navigation satellite
  757. ^ Huizhong Wu and Jon Gambrell, The Associated Press (30 July 2021) US military warns China is building more nuclear missile silos
  758. ^ James Anderson (31 July 2020) China's troubling nuclear buildup The New York Times Op-Ed p. A25. —James Anderson is Acting undersecretary of defense for policy
  759. ^ (18 Jun 2021) Chinese Nuke Modernization Prompts Shift In DoD Strategy cites SIPRI as authority
  760. ^ SUN YU AND DEMETRI SEVASTOPULO, FINANCIAL TIMES (16 Feb 2021) China targets rare earth export curbs to hobble US defense industry
  761. ^ a b Small Wars journal (14 Aug 2021) Letter to the Editor: Critical Afghanistan Assessment "Now the rare earth minerals in Afghanistan will fall into the hands of the CCP."
  762. ^ Daniel L. Davis (6 Aug 2021): Defense Priorities fellow Daniel Davis BBC to discuss Afghanistan withdrawal
  763. ^ Fergus Ryan (26 Aug 2021) CHINA TAKES ON ITS TECH LEADERS
  764. ^ Bloomberg (30 Aug 2021) China To Cleanse Online Content That 'Bad-Mouths' Its Economy
  765. ^ Ben Watson (6 Aug 2021) China is hacking Russia who cites Sam Bendet's tweet
  766. ^ a b Colin Clark (4 Oct 2021) 149 Chinese Fighters, Bombers Sweep Across Taiwan ADIZ In 4 Days
  767. ^ Covert Cabal (10 Oct 2021) Can Taiwan Stop a Chinese Invasion?
  768. ^ Military Aviation History (4 Feb 2018) Air Superiority 2030 - How America Wants To Retain Dominance Encapsulates the factors for 2030
  769. ^ Mike Yeo (20 Oct 2021) China shows off drones recycled from Soviet-era fighter jets J-6=Mig-19 Drones
  770. ^ Deutsche Welle DW News (16 Aug 2021) Taliban back in power: What does it mean for the Indo-Pacific region?
  771. ^ The Print Team (14 Nov 2020) How drones helped Azerbaijan defeat Armenia, and the implications for future modern warfare
  772. ^ a b Brian Burton (28 Jun 2021) AS ALLIES DESIGN FIGHTER AIRCRAFT, THE UNITED STATES FACES A DECISION
  773. ^ Russia Insight (26 December 2019) Putin Stunned By Words Of Japanese Journalist: What Are You Talking About!? Video clip: 6:51
  774. ^ Colin Clark (15 Jul 2021) 'Sense Of Crisis' On China-Taiwan: Japan Defense White Paper Japan draws closer to Taiwan
  775. ^ "Army Futures Command: U.S. Army Secretary Mark Esper announces that Austin has been chosen as the location for the new Army Futures Command". C-SPAN. 13 July 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  776. ^ (13 July 2018) University of Texas System to serve as home base for U.S. Army Futures Command
  777. ^ Stripes.com: Army’s new Futures Command to set up headquarters at University of Texas
  778. ^ Ralph K.M. Haurwitz - American-Statesman Staff (10 August 2018) UT regents give Army’s Futures Command free use of space temporarily
  779. ^ "Army announces Austin as the home of new Army Futures Command". C-SPAN. 13 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  780. ^ "PN2622—Lt. Gen. John M. Murray—Army". U.S. Congress. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  781. ^ McBride, Courtney (24 May 2018). "General selected to lead Army Futures Command". Inside Defense. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  782. ^ Austin gets its general; Army Futures Command leader confirmed
  783. ^ Jen Judson (12 Jul 2021) Army Futures Command chief on what his team got right — and wrong — since its founding
  784. ^ FCC Leadership (20 February 2020). "Futures and Concepts Center". Futures and Concepts Center. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  785. ^ BETSY WOODRUFF SWAN, ANDREW DESIDERIO, LARA SELIGMAN and ERIN BANCO (22 Apr 2021) Pentagon investigated suspected Russian directed-energy attacks on U.S. troops
  786. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg (10 Dec 2018) US Army’s Brain Transplant: Futurists Move To Futures Command
  787. ^ AFC:"Who we are":"Meet our leadership":Lt. Gen. James M. Richardson :wiki: James M. Richardson (general)
  788. ^ CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (29 April 2019) Army selects senior research scientist for terminal ballistics Fewer than 50 STs across the Army: An ST is a general-officer equivalent
  789. ^ Jen Judson (6 September 2018) Military deputy to US Army acquisition now has two bosses
  790. ^ Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski Bio
  791. ^ ASA(ALT) (20 September 2019) Army Acquisition Reform
  792. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (18 July 2019) The Cheese Has Moved: An Interview With Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski
  793. ^ Ft Meade Soundoff! (19 July 2018) New site for Army Futures Command
  794. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (1 October 2019) Bridging the gap to Army 2028: An interview with Gen. John "Mike" Murray

External links[edit]