United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit
(7th Cir.)
Seal of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit.svg
7th Circuit map.svg
LocationEverett McKinley Dirksen U.S. Courthouse
Appeals from
EstablishedJune 16, 1891
Circuit JusticeAmy Coney Barrett
Chief JudgeDiane S. Sykes

The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (in case citations, 7th Cir.) is the U.S. federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the courts in the following districts:

The court is based at the Dirksen Federal Building in Chicago and is composed of eleven appellate judges. It is one of thirteen United States courts of appeals.

The court offers a relatively unique internet presence that includes wiki and RSS feeds of opinions and oral arguments.[1] It is also notable for having one of the most prominent law and economics scholars, Judge Frank H. Easterbrook, on its court.[2] Richard Posner, another prominent law and economics scholar, also served on this court until his retirement in 2017.[3] Three judges from the Seventh Circuit, Sherman Minton, John Paul Stevens, and Amy Coney Barrett, have been appointed as Associate Justices of the Supreme Court.

The Dirksen Federal Building, seat of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit.

Current composition of the court[edit]

As of July 1, 2021:

# Title Judge Duty station Born Term of service Appointed by
Active Chief Senior
52 Chief Judge Diane S. Sykes Milwaukee, WI 1957 2004–present 2020–present G.W. Bush
44 Circuit Judge Frank H. Easterbrook Chicago, IL 1948 1985–present 2006–2013 Reagan
47 Circuit Judge Michael Stephen Kanne Lafayette, IN 1938 1987–present Reagan
48 Circuit Judge Ilana Rovner Chicago, IL 1938 1992–present G.H.W. Bush
49 Circuit Judge Diane Wood Chicago, IL 1950 1995–present 2013–2020 Clinton
54 Circuit Judge David F. Hamilton Bloomington, IN 1957 2009–present Obama
56 Circuit Judge Michael B. Brennan Milwaukee, WI 1963 2018–present Trump
57 Circuit Judge Michael Y. Scudder Chicago, IL 1971 2018–present Trump
58 Circuit Judge Amy J. St. Eve Chicago, IL 1965 2018–present Trump
59 Circuit Judge Thomas Kirsch Hammond, IN 1974 2020–present Trump
60 Circuit Judge Candace Jackson-Akiwumi Chicago, IL 1979 2021–present Biden
37 Senior Circuit Judge William Joseph Bauer Chicago, IL 1926 1974–1994 1986–1993 1994–present Ford
43 Senior Circuit Judge Joel Flaum Chicago, IL 1936 1983–2020 2000–2006 2020–present Reagan
45 Senior Circuit Judge Kenneth Francis Ripple South Bend, IN 1943 1985–2008 2008–present Reagan
46 Senior Circuit Judge Daniel Anthony Manion South Bend, IN 1942 1986–2007 2007–present Reagan

List of former judges[edit]

# Judge State Born–died Active service Chief Judge Senior status Appointed by Reason for
1 Walter Q. Gresham IN 1832–1895 1891–1893 [4] resignation
2 William Allen Woods IN 1837–1901 1892–1901 B. Harrison death
3 James Graham Jenkins WI 1834–1921 1893–1905 Cleveland retirement
4 John William Showalter IL 1844–1898 1895–1898 Cleveland death
5 Peter S. Grosscup IL 1852–1921 1899–1911 McKinley resignation
6 Francis Elisha Baker IN 1860–1924 1902–1924 T. Roosevelt death
7 William Henry Seaman WI 1842–1915 1905–1915 T. Roosevelt death
8 Christian Cecil Kohlsaat IL 1844–1918 1905–1918 T. Roosevelt death
Julian Mack IL 1866–1943 1911–1929 [5] reassigned to the 6th Circuit
9 Samuel Alschuler[6] IL 1859–1939 1915–1936 1936–1939 Wilson death
10 Evan Alfred Evans WI 1876–1948 1916–1948 Wilson death
11 George True Page IL 1859–1941 1919–1930 1930–1941 Wilson death
12 Albert Barnes Anderson IN 1857–1938 1925–1929 1929–1938 Coolidge death
13 William Morris Sparks IN 1872–1950 1929–1948 1948 1948–1950 Hoover death
14 Louis Fitzhenry IL 1870–1935 1933–1935 F. Roosevelt death
15 James Earl Major IL 1887–1972 1937–1956 1948–1954 1956–1972 F. Roosevelt death
16 Walter Emanuel Treanor IN 1883–1941 1937–1941 F. Roosevelt death
17 Otto Kerner Sr.[6] IL 1884–1952 1938–1952 F. Roosevelt death
18 Sherman Minton IN 1890–1965 1941–1949 F. Roosevelt elevation to Supreme Court
19 F. Ryan Duffy WI 1888–1979 1949–1966 1954–1959 1966–1979 Truman death
20 Philip J. Finnegan IL 1886–1959 1949–1959 Truman death
21 Walter C. Lindley IL 1880–1958 1949–1958 Truman death
22 Hardress Nathaniel Swaim[6] IN 1880–1957 1949–1957 Truman death
23 Elmer Jacob Schnackenberg[6] IL 1889–1968 1953–1968 Eisenhower death
24 John Simpson Hastings IN 1898–1977 1957–1969 1959–1968 1969–1977 Eisenhower death
25 William Lynn Parkinson IN 1902–1959 1957–1959 Eisenhower death
26 Winfred George Knoch IL 1895–1983 1958–1967 1967–1983 Eisenhower death
27 Latham Castle IL 1900–1986 1959–1970 1968–1970 1970–1986 Eisenhower death
28 Roger Kiley IL 1900–1974 1961–1974 1974 Kennedy death
29 Luther Merritt Swygert IN 1905–1988 1961–1981 1970–1975 1981–1988 Kennedy death
30 Thomas E. Fairchild WI 1912–2007 1966–1981 1975–1981 1981–2007 L. Johnson death
31 Walter J. Cummings Jr. IL 1916–1999 1966–1999 1981–1986 L. Johnson death
32 Otto Kerner Jr. IL 1908–1976 1968–1974 L. Johnson resignation
33 Wilbur Frank Pell Jr. IN 1915–2000 1970–1984 1984–2000 Nixon death
34 John Paul Stevens IL 1920–2019 1970–1975 Nixon elevation to Supreme Court
35 Robert Arthur Sprecher IL 1917–1982 1971–1982 Nixon death
36 Philip Willis Tone IL 1923–2001 1974–1980 Nixon resignation
38 Harlington Wood Jr. IL 1920–2008 1976–1992 1992–2008 Ford death
39 Richard Dickson Cudahy WI 1926–2015 1979–1994 1994–2015 Carter death
40 Jesse E. Eschbach IN 1920–2005 1981–1985 1985–2005 Reagan death
41 Richard Posner IL 1939–present 1981–2017 1993–2000 Reagan retirement
42 John Louis Coffey WI 1922–2012 1982–2004 2004–2012 Reagan death
50 Terence T. Evans WI 1940–2011 1995–2010 2010–2011 Clinton death
51 Ann Claire Williams IL 1949–present 1999–2017 2017–2018 Clinton retirement
53 John Daniel Tinder IN 1950–present 2007–2015 2015 G.W. Bush retirement
55 Amy Coney Barrett IN 1972–present 2017–2020 Trump elevation to Supreme Court

Chief judges[edit]

Chief Judge
Sparks 1948
Major 1948–1954
Duffy 1954–1959
Hastings 1959–1968
Castle 1968–1970
Swygert 1970–1975
Fairchild 1975–1981
Cummings Jr. 1981–1986
Bauer 1986–1993
Posner 1993–2000
Flaum 2000–2006
Easterbrook 2006–2013
Wood 2013–2020
Sykes 2020–present

Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves for a term of seven years or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.

When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not become or remain chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.

Succession of seats[edit]

The court has eleven seats for active judges, numbered in the order in which they were initially filled. Judges who assume senior status enter a kind of retirement in which they remain on the bench, while vacating their seats, thus allowing the president to appoint new judges to fill their seats.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Seventh Circuit Opinions. The Seventh Circuit is now joined by the Courts of Appeals for the First, Second, Fourth, Ninth, DC, and Federal Circuits in having RSS feeds of their opinions.
  2. ^ Lewis, Neil A. (May 11, 2009). "Potential Justice Offers a Counterpoint in Chicago". New York Times. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  3. ^ O'Connell, Jason Meisner, Patrick M. "Richard Posner announces sudden retirement from federal appeals court in Chicago". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  4. ^ Gresham was appointed as a circuit judge for the Seventh Circuit in 1884 by Chester A. Arthur. The Judiciary Act of 1891 reassigned his seat to what is now the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit.
  5. ^ Mack did not have a permanent seat on this court. Instead, he was appointed to the ill-fated United States Commerce Court in 1910 by William Howard Taft. Aside from their duties on the Commerce Court, the judges of the Commerce Court also acted as at-large appellate judges, able to be assigned by the Chief Justice of the United States to whichever circuit most needed help. Mack was assigned to the Seventh Circuit upon his commission.
  6. ^ a b c d Recess appointment, later confirmed by the United States Senate.
  • "Standard Search". Federal Law Clerk Information System. Archived from the original on October 21, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2005.
    • primary but incomplete source for the duty stations
  • "Instructions for Judicial Directory". University of Texas Law School. Archived from the original on November 11, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2005.
    • secondary source for the duty stations
    • data is current to 2002
  • "U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit". Official website of the Federal Judicial Center. Archived from the original on April 18, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2005.
    • source for the state, lifetime, term of active judgeship, term of chief judgeship, term of senior judgeship, appointer, termination reason, and seat information

External links[edit]