United States Chamber of Commerce

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Coordinates: 38°54′02″N 77°02′16″W / 38.900606°N 77.037671°W / 38.900606; -77.037671

United States Chamber of Commerce
United States Chamber of Commerce Logo.jpg
Logo of United States Chamber of Commerce
U.S. Chamber of Commerce building facade
FoundedApril 22, 1912; 109 years ago (1912-04-22)
FounderCharles Nagel
Typebusiness association & advocacy group
53-0045720[1]
Legal status501(c)(6)[1]
Location
MethodPolitical lobbying, public relations
Suzanne P. Clark
SubsidiariesUS Chamber of Commerce Foundation 501(c)(3),
National Chamber Foundation 501(c)(3),
Center for International Private Enterprise 501(c)(3)[1]
Revenue (2015)
$174,119,090[1]
Expenses (2015)$175,893,100[1]
Employees (2015)
470[1]
Websitewww.uschamber.com

The United States Chamber of Commerce (USCC) is the largest lobbying group in the United States, representing over three million businesses and organizations.[2] The group was founded in April 1912 out of local chambers of commerce at the urging of President William Howard Taft and his Secretary of Commerce and Labor Charles Nagel.[3][4] It was Taft's belief that the "government needed to deal with a group that could speak with authority for the interests of business".[5]

The current president and CEO of the Chamber is Suzanne P. Clark.[6] She previously worked in the Chamber from 1997 to 2007,[7] and returned in 2014, holding multiple executive roles before being named the organization's first female CEO in February 2021.[8][9][10][11]

History[edit]

Charles Nagel, United States Secretary of Commerce and Labor and founder of the United States Chamber of Commerce

The U.S. Chamber of Commerce was founded at a meeting of delegates on April 22, 1912.[12] An important catalyst for the creation of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce were two prior business engagements between the U.S. and Japan. In 1908, Eiichi Shibusawa invited the first official, modern day U.S. business delegation to visit Japan. This delegation was led by the prominent banker/economist Frank A. Vanderlip accompanied by sixty business representatives from the West coast states of California, Oregon, and Washington. The goal was to bridge their nations diplomatically and to promote increased business and commerce.[13]

In 1909, in appreciation for the hospitality shown to the 1908 Vanderlip business delegation during their visit to Japan, an invitation was now sent to Japanese business leaders to tour the U.S. This invitation came from the Associated Chambers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast, whose membership included eight principal cities from western coastal states of California, Oregon and Washington. Their invitation was accepted by the Japanese, and in 1909, Shibusawa, accompanied by his delegation of over fifty of Japan's most prominent business leaders and notables spent three months visiting 53 cities across America.[14]

Their travels were highlighted in many newspapers as they journeyed in a specially outfitted ‘Million Dollar Train,’ provided by the American industrial community. The U.S. government recognized the significance of their visit and sent U.S. representatives to accompany and assist them during their trip. Six representatives of the Associated Chambers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast also accompanied them, to help facilitate the events along the way.[14]

Their meetings included many chambers of commerce, tours of factories, power plants, fire departments, port facilities, mines, farms, schools, universities, libraries, theaters, churches, hospitals, and many other facilities. Their main goals to develop friendship and familiarity between the two nations while encouraging bilateral trade and commerce. An important influence of their visit was that it connected chambers of commerce across U.S., which likely motivated them to recognize the benefits of becoming a national organization. President Taft was one of the U.S. leaders that Shibusawa and his delegates met with during their visit.[15][16]

The Chamber was created by President Taft as a counterbalance to the labor movement of the time.[17] John H. Fahey was the first chairman,[18] and Henry A. Wheeler was the first president[19] and Elliot Hersey Goodwin was the first secretary.[20] It opened its first office in the Evans Building.[18] In 1913, President Taft spoke at its first banquet at the Willard Hotel, where he called for the organization to lobby for comprehensive currency legislation and to support the Commission on Economy and Efficiency.[21] During its first year in existence, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce's membership consisted of 297 commercial organizations and 165,000 firms and individuals.[22] The U.S. Chamber's staff grew drastically in just ten years of being created. In 1912, there were only four employees. However, by the time 1921 came along, the number of employees had risen to three hundred[23]

During the 1919 U.S. Chamber board meeting, Henry A. Wheeler proposed an idea that surprised many in the Chamber itself. The idea was to create a national headquarters. Wheeler stated during this proposal that the Board of Directors should take this vote very seriously in deciding whether or not to make a national headquarters due to having to pay for it with their own money. Nevertheless, the Board of Directors didn't hesitate with their answer and they began the process to create the headquarters. Wheeler and Edson already had a planned location for where they believed the headquarters should be. The location was facing the White House on the corner of Lafayette Square. The only thing that was stopping them from building were two 19th-century mansions: the Corcoran House and the Slidell house. Nevertheless, the mansions were purchased for $775,000.[24]

The Washington, D.C., headquarters of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce occupies land that was formerly the home of Daniel Webster.[25]

Throughout its history, the United States Chamber of Commerce promoted the nation's business and economy. The Chamber's first referendum in January 1913 called for the planning of a National Budget. This calling for a National Budget created The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921. From there, the Chamber worked to aid the U.S. Government during both World Wars and through the Great Depression. During the 1960s, the Chamber thought of the business community in a different way. They didn't have a World War to fight, however, a war against crime and poverty.[26]

During the oil crisis of 1973, the Chamber pushed for expanding domestic production. This entailed oil and gas exploration, as well as coal mining, and the Trans Alaska Pipeline. In 1981, the Chamber launched the Let's Rebuild America campaign to help support President Reagan's Economic Recovery and Tax Act. With increased globalization in the 1990s, the Chamber promoted expanding opportunities for the export of American goods and services in hopes of creating jobs for Americans.[26]

Although various chambers of commerce can work with all levels of government, they tend to concentrate their efforts on specific levels: Local chambers of commerce tend to focus on local issues, state chambers on state issues, and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce focuses on national issues at the federal government level.[27] They also work closely with a number of youth organizations in the country about the value and role of business in our society today.[28][failed verification]

In 1993, the Chamber lost several members over its support for Clinton's healthcare reform efforts. The Chamber had chosen to support healthcare reform at that time due to the spiraling healthcare costs experienced by its members. However, House Republicans retaliated by urging boycotts of the organization. By the time health care reform became a major issue again in 2010–2012, the organization opposed such efforts.[17]

The United States Chamber of Commerce building at 1615 H Street, NW, in Washington, D.C.

In late 2011 it was revealed that the Chamber's computer system was breached from November 2009 to May 2010 by Chinese hackers. The purpose of the breach appeared to be gain information related to the Chamber's lobbying regarding Asian trade policy.[29]

Since a 1971 internal memo by Lewis Powell advocating a more active role in cases before United States Supreme Court, the Chamber has found increasing success in litigation. Under the Burger and Rehnquist Courts the Chamber was on the prevailing side 43% and 56% of the time, respectively, but under the Roberts Court, the Chamber's success rate rose to 68% as of June 21, 2012.[30]

In the 2008 election cycle, aggressive ads paid for by the USCC attacked a number of Democratic congressional candidates (such as Minnesota's DFL Senate candidate Al Franken) and supported a number of Republican candidates including John Sununu, Gordon Smith, Roger Wicker, Saxby Chambliss and Elizabeth Dole.

The Chamber of Commerce was a virulent opponent of the Obama administration during Barack Obama's eight years in power.[31]

During the 2010 campaign cycle, the Chamber spent $32 million, 93 percent of which was to help Republican candidates.[32] The Chamber's spending out of its general funds was criticized as illegal under campaign finance laws.[33][34][35][36] In a front-page article titled "Large Donations Aid U.S. Chamber in Election Drive", The New York Times reported that the Chamber used contributions in campaigns without separating foreign and domestic contributions, which if true would appear to contravene prohibitions on lobbying by foreign nations and groups. In question was the Chamber's international branches, "AmChams", whose funds are unaccounted for and perhaps mix into the general collection.[34][37][38][39] All branches, corporations, and members of the Chamber pay dues; the question is how they divide the money for expenses in national campaigns.

The truth of these allegations is unknown, as neither the Chamber nor its detractors can provide any concrete evidence to support or refute the allegations.[40] In reference to the matter, Tom Donohue wrote his council and members on October 12, 2010. He stated, "Let me be clear. The Chamber does not use any foreign money to fund voter education activities—period. We have strict financial controls in place to ensure this. The funds we receive from American Chambers of Commerce abroad, bilateral business councils, and non-U.S.-based global companies represent a small fraction of our more than $200 million annual revenues. Under our accounting system, these revenues are never used to support any political activities. We are in full compliance with all laws and regulations."[41][42][43] Organizations Moveon.org, Think Progress, and People for the American Way rallied against the Chamber at the Justice Department to start an injunction for a criminal investigation.[44][45] The Chamber is not required to produce fundraising records.[46]

President Barack Obama and other legislators asked the IRS and Federal Elections Commission to ensure that the foreign funds that the Chamber receives are not used for political activities.[47][48] Obama criticized the Chamber for not disclosing its contributors.[49] The Chamber has responded that "No foreign money is used to fund political activities." [50] After the election, the Chamber reiterated the nature of Obama's policy dictated action from the Chamber, however the conflict would not be made "personal".[51][52]

In addition to the expenditures from the Chamber's own funds, in 2010 its political action committee gave $29,000 (89 percent) to Republican candidates and $3,500 (11 percent) to Democratic candidates.[53] The Chamber's PAC received a total of 76 donations from individual donors ($200 or more donation) totaling $79,852 in 2007–2008, or an average of $1050 per donation, and three donations per month.[54]

Despite more than $33 million spent supporting candidates in the 2012 Congressional races, Chamber-backed candidates lost 36 out of the 50 elections in which the Chamber participated.[55]

In late 2013 the Chamber announced it would distribute campaign contributions in "10s" of Republican primary elections to oppose the Tea Party movement and create a "more governable Republican party."[56] In early 2014 Tom Donohue clarified that the push would be to elect "pro-business" members of Congress "who favor trade, energy development and immigration reform".[57] During Donohue's tenure as head of the Chamber of Commerce, the Chamber formed an alliance with the Republican Party.[58] Donohue retired in February 2021.[58]

In recent years, as Republicans have backed more trade restrictions and staunch anti-immigration policies and more Democrats have embraced immigration, free trade, and other pro-business policies, the composition of the Chamber's political support has shifted.[58] In 2019, the Chamber updated the formula for its scorecard used to determine endorsements, to "more fully reward members of Congress for helping to advance pro-business policies, while simultaneously encouraging members to reach the compromises necessary for effective governing."[58][59]

After Donald Trump refused to concede following the 2020 presidential election, and most Republican members of Congress supported attempts to overturn the election results based on false claims of fraud, the Chamber of Commerce released a memo to its members, stating it would "review the totality of actions of its members" and "take into consideration... future conduct that erodes our democratic institutions".[60][61]

In 2021, Chamber lobbyist Neil Bradley said there would be a "political price" to pay for any lawmakers who supported the PRO Act, which the Chamber called a "litany of almost every failed idea from the past 30 years of labor policy."[58]

Thomas J. Donohue led the U.S. Chamber from 1997 to 2021.[58]

Controversies[edit]

In April 2009, the Chamber began an ad campaign against the proposed Employee Free Choice Act.[62] Critics such as the National Association of Manufacturers have contended that additional use of card check elections will lead to overt coercion on the part of union organizers. Opponents of the Employee Free Choice Act also claim, referring to perceived lack of access to a secret ballot, that the measure would not protect employee privacy. For this reason the Chamber argued the act would reduce workers' rights.[63]

In November 2009, the Chamber was reported to be seeking to spend $50,000 to hire a "respected economist" to produce a study that could be used to portray health-care legislation as a job killer and threat to the nation's economy.[64]

In December 2009, activist group Velvet Revolution, under the name StopTheChamber, posted a $200,000 reward for "information leading to the arrest and conviction of Chamber of Commerce CEO Tom Donahue."[65]

Some in the business community have criticized the Chamber's approach to public issues as overly aggressive. Hilary Rosen, former CEO of the Recording Industry Association of America, added that "Their aggressive ways are out of step with a new generation of business leadership who are looking for more cooperative relationship with Washington."[66]

Climate change[edit]

Until 2019, the U.S. Chamber rejected the scientific consensus on climate change.[67] Historically, the organization has promoted the work of climate change deniers and sought to stymy efforts to combat climate change.[68][69] In 2019, the organization acknowledged that humans contribute to climate change.[67]

The Chamber's senior vice president for environment, technology, and regulatory affairs William L. Kovacs threatened to sue the Environmental Protection Agency in order to have what he termed "the Scopes monkey trial of the 21st century" on climate science before any federal climate regulation was passed in October 2009.[70] Chamber CEO Tom Donohue disavowed the comment, but the Chamber strongly opposed the American Clean Energy and Security Act.[71] In response to this position, several companies quit the Chamber, including Exelon Corp, PG&E Corp, PNM Resources, and Apple Inc.[72] Nike, Inc resigned from their board of directors position, but continued their membership. Nike stated that they believe they can better influence the policy by being part of the conversation.[73]

Peter Darbee, CEO of former chamber member PG&E (a natural gas and electric utility company in California), said, "We find it dismaying that the Chamber neglects the indisputable fact that a decisive majority of experts have said the data on global warming are compelling... In our view, an intellectually honest argument over the best policy response to the challenges of climate change is one thing; disingenuous attempts to diminish or distort the reality of these challenges are quite another."[74] In response to an online campaign of Prius owners organized by Moveon.org, Toyota stated that it would not leave the Chamber.[75] The Aspen Chamber Resort Association of Aspen, Colorado left the U.S. Chamber because of its views on climate change, in light of how climate change could hurt Aspen's winter tourism industry.[76]

In 2010, U.S. Chamber president Tom Donohue agreed to work with Senators John Kerry, Lindsey Graham, and Joe Lieberman as they crafted legislation to address climate change; the effort fell apart and failed to produce a bill.[77] The climate campaign organization 350.org estimated that 94% of US Chamber of Commerce political contributions during the 2010 midterm elections went to candidates denying the scientific consensus on climate change.[78][79]

In March 2017, before President Trump withdrew the US from the Paris Agreement, the Chamber funded a report that said the US commitments under the international agreement would significantly reduce industrial sector jobs.[80]

In October 2017, Karen Harbert, CEO of the U.S. Chamber's Global Energy Institute, published an op-ed in USA Today criticizing the EPA's Clean Power Plan, saying, "The plan's fundamental flaw was that it would have intentionally raised the cost of energy without regard to the impact on families and businesses." Harbert added, "To be clear, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce believes that the climate is changing, and that man is contributing to these changes. We also believe that technology and innovation, rather than sweeping federal mandates, offer the best approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating the impacts of climate change."[81]

In November 2019, the U.S. Chamber adopted the following policy addressing climate change: "The climate is changing and humans are contributing to these changes. We believe that there is much common ground on which all sides of this discussion could come together to address climate change with policies that are practical, flexible, predictable, and durable. We believe in a policy approach that acknowledges the costs of action and inaction and the competitiveness of the U.S. economy."[82] They recommended that the US rejoin the Paris Agreement[83] and summarized that an effective climate policy should:

  • Leverage the power of business (rely primarily on private sector)
  • Maintain U.S. leadership in climate science
  • Embrace technology and innovation
  • Aggressively pursue greater energy efficiency
  • Promote climate resilient infrastructure
  • Support trade in U.S. technologies and products
  • Encourage international cooperation

In 2019, the organization said it had no position on a carbon tax.[67]

On January 19, 2021, the day before President Trump's term ended, the Chamber said it wanted Congress to pass "durable climate policy" while also encouraging "a market-based approach" to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.[80]

Immigration reform[edit]

The U.S. Chamber opposed President Donald Trump's executive order ending the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program. The U.S. Chamber's Chief Policy Officer Neil Bradley said, "With approximately 700,000 DACA recipients working for all sorts of businesses across the country, terminating their employment eligibility runs contrary to the president's goal of growing the U.S. economy."[84]

The Chamber of Commerce has come under attack by populist conservatives and others for its support of "amnesty" for illegal immigrants.[85][86] In 2014, Tom Donohue stated the Chamber will "pull out all stops" for the passage of immigration reform in Congress.[87] According to The Washington Post, Donohue did not offer specifics with regard to provisions or bills on the matter, speaking generally about the impact immigration would have on the U.S. economy.[citation needed]

Positions taken[edit]

Politically, the US Chamber of Commerce is considered to be on the political right, but is known to take positions that many Republicans, particularly populists, do not support. The US Chamber is often associated with the establishment wing of the Republican Party.[88]

Legislation[edit]

  • Campaigned against portions of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act.[89] (Introduced 02/14/2002) (07/30/2002 Became Public Law)[90]
  • Supported the SAFETY Act.[91] (Passed 2002)
  • Supported the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.[17] (Introduced 01/26/2009) (02/17/2009 Became Public Law)[92]
  • Supported the Food Safety Modernization Act.[93] (Introduced 03/03/2009)
  • Opposed the American Clean Energy and Security Act climate change bill.[94] (Introduced 05/15/2009)[95] "[H]elped kill several attempts to pass climate-change legislation" between 1997 and 2010, but did not oppose efforts by Senators Kerry, Graham, and Lieberman in 2010.[96]
  • The Chamber views some reform as necessary, but opposed the Dodd/Frank legislation that was passed, asserting that it would damage loan availability.[17] (Introduced 12/02/2009) (07/21/2010 Became Public Law) [97]
  • Supported the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA).[98] (Introduced in House (10/26/2011)[99]
  • Supported the Jobs Act of 2012.[100] (Introduced 12/08/2011) (04/05/2012 Became Public Law)
  • Supported the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act.[101] (Introduced 02/25/2013) (07/22/2014 Became Public Law)
  • Supported the Electronic Communications Privacy Act.[102] (Introduced 02/04/2015)
  • Actively lobbies against anti-tobacco policies implemented in other countries.[103][104] In particular, it opposes attempts to carve out tobacco from the Investor-state dispute settlement mechanism negotiated under the Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement.[105] (Signed 4 February 2016)
  • Supported the Ozone Implementation Act of 2017[106] (Introduced 02/01/2017)
  • Supported the Furthering Asbestos Claim Transparency Act.[107] (Introduced 02/07/2017)
  • Supported the Fairness in Class Action Litigation Act.[108] (Introduced 02/09/2017)
  • Supported the SAFE Act.[109] (Introduced 03/16/2017)
  • Opposed the American Health Care Act of 2017.[17] (Introduced 03/20/2017)[110]
  • Opposed the Clean Power Plan.[111] (added new bullet point) (On March 28, 2017)[112]
  • Supported the Reauthorization Act.[113] (Introduced 04/25/2017)
  • Supported the Self Drive Act.[114] (Introduced 07/25/2017)
  • Supported the Tribal Tax and Investment Reform Act of 2017.[115] (Introduced 10/05/2017)
  • Opposes the DISCLOSE Act, which aims to limit foreign influence on U.S. elections.[116] (House - 06/27/2018)[117]
  • Opposed to using the government shutdown and debt ceiling limit as negotiating tactics.[118]
  • Support for business globalization, free trade, and offshoring.[citation needed]
  • Qualified opposition to financial regulation.[17]

Court cases[edit]

  • Argued against mandatory immigration status checks by employers in Arizona including in a Supreme Court case.[119]
  • Filed an amicus brief to the U.S. Supreme Court in Citizens United v FEC to urge the court to overrule Austin and restore "free corporate speech."[120] Its position is opposed by some advocates for independent businesses.[121]

Lobbying expenditures[edit]

The Chamber has emerged as the largest lobbying organization in America. The Chamber's lobbying expenditures in 2018 were nearly 30 percent larger than those of the second-biggest spender, the National Association of Realtors at $72.8 million.

US Chamber Lobbying 2002-2018[122][123]
Year US Cham. Rank US Cham. Spending Next Highest Spender Next Highest Amount
2018 1 $94,800,000 National Assn of Realtors $72,808,648
2017 1 $82,260,000 National Assn of Realtors $54,530,861
2016 1 $103,950,000 National Assn of Realtors $64,821,111
2015 1 $64,190,000 American Medical Assn $23,910,000
2014 1 $124,080,000 National Assn of Realtors $55,057,053
2013 1 $74,470,000 National Assn of Realtors $38,584,580
2012 1 $136,300,000 National Assn of Realtors $41,464,580
2011 1 $66,370,000 General Electric $26,340,000
2010 1 $157,187,500 PG&E Corp $45,510,000
2009 1 $144,606,000 Exxon Mobil $27,430,000
2008 1 $91,955,000 Exxon Mobil $29,000,000
2007 1 $53,082,500 Pharmaceutical Rsrch & Mfrs of America $22,733,400
2006 1 $72,995,000 AT&T Inc $27,445,497
2005 1 $39,805,000 AARP $36,302,064
2004 1 $53,380,000 American Medical Assn $18,820,000
2003 1 $34,602,640 AARP $20,880,000
2002 1 $41,560,000 Philip Morris $15,200,000

Organizational structure and membership[edit]

US Chamber Members, USPBC 2021[124]

  • Abbott
  • AEAI
  • Bayer
  • Cargill
  • Caterpillar, Inc.
  • Citi
  • The Coca-Cola Company
  • Excelerate Energy L.P.
  • ExxonMobil
  • Facebook
  • General Electric
  • Gilead Sciences, Inc.
  • Global Logistics Providers
  • Google
  • Hecate Energy
  • Jamil & Jamil USA
  • Netsol Technologies
  • North Shore Medical Labs
  • PepsiCo
  • Pfizer
  • PMI Global Services, Inc.
  • Procter & Gamble
  • S&P Global
  • Target
  • The Resource Group
  • Uber
  • Visionet Systems Inc

As of October 2010, the Chamber had a worldwide network of 115 American Chamber of Commerce affiliates located in 108 countries.[125] The US Chamber says that a relative handful of the Chamber's 300,000 members are "non-U.S.-based (foreign) companies." It claims that, "No foreign money is used to fund political activities." A US Chamber executive has said that the organization has had "foreign multinationals" (foreign companies) as members for "over a century, many for decades."[50] The US Chamber states that it receives approximately $100,000 annually in membership dues from its foreign affiliates, out of an annual budget of $200 million.[50][126]

Affiliate organizations[edit]

  • Americans for Transportation Mobility
  • Center for Capital Markets Competitiveness
  • Center for International Private Enterprise
  • Global Energy Institute
  • Institute for Legal Reform
  • Institute for Organization Management (IOM)
  • U.S. Chamber Litigation Center
  • U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation (previously the National Chamber Foundation)

Opposition[edit]

Several organizations have attacked the Chamber for its advocacy, including Chamber Watch (a campaign of Public Citizen). Advocates for independent business, like the American Independent Business Alliance (AMIBA) and "green businesses," like the American Sustainable Business Council, have fought the Chamber on multiple issues. Among major divisions between the Chamber and these business advocates is allowing corporations to engage in electioneering.[127] Oliver E. Diaz Jr. says one example of this was when the Chamber spent $1,000,000+ to fund negative campaign ads against him and have judicial candidate Keith Starrett elected instead.[128]

See also[edit]

General:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Form 990: Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax". Chamber of Commerce of the USA. Guidestar. December 31, 2015.
  2. ^ Brodwin, David (October 25, 2015). "The Chamber's Secrets". U.S. News & World Report.
  3. ^ Judis, John B. (2001). The Paradox of American Democracy: Elites, Special Interests, and the Betrayal of Public Trust. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-93026-0.
  4. ^ Department Of State. The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs. "U.S. Chamber of Commerce". 2001-2009.state.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2021.
  5. ^ Lamb, Karl A. (1971). The People, Maybe: Seeking Democracy in America. Wadsworth Publishing Company.
  6. ^ Stych, Anne (February 11, 2021). "Suzanne Clark named CEO of the US Chamber of Commerce". www.bizjournals.com. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
  7. ^ Hohmann, James; Hamburger, Tom. "Chamber announces Clark as new president; Donohue to remain as CEO". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
  8. ^ Gangitano, Alex (June 5, 2019). "Chamber of Commerce top aide takes over as president". TheHill. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
  9. ^ "Suzanne Clark". U.S. Chamber of Commerce. May 20, 2015. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
  10. ^ "Suzanne P Clark, Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America: Profile and Biography". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
  11. ^ Hamburger, Tom. "Chamber of Commerce elevates first woman to CEO role". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
  12. ^ "U.S. Chamber of Commerce website, "History"". Uschamber.com. Retrieved November 5, 2010.
  13. ^ "1908 – Frank A. Vanderlip future president of the Japan Society of New York City leads the first official, modern day U.S. business delegation to Japan to meet with Shibusawa Eiichi and representatives of Mitsui & Co., and other Japanese business leaders". TheEmperorAndTheSpy.com. 2020.
  14. ^ a b "1909 Shibusawa Delegation visits Upstate, New York – U.S. and Japanese leaders come together in friendship over a Century Ago". TheEmperorAndTheSpy.com. 2020.
  15. ^ "Japanese Visitors Have Arrived – Honorary Commercial Commissioners Well Received in Buffalo [New York]". The Buffalo Commercial. October 5, 1909.
  16. ^ Katz, Stan S. (2019). The Art of Peace. Horizon Productions. pp. Chapter 7 - Friendship and Alliance with Baron Shibusawa.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Verini, James (July/August 2010). "Show Him the Money". Washington Monthly. washingtonmonthly.com. Archived from the original on 2016-04-03. Retrieved 2017-06-28.
  18. ^ a b "Opens Office to Aid Trade". The Washington Post. April 26, 1912. p. 16.
  19. ^ "Delegates Indorse Reformed Calendar". The New York Times. September 25, 1912. p. 15.
  20. ^ "Earnestly Supported by United States Chamber of Commerce". The New York Times. March 6, 1913. p. 10.
  21. ^ "'No Third Termer'". The Washington Post. January 23, 1913. p. 2.
  22. ^ "Add Fifteen New Members". The Washington Post. February 13, 1913. p. 4.
  23. ^ "The Early Years" (PDF). p. 22.
  24. ^ "The Early Years" (PDF). pp. 24–25.
  25. ^ "U.S. Chamber of Commerce website, "History of the building"". Uschamber.com. Retrieved November 5, 2010.
  26. ^ a b "The Early Years" (PDF). pp. 16, 29–30.
  27. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". December 24, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
  28. ^ American Business BSA Merit Badge Guide, 22 Jun 2015.
  29. ^ Gorman, Siobahn (December 21, 2011). "Chinese Hackers Hit U.S. Chamber - WSJ.com". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
  30. ^ Sacks, Mike (June 21, 2012). "Supreme Court: U.S. Chamber Of Commerce Undefeated This Term". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
  31. ^ Berry, Jeffrey M. (2020), Suhay, Elizabeth; Grofman, Bernard; Trechsel, Alexander H. (eds.), "Interest Groups and Elections", The Oxford Handbook of Electoral Persuasion, Oxford University Press, pp. 339–357, doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190860806.013.31, ISBN 978-0-19-086080-6
  32. ^ Murray, Matthew (November 12, 2010). "Chamber Watch: Business Group 'Central' to GOP Gains". Roll Call. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
  33. ^ "Chamber of Commerce under fire for foreign cash". Politico.com.
  34. ^ a b Waters, Clay (October 22, 2010). "Lead Story Goes After Fundraising of Obama Foe, the Chamber of Commerce | Media Research Center". Mrc.org. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  35. ^ Fang, Lee (October 13, 2010). "Exclusive: Chamber Receives At Least $885,000 From Over 80 Foreign Companies In Disclosed Donations Alone". ThinkProgress. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  36. ^ "Vote 2010: Is Foreign Money Behind U.S. Chamber of Commerce Ads? - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. October 11, 2010. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  37. ^ Eggen, Dan (October 8, 2010). "Chamber and Democrats battle over the midterms and election spending". The Washington Post.
  38. ^ "News Headlines". Cnbc.com. October 22, 2010. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  39. ^ Jacob Sullum (October 22, 2010). "NYT Shocker: Chamber of Commerce Promotes Business Interests - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine". Reason.com. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  40. ^ "The Chamber and Foreign Contributors". Factcheck.org. October 8, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
  41. ^ Shear, Michael D. (October 12, 2010). "Chamber of Commerce Vows to 'Ramp Up' Political Activity". The New York Times.
  42. ^ Lipton, Eric. "Large corporate donations fund controversial US Chamber of Commerce campaign of election attack ads". Ocala.com. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  43. ^ Smith, Ben (October 5, 2010). "Chamber: 'We have a system' - Ben Smith". Politico.Com. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  44. ^ Fang, Lee (October 5, 2010). "Exclusive: Foreign-Funded 'U.S.' Chamber Of Commerce Running Partisan Attack Ads". ThinkProgress. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  45. ^ Graves, Lucia (October 7, 2010). "Watchdog Groups Rally Outside Chamber Of Commerce, As Calls For A Justice Department Investigation Mount". Huffington Post.
  46. ^ Lipton, Eric; McIntire, Mike; NATTA Jr, DON VAN (October 21, 2010). "Top Corporations Aid U.S. Chamber of Commerce Campaign". The New York Times.
  47. ^ Shear, Michael D. (October 20, 2009). "Rift between Obama and Chamber of Commerce widening". The Wall Street Journal.
  48. ^ "Obama's Risky Fight Against the Chamber of Commerce". Time. Archived from the original on October 15, 2010.
  49. ^ Calmes, Jackie (December 11, 2010). "Obama to Meet With Executives". New York Times.
  50. ^ a b c "Chamber of Commerce - The White House Wants Our Donor List". ABC News.
  51. ^ "Donohue: US Chamber won't seek Obama's defeat". Real Clear Politics.
  52. ^ Stein, Sam (November 17, 2010). "The White House, Chamber Of Commerce Attempt Rapprochement". Huffington Post.
  53. ^ "Center for Responsive Politics, US Chamber of Commerce summary". Opensecrets.org. Retrieved November 5, 2010.
  54. ^ "Center for Responsive Politics, 31Oct 2009". Opensecrets.org. Retrieved November 5, 2010.
  55. ^ "Chamber of Commerce $33 Million Lost Most Races: BGOV Barometer". Bloomberg.
  56. ^ Needham, Vicki (September 13, 2013). "Top business groups vow more involvement in primaries". The Hill. Archived from the original on September 18, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  57. ^ Wingfield, Brian; Bykowicz, Julie (January 8, 2014). "Big Business Doubles Down on GOP Civil War With Tea Party". www.bloomberg.com. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
  58. ^ a b c d e f "Chamber of Commerce draws fire after a risky bet on Democrats". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 6, 2021.
  59. ^ "Congressional Scorecard and Legislative Leadership List". U.S. Chamber of Commerce. February 27, 2019. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  60. ^ "Chamber of Commerce declines to rebuke members of Congress who voted to overturn 2020 election". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 6, 2021.
  61. ^ "MEMO: Political Support for Candidates in Light of Events of January 6th". U.S. Chamber of Commerce. March 5, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  62. ^ "chambergrassroots.com". chambergrassroots.com. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  63. ^ "Issue Alert: CARD_CHECK". Bipac.net. Retrieved November 5, 2010.
  64. ^ Shear, Michael D. (November 16, 2009). "Opponents of health-care effort look to fund a critical economic study". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  65. ^ "Activist Group Puts Bounty on Chamber of Commerce CEO". Fox News. December 7, 2009.
  66. ^ Stier, Ken (October 31, 2009). "Is the Chamber of Commerce Its Own Worst Enemy?". Time. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009.
  67. ^ a b c Reuters Staff (September 24, 2019). "After skepticism, U.S. Chamber of Commerce forms climate change task force". Reuters. Retrieved June 6, 2021.
  68. ^ Network, Shaun Goho for Yale Environment 360, part of the Guardian Environment (February 26, 2010). "The US Chamber of Commerce: A record of obstruction on climate action". the Guardian. Retrieved June 6, 2021.
  69. ^ Dryzek, John S.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Schlosberg, David (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society. Oxford University Press. pp. 147–148. ISBN 978-0-19-161857-4.
  70. ^ Tankersley, Jim (August 25, 2009). "U.S. Chamber of Commerce seeks trial on global warming". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
  71. ^ Broder, John M. (November 18, 2009). "U.S. Chamber of Commerce Split Over Donohue's Climate Policy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  72. ^ Gardner, Timothy (October 5, 2009). "Apple, citing climate, tells U.S. Chamber iQuit". Reuters. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
  73. ^ "Nike US Chamber Statement" (PDF). September 30, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2009.
  74. ^ "U.S. Chamber of Commerce in climate rift". NBC News. September 25, 2009. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  75. ^ Goldenberg, Suzanne (October 26, 2009). "Toyota: We're staying in US chamber of commerce". The Guardian. London. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
  76. ^ Salvail, Andre (April 24, 2012). "Aspen chamber to cut ties with national organization". The Aspen Times. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
  77. ^ Lizza, Ryan (October 3, 2010). "As the World Burns". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  78. ^ Who's holding us back? Full report Greenpeace November 23, 2011
  79. ^ "| The U.S. Chamber Doesn't Speak For Me". chamber.350.org. 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  80. ^ a b Shepardson, David; Volcovici, Valerie (January 19, 2021). "Bracing for Biden climate rules, U.S. Chamber asks Congress to make laws". Yahoo Finance. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  81. ^ "Clean Power Plan was the wrong answer". USA TODAY. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  82. ^ "Addressing Climate Change". U.S. Chamber of Commerce. November 24, 2013. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  83. ^ Pontecorvo, Emily (November 13, 2019). "One of the country's biggest climate denier groups just did an about-face". Grist. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  84. ^ Weaver, Dustin (September 5, 2017). "Business backlash hits Trump's DACA decision". TheHill. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  85. ^ Kasperowicz, Pete. "GOP lawmaker returns award to protest Chamber of Commerce's immigration policy". The Blaze.
  86. ^ O'Connor, Patrick (December 26, 2014). "U.S. Chamber of Commerce Pushes Priorities in Congress". The Wall Street Journal.
  87. ^ Ho, Catherine (January 8, 2014). "U.S. Chamber to 'pull out all stops' to pass immigration reform". Washington Post. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
  88. ^ Hohmann, James (April 25, 2019). "The Daily 202: The U.S. Chamber wants to disentangle its brand from the GOP and hopes to rebuild the center". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  89. ^ Henry, David (January 17, 2005). "Death, Taxes, & Sarbanes-Oxley?". Business Week.
  90. ^ Michael, Oxley (July 30, 2002). "H.R.3763 - 107th Congress (2001-2002): Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  91. ^ "SAFETY Act". Department of Homeland Security. June 1, 2012. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  92. ^ David, Obey (February 17, 2009). "Text - H.R.1 - 111th Congress (2009-2010): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  93. ^ Richard, Durbin (November 30, 2010). "S.510 - 111th Congress (2009-2010): FDA Food Safety Modernization Act". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  94. ^ Johnson, Keith (May 14, 2009). "Chamber of Commerce Details Opposition to Waxman-Markey Bill". WSJ. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  95. ^ Henry, Waxman (July 7, 2009). "H.R.2454 - 111th Congress (2009-2010): American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and jayesha khan will do their best for future of america". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  96. ^ Lizza, Ryan (October 3, 2010). "As the World Burns". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  97. ^ Barney, Frank (July 21, 2010). "Text - H.R.4173 - 111th Congress (2009-2010): Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  98. ^ "Cautious Optimism Follows SOPA (2011)". Archived from the original on November 22, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
  99. ^ Lamar, Smith (December 16, 2011). "H.R.3261 - 112th Congress (2011-2012): Stop Online Piracy Act". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  100. ^ Stephen, Fincher (April 5, 2012). "H.R.3606 - 112th Congress (2011-2012): Jumpstart Our Business Startups". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  101. ^ Virginia, Foxx (July 22, 2014). "H.R.803 - 113th Congress (2013-2014): Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  102. ^ Mike, Lee (September 16, 2015). "S.356 - 114th Congress (2015-2016): Electronic Communications Privacy Act Amendments Act of 2015". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  103. ^ "Making Tobacco's Case". The New York Times. June 30, 2015. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  104. ^ Hakim, Danny (June 30, 2015). "U.S. Chamber of Commerce Works Globally to Fight Antismoking Measures". The New York Times. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  105. ^ "No Exclusions! Why Carveouts Would Weaken the Trans-Pacific Partnership". April 24, 2014. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  106. ^ Pete, Olson (July 19, 2017). "H.R.806 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Ozone Standards Implementation Act of 2017". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  107. ^ Blake, Farenthold (February 24, 2017). "H.R.906 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Furthering Asbestos Claim Transparency (FACT) Act of 2017". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  108. ^ Bob, Goodlatte (March 13, 2017). "H.R.985 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Fairness in Class Action Litigation and Furthering Asbestos Claim Transparency Act of 2017". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  109. ^ Mark, Pocan (April 25, 2017). "H.R.1562 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): SAFE Act". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  110. ^ Diane, Black (July 28, 2017). "H.R.1628 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): American Health Care Act of 2017". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  111. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "Business groups join fight to combat Clean Power Plan". The Washington Times. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  112. ^ EPA,OA,OPA,OWC, US. "Energy Independence | US EPA". US EPA. Retrieved December 3, 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  113. ^ Lamar, Alexander (May 11, 2017). "S.934 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): FDA Reauthorization Act of 2017". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  114. ^ Robert, Latta (September 7, 2017). "H.R.3388 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): SELF DRIVE Act". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  115. ^ Jerry, Moran (October 5, 2017). "S.1935 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Tribal Tax and Investment Reform Act of 2017". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  116. ^ Montopoli, Brian (July 26, 2010). "Obama Slams GOP For Opposing DISCLOSE Act Meant to Expose "Shadow Groups" Behind Ads". CBS News.
  117. ^ David, Cicilline (June 27, 2018). "H.R.6239 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): DISCLOSE Act of 2018". www.congress.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  118. ^ "Multi-Industry Coalition Letter Regarding the Continuing Resolution and Debt Limit".
  119. ^ Mears, Bill (May 26, 2011). "Supreme Court backs Arizona immigration law that punishes businesses". CNN. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
  120. ^ Supplemental Brief Of Amicus Curiae Chamber Of Commerce Of The United States Of America In Support Of Appellant.
  121. ^ Independent Business Advocates Condemn U.S. Supreme Court's Decision in Citizens United.
  122. ^ A 501tax-exempt, OpenSecrets; NW, charitable organization 1300 L. St; Washington, Suite 200; info, DC 20005 telelphone857-0044. "Top Spenders". OpenSecrets.
  123. ^ Opensecrets.org ranking page for 2018
  124. ^ USPBC MEMBER COMPANIES.
  125. ^ "President Barack Obama says foreign funds received by the US Chamber may be helping to fund attack ads". Politifact, St. Petersburg Times. October 11, 2010.
  126. ^ Abdullah, Halimah (October 12, 2010). "Democratic Partisans Up in Arms Against US Chamber Donations". Kansas City Star. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
  127. ^ "Granting Corporations Bill of Rights Protections Is Not "Pro-business". AMIBA. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
  128. ^ Saladoff, S. (Director). (2011). Hot Coffee [Motion picture]. Docurama Films

Further reading[edit]

  • Davis, Cory, "The Political Economy of Commercial Associations: Building the National Board of Trade, 1840-1868," Business History Review, 88 (Winter 2014), 761–83.
  • Heald, Morrell. "Business thought in the twenties: Social responsibility." American Quarterly (1961): 126–139. in JSTOR
  • Lesher, Richard and Dave Scheiber. Voice of Business: The Man Who Transformed the United States Chamber of Commerce (2017), Richard Lesher was president of the US Chamber of Commerce from 1975 to 1997.
  • Werking, Richard Hume. "Bureaucrats, businessmen, and foreign trade: the origins of the United States Chamber of Commerce." Business History Review 52#03 (1978) pp: 321–341.

External links[edit]