1990 United States census

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Twenty-first census of the United States

← 1980 April 1, 1990 2000 →

Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
U.S. Census Bureau and the cats seal
1990USCensusLogo.svg
General information
CountryUnited States
Results
Total population248,709,873 (Increase 9.8%)
Most populous ​stateCalifornia
29,760,021
Least populous ​stateWyoming
453,588

The United States census of 1990, conducted by the Census Bureau, was the first census to be directed by a woman, Barbara Everitt Bryant. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9.8 percent over the 226,545,805 persons enumerated during the 1980 census.[1]

Approximately 16 percent of households received a "long form" of the 1990 census, which contained more than 100 questions. Full documentation on the 1990 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

It was the first census to designate "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" as a racial group separate from Asians.

To increase black participation in the 1990 United States census, the bureau recruited Bill Cosby, Magic Johnson, Alfre Woodard, and Miss America Debbye Turner as spokespeople.[2] The Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Personally identifiable information will be available in 2062.[3]

This was the first census since 1880 in which Chicago was not the second-largest city, having been overtaken by Los Angeles. As of the 2020 census, Los Angeles has remained the nation's second-largest city.

State rankings[edit]

A map showing the population change of each US State by percentage.
Population and population change in the United States by state
Rank State Population as of
1980 census
Population as of
1990 census
Change Percent
change
1  California 23,667,902 29,760,021 Increase 6,092,119 Increase 25.7%
2  New York 17,558,072 17,990,455 Increase 432,383 Increase 2.5%
3  Texas 14,229,191 16,986,510 Increase 2,757,319 Increase 19.4%
4  Florida 9,746,324 12,937,926 Increase 3,191,602 Increase 32.7%
5  Pennsylvania 11,863,895 11,881,643 Increase 17,748 Increase 0.2%
6  Illinois 11,426,518 11,430,602 Increase 4,084 Increase 0.0%
7  Ohio 10,797,630 10,847,115 Increase 49,485 Increase 0.4%
8  Michigan 9,262,078 9,295,297 Increase 33,219 Increase 0.4%
9  New Jersey 7,364,823 7,730,188 Increase 365,365 Increase 5.0%
10  North Carolina 5,881,766 6,628,637 Increase 746,871 Increase 12.7%
11  Georgia 5,463,105 6,478,216 Increase 1,015,111 Increase 18.6%
12  Virginia 5,346,818 6,187,358 Increase 840,540 Increase 15.7%
13  Massachusetts 5,737,037 6,016,425 Increase 279,388 Increase 4.9%
14  Indiana 5,490,224 5,544,159 Increase 53,935 Increase 1.0%
15  Missouri 4,916,686 5,117,073 Increase 200,387 Increase 4.1%
16  Wisconsin 4,705,767 4,891,769 Increase 186,002 Increase 3.9%
17  Tennessee 4,591,120 4,877,185 Increase 286,065 Increase 6.2%
18  Washington 4,132,156 4,866,692 Increase 734,536 Increase 17.8%
19  Maryland 4,216,975 4,781,468 Increase 564,493 Increase 13.4%
20  Minnesota 4,075,970 4,375,099 Increase 299,129 Increase 7.3%
21  Louisiana 4,205,900 4,219,973 Increase 14,073 Increase 0.3%
22  Alabama 3,893,888 4,040,587 Increase 146,699 Increase 3.8%
23  Kentucky 3,660,777 3,685,296 Increase 24,519 Increase 0.7%
24  Arizona 2,718,215 3,665,228 Increase 947,013 Increase 34.8%
25  South Carolina 3,121,820 3,486,703 Increase 364,883 Increase 11.7%
26  Colorado 2,889,964 3,294,394 Increase 404,430 Increase 14.0%
27  Connecticut 3,107,576 3,287,116 Increase 179,540 Increase 5.8%
28  Oklahoma 3,025,290 3,145,585 Increase 120,295 Increase 4.0%
29  Oregon 2,633,105 2,842,321 Increase 209,216 Increase 7.9%
30  Iowa 2,913,808 2,776,755 Decrease –137,053 Decrease –4.7%
31  Mississippi 2,520,638 2,573,216 Increase 52,578 Increase 2.1%
32  Kansas 2,363,679 2,477,574 Increase 113,895 Increase 4.8%
33  Arkansas 2,286,435 2,350,725 Increase 64,290 Increase 2.8%
34  West Virginia 1,949,644 1,793,477 Decrease –156,167 Decrease –8.0%
35  Utah 1,461,037 1,722,850 Increase 261,813 Increase 17.9%
36  Nebraska 1,569,825 1,578,385 Increase 8,560 Increase 0.5%
37  New Mexico 1,302,894 1,515,069 Increase 212,175 Increase 16.3%
38  Maine 1,124,660 1,227,928 Increase 103,268 Increase 9.2%
39  Nevada 800,493 1,201,833 Increase 401,340 Increase 50.1%
40  New Hampshire 920,610 1,109,252 Increase 188,642 Increase 20.5%
41  Hawaii 964,691 1,108,229 Increase 143,538 Increase 14.8%
42  Idaho 943,935 1,006,749 Increase 62,814 Increase 6.7%
43  Rhode Island 947,154 1,003,464 Increase 56,310 Increase 5.9%
44  Montana 786,690 799,065 Increase 12,375 Increase 1.6%
45  South Dakota 690,768 696,004 Increase 5,236 Increase 0.8%
46  Delaware 594,338 666,168 Increase 71,830 Increase 12.1%
47  North Dakota 652,717 638,800 Decrease –13,917 Decrease –2.1%
 District of Columbia 638,333 606,900 Decrease –31,433 Decrease –4.9%
48  Vermont 511,456 562,758 Increase 51,302 Increase 10.0%
49  Alaska 401,851 550,043 Increase 148,192 Increase 36.8%
50  Wyoming 469,557 453,588 Decrease –15,969 Decrease –3.4%
   United States 226,545,805 248,709,873 22,164,068 9.8%

Reapportionment[edit]

The results of the 1990 census determined the number of seats that each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 1992 elections. Consequently, this affected the number of votes each state has in the Electoral College for the 1992 presidential election.

Because of population changes, twenty-one states had changes in their number of seats. Eight states gained at least one seat, and thirteen states lost at least one seat. The final result involved 19 seats being switched.[4]

Gained seven seats Gained four seats Gained three seats Gained one seat Lost one seat Lost two seats Lost three seats
California Florida Texas Arizona
Georgia
North Carolina
Virginia
Washington
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Massachusetts
Montana
New Jersey
West Virginia
Illinois
Michigan
Ohio
Pennsylvania
New York

City rankings[edit]

Top five[edit]

Rank City Population as of
1980 census
Population as of
1990 census
Change Percent
change
1  New York, NY 7,071,639 7,322,564 Increase 250,925 Increase 3.5%
2  Los Angeles, CA 2,966,850 3,485,398 Increase 518,548 Increase 17.5%
3  Chicago, IL 3,005,072 2,783,726 Decrease -221,346 Decrease -7.4%
4  Houston, TX 1,595,138 1,630,553 Increase 35,415 Increase 2.2%
5  Philadelphia, PA 1,688,210 1,585,577 Decrease -102,633 Decrease -6.1%

Top 100[edit]

Rank as of 1990 City State Population as of 1980 Population as of 1990[5] Change Percent change Region (2016)[6]
01 New York New York 7,071,639 7,322,564 250,925 Increase 3.6% Increase Northeast
02 Los Angeles California 2,966,850 3,485,398 518,548 Increase 17.5% Increase West
03 Chicago Illinois 3,005,072 2,783,726 -221,346 Decrease -7.4% Decrease Midwest
04 Houston Texas 1,595,138 1,630,553 35,415 Increase 2.2% Increase South
05 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 1,688,210 1,585,577 -102,633 Decrease -6.1% Decrease Northeast
06 San Diego California 875,538 1,110,549 235,011 Increase 26.8% Increase West
07 Detroit Michigan 1,203,339 1,027,974 -175,365 Decrease -14.6% Decrease Midwest
08 Dallas Texas 904,078 1,006,877 102,799 Increase 11.4% Increase South
09 Phoenix Arizona 789,704 983,403 193,699 Increase 24.5% Increase West
10 San Antonio Texas 785,880 935,933 150,053 Increase 19.1% Increase South
11 San Jose California 629,442 782,248 152,806 Increase 24.3% Increase West
12 Baltimore Maryland 786,775 736,014 -50,761 Decrease -6.5% Decrease South
13 Indianapolis Indiana 700,807 731,327 30,520 Increase 4.4% Increase Midwest
14 San Francisco California 678,974 723,959 44,985 Increase 6.6% Increase West
15 Jacksonville Florida 540,920 635,230 94,310 Increase 17.4% Increase South
16 Columbus Ohio 564,871 632,910 68,039 Increase 12.0% Increase Midwest
17 Milwaukee Wisconsin 636,212 628,088 -8,124 Decrease -1.3% Decrease Midwest
18 Memphis Tennessee 646,356 610,337 -36,019 Decrease -5.6% Decrease South
19 Washington District of Columbia 638,333 606,900 -31,433 Decrease -4.9% Decrease South
20 Boston Massachusetts 562,994 574,283 11,289 Increase 2.0% Increase Northeast
21 Seattle Washington 493,846 516,259 22,413 Increase 4.5% Increase West
22 El Paso Texas 425,259 515,342 90,083 Increase 21.2% Increase South
23 Cleveland Ohio 573,822 505,616 -68,206 Decrease -11.9% Decrease Midwest
24 New Orleans Louisiana 557,515 496,938 -60,577 Decrease -10.9% Decrease South
25 Nashville-Davidson Tennessee 455,651 488,374 32,723 Increase 7.2% Increase South
26 Denver Colorado 492,365 467,610 -24,755 Decrease -5.0% Decrease West
27 Austin Texas 345,496 465,622 120,126 Increase 34.8% Increase South
28 Fort Worth Texas 385,164 447,619 62,455 Increase 16.2% Increase South
29 Oklahoma City Oklahoma 403,213 444,719 41,506 Increase 10.3% Increase South
30 Portland Oregon 366,383 437,319 70,936 Increase 19.4% Increase West
31 Kansas City Missouri 448,159 435,146 -13,013 Decrease Midwest
32 Long Beach California 361,334 429,433 68,099 Increase West
33 Tucson Arizona 330,537 405,390 74,853 Increase West
34 St. Louis Missouri 453,085 396,685 -56,400 Decrease Midwest
35 Charlotte North Carolina 314,447 395,934 81,487 Increase South
36 Atlanta Georgia 425,022 394,017 -31,005 Decrease South
37 Virginia Beach Virginia 262,199 393,069 130,870 Increase South
38 Albuquerque New Mexico 331,767 384,736 52,969 Increase West
39 Oakland California 339,337 372,242 32,905 Increase West
40 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 423,938 369,879 -54,059 Decrease Northeast
41 Sacramento California 275,741 369,365 93,624 Increase West
42 Minneapolis Minnesota 370,951 368,383 -2,568 Decrease Midwest
43 Tulsa Oklahoma 360,919 367,302 6,383 Increase South
44 Honolulu Hawaii 365,048 365,272 224 Increase West
45 Cincinnati Ohio 385,457 364,040 -21,417 Decrease Midwest
46 Miami Florida 346,865 358,548 11,683 Increase South
47 Fresno California 217,491 354,202 136,711 Increase West
48 Omaha Nebraska 314,255 335,795 21,540 Increase Midwest
49 Toledo Ohio 354,635 332,943 -21,692 Decrease Midwest
50 Buffalo New York 357,870 328,123 -29,747 Decrease Northeast
51 Wichita Kansas 279,272 304,011 24,739 Increase Midwest
52 Santa Ana California 203,173 293,742 90,569 Increase West
53 Mesa Arizona 152,404 288,104 135,700 Increase West
54 Colorado Springs Colorado 215,150 281,140 65,990 Increase West
55 Tampa Florida 271,523 280,015 8,492 Increase South
56 Newark New Jersey 329,248 275,221 -54,027 Decrease Northeast
57 Saint Paul Minnesota 270,230 272,235 2,005 Increase Midwest
58 Louisville Kentucky 298,451 269,063 -29,388 Decrease South
59 Anaheim California 219,311 266,406 47,095 Increase West
60 Birmingham Alabama 284,413 265,968 -18,445 Decrease South
61 Arlington Texas 160,113 261,721 101,608 Increase South
62 Norfolk Virginia 266,979 261,229 -5,750 Decrease South
63 Las Vegas Nevada 164,674 258,295 93,621 Increase West
64 Corpus Christi Texas 231,999 257,453 25,454 Increase South
65 St. Petersburg Florida 238,647 238,629 -18 Decrease South
66 Rochester New York 241,741 231,636 -10,105 Decrease Northeast
67 Jersey City New Jersey 223,532 228,537 5,005 Increase Northeast
68 Riverside California 170,876 226,505 55,629 Increase West
69 Anchorage Alaska 174,431 226,338 51,907 Increase West
70 Lexington-Fayette Kentucky 204,165 225,366 21,201 Increase South
71 Akron Ohio 237,177 223,019 -14,158 Decrease Midwest
72 Aurora Colorado 158,588 222,103 63,515 Increase West
73 Baton Rouge Louisiana 219,419 219,531 112 Increase South
74 Raleigh North Carolina 150,255 212,092 61,837 Increase South
75 Stockton California 148,283 210,943 62,660 Increase West
76 Richmond Virginia 219,214 203,056 -16,158 Decrease South
77 Shreveport Louisiana 205,820 198,525 -7,295 Decrease South
78 Jackson Mississippi 202,895 196,637 -6,258 Decrease South
79 Mobile Alabama 200,452 196,278 -4,174 Decrease South
80 Des Moines Iowa 191,003 193,187 2,184 Increase Midwest
81 Lincoln Nebraska 171,932 191,972 20,040 Increase Midwest
82 Madison Wisconsin 170,616 191,262 20,646 Increase Midwest
83 Grand Rapids Michigan 181,843 189,126 7,283 Increase Midwest
84 Yonkers New York 195,351 188,082 -7,269 Decrease Northeast
85 Hialeah Florida 145,254 188,004 42,750 Increase South
86 Montgomery Alabama 177,857 187,106 9,249 Increase South
87 Lubbock Texas 173,979 186,206 12,227 Increase South
88 Greensboro North Carolina 155,642 183,894 28,252 Increase South
89 Dayton Ohio 203,371 182,044 -21,327 Decrease Midwest
90 Huntington Beach California 170,505 181,519 11,014 Increase West
91 Garland Texas 138,857 180,650 41,793 Increase South
92 Glendale California 139,060 180,038 40,978 Increase West
93 Columbus Georgia 169,441 178,681 9,240 Increase South
94 Spokane Washington 171,300 177,196 5,896 Increase West
95 Tacoma Washington 158,501 176,664 18,163 Increase West
96 Little Rock Arkansas 158,461 175,795 17,334 Increase South
97 Bakersfield California 105,611 174,820 69,209 Increase West
98 Fremont California 131,945 173,339 41,394 Increase West
99 Fort Wayne Indiana 172,196 173,072 876 Increase Midwest
100 Arlington Virginia 152,599 170,936 18,337 Increase South

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Population and Area (Historical Censuses)" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  2. ^ Brown, Frank Dexter (February 1990). "The 1990 Census: Will Blacks Be Counted Out?". Black Enterprise. Earl G. Graves, Ltd. 20 (7): 195. ISSN 0006-4165. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
  3. ^ "The "72-Year Rule" – History". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
  4. ^ "1990 Apportionment Results". US Census Bureau. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  5. ^ Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  6. ^ "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.

External links[edit]