United States Court of Claims
The Court of Claims was a federal court that heard claims against the United States government. It was established in 1855 as the Court of Claims, renamed in 1948 to the United States Court of Claims (67 Stat. 226), and abolished in 1982. At that time, its jurisdiction was largely assumed by the newly created United States Court of Federal Claims.
Before the Court of Claims was established, monetary claims against the federal government were normally submitted through petitions to Congress. By the time of the Court's creation, this workload had become unwieldy, so Congress gave the Court jurisdiction to hear all monetary claims based upon a law, a regulation, or a federal government contract. The Court was required to report its findings to Congress and to prepare bills for payments to claimants whose petitions were approved by the Court; since only Congress was constitutionally empowered to make appropriations, Congress still had to approve these bills and reports, but it usually did so pro forma.
The Court originally had three judges, who were given lifetime appointments. The judges were authorized to appoint commissioners to take depositions and issue subpoenas. The federal government was represented in the Court by a solicitor appointed by the President.
Establishment of the Court
The Court of Claims was established in 1855 to adjudicate certain claims brought against the United States government by veterans of the Mexican–American War. Initially, the court met at Willard's Hotel, from May to June of 1855, therafter moving to the U.S. Capitol. There, the court met in the Supreme Court's chamber in the basement of the Capitol, until it was given its space to use.
In 1861, Abraham Lincoln in his Annual Message to Congress asked that the court be given the power to issue final judgments. Congress granted this power with the Act of March 3, 1863, and explicitly made the judgments appealable to the Supreme Court. However, it also modified the law governing the Court so that its reports and bills were sent to the Department of the Treasury rather than directly to Congress. The moneys to cover these costs were then made a part of the appropriation for the Treasury Department.
The conflict inherent between these two provisions was made manifest when in 1864, the decision in Gordon v. United States was appealed to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court denied that it had jurisdiction, because the decisions of the Court of Claims, hence any appeals, were subject to review by an executive department. Less than a year later, Congress passed a law removing review of the Court of Claims from the Treasury Department.
Passage of the Tucker Act
In 1887, Congress passed the Tucker Act (24 Stat. 505), which further restricted the claims that could be submitted directly to Congress, requiring that these claims instead be submitted to the Court of Claims. It broadened the court's jurisdiction so that “claims founded upon the Constitution” could be heard. In particular, this meant that monetary claims based on takings under the eminent domain clause of the Fifth Amendment could be brought before the Court of Claims. The Tucker Act also opened the Court to tax refund suits.
Depredations against American shipping committed by the French during the Quasi-War of 1793 to 1800 led to claims against France that were relinquished by the terms of the Treaty of 1800. Since the claims against France were no longer valid, claimants continually petitioned Congress for the relief that had been waived by the treaty. It wasn’t until January 20, 1885 that a law was passed, 23 Stat. 283, that provided for consideration of the matter before the Court of Claims. The lead case, Gray v. United States, 21 Ct. Cl. 340, written by Judge John Davis, includes a complete discussion of the historical and political circumstances which led to the hostilities between the United States and France and their resolution by treaty. The cases, termed "French Spoliation Claims", continued in the court until 1915.
In 1925, Congress changed the structure of the Court of Claims by authorizing the Court to appoint seven commissioners who were empowered to hear evidence in judicial proceedings and report on findings of fact. The judges of the Court of Claims would then serve as a board of review for the commissioners.
In 1932, Congress reduced the salary of the judges of the Court of Claims as part of the Legislative Appropriation Act of 1932. Thomas Sutler Williams was one of the judges of the Court, and he sued the federal government, claiming that his salary could not be cut because the Constitution specified that judicial salaries could not be reduced. The Supreme Court ruled on Williams v. United States in 1933, deciding that the Court of Claims was an Article I or legislative court, and that therefore Congress had the authority to reduce the salaries of the judges of the Court of Claims.
Beginning in 1948, Congress directed that when directed by the court, the commissioner could make recommendations for conclusions of law (62 Stat. 976). Chief Judge Wilson Cowen made this mandatory under the court rules in 1964.
Elevation to Article III status
In 1953, Congress passed a law which converted the Court of Claims into an Article III court. That act also raised the number of commissioners to 15. In spite of this Congressional statement of the Court's status, when Judge J. Warren Madden was sitting by designation with the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, one of the parties asked that the decision be thrown out, on the basis that Madden wasn't a valid judge in that court. On appeal, the Supreme Court, in Glidden Co. v. Zdanok, held that the Court of Claims was a proper constitutional, Article III, court and that its judges could sit by designation and assignment on other courts. Ironically, the judges could no longer sit on Congressional reference cases because of this change, since an independent court could not act in an advisory role to Congress. The solution, enacted by Congress in 1966, was to have the trial judges hear the cases upon assignment by the chief judge of the trial division.
Two more judges were added to the court in 1966, bringing the total to seven.
Congress terminated the Indian Claims Commission in 1978 and required that any pending cases be transferred to the Court of Claims. Of the 170 cases so transferred many were complicated longstanding accounting claims that had been before the Commission for years. One of the most famous of these cases was United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians, which ultimately reached the Supreme Court. Aside from its large judgment awarded to the Sioux, the case also featured interesting questions about judicial power and the ability of Congress to waive the Federal government's legal defense of res judicata to allow a claim to be judicially determined.
In 1982, Congress abolished the court, transferring its trial level jurisdiction to the newly created United States Claims Court (which is now known as the United States Court of Federal Claims) and its appellate jurisdiction to the equally new United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. By this time, the Court had expanded to have seven judges; they were transferred to the Federal Circuit.
Following is a list of judges who have served on the United States Court of Claims up to the merger of the Court into the Federal Circuit.
|Blackford, Isaac NewtonIsaac Newton Blackford||1855||1859||Franklin Pierce|
|Gilchrist, John JamesJohn James Gilchrist||1855||1858||Franklin Pierce|
|Scarburgh, George ParkerGeorge Parker Scarburgh||1855||1861||Franklin Pierce|
|Loring, Edward G.Edward G. Loring||1858||1877||James Buchanan|
|Hughes, JamesJames Hughes||1860||1864||James Buchanan|
|Casey, JosephJoseph Casey||1861||1870||Abraham Lincoln|
|Peck, EbenezerEbenezer Peck||1863||1878||Abraham Lincoln|
|Wilmot, DavidDavid Wilmot||1863||1868||Abraham Lincoln|
|Nott, Sr., Charles CooperCharles Cooper Nott, Sr.||1865||1916||Abraham Lincoln|
|Milligan, SamuelSamuel Milligan||1868||1874||Andrew Johnson|
|Drake, Charles DanielCharles Daniel Drake||1870||1885||Ulysses Grant|
|Richardson, William AdamsWilliam Adams Richardson||1874||1896||Ulysses Grant|
|Davis, John Chandler BancroftJohn Chandler Bancroft Davis||1877
|Rutherford B. Hayes
Chester A. Arthur
|Hunt, William H.William H. Hunt||1878||1881||Rutherford B. Hayes|
|Scofield, Glenni WilliamGlenni William Scofield||1881||1891||James A. Garfield|
|Weldon, LawrenceLawrence Weldon||1883||1905||Chester A. Arthur|
|Davis, JohnJohn Davis||1885||1902||Chester A. Arthur|
|Peelle, Stanton JudkinsStanton Judkins Peelle||1892||1913||Benjamin Harrison|
|Howry, Charles BowenCharles Bowen Howry||1897||1928||Grover Cleveland|
|Wright, Francis MarionFrancis Marion Wright||1903||1905||Theodore Roosevelt|
|Atkinson, George WesleyGeorge Wesley Atkinson||1905||1916||Theodore Roosevelt|
|Barney, Samuel StebbinsSamuel Stebbins Barney||1905||1919||Theodore Roosevelt|
|Booth, Fenton WhitlockFenton Whitlock Booth||1905||1947||Theodore Roosevelt|
|Campbell, Edward KernanEdward Kernan Campbell||1913||1938||Woodrow Wilson|
|Downey , George EddyGeorge Eddy Downey||1915||1926||Woodrow Wilson|
|Hay, JamesJames Hay||1916||1931||Woodrow Wilson|
|Graham, Samuel JordanSamuel Jordan Graham||1919||1951||Woodrow Wilson|
|Moss, John McKenzieJohn McKenzie Moss||1926||1929||Calvin Coolidge|
|Green, William RaymondWilliam Raymond Green||1928||1947||Calvin Coolidge|
|Sinnott, Nicholas JohnNicholas John Sinnott||1928||1929||Calvin Coolidge|
|Littleton, Benjamin HorsleyBenjamin Horsley Littleton||1929||1966||Herbert Hoover|
|Williams, Thomas SutlerThomas Sutler Williams||1929||1940||Herbert Hoover|
|Whaley, Richard SmithRichard Smith Whaley||1930||1951||Herbert Hoover|
|Whitaker, Samuel EstillSamuel Estill Whitaker||1939||1967||Franklin D. Roosevelt|
|Jones, John MarvinJohn Marvin Jones||1940||1947||Franklin D. Roosevelt|
|Madden, J. WarrenJ. Warren Madden||1941||1972||Franklin D. Roosevelt|
|Howell, George EvanGeorge Evan Howell||1947||1953||Harry S. Truman|
|Laramore, Don NelsonDon Nelson Laramore||1954||1982||Dwight Eisenhower|
|Durfee, James RandallJames Randall Durfee||1960||1977||Dwight Eisenhower|
|Davis, Oscar HirshOscar Hirsh Davis||1962||1982||John F. Kennedy|
|Collins, Linton McGeeLinton McGee Collins||1964||1972||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|Cowen, Arnold WilsonArnold Wilson Cowen||1964||1982||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|Nichols Jr., PhilipPhilip Nichols Jr.||1966||1982||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|Skelton, Byron GeorgeByron George Skelton||1966||1982||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|Kunzig, Robert LoweRobert Lowe Kunzig||1971||1982||Richard Nixon|
|Bennett, Marion TinsleyMarion Tinsley Bennett||1972||1982||Richard Nixon|
|Kashiwa, ShiroShiro Kashiwa||1972||1982||Richard Nixon|
|Friedman, Daniel MortimerDaniel Mortimer Friedman||1978||1982||Jimmy Carter|
|Smith, Edward SamuelEdward Samuel Smith||1978||1982||Jimmy Carter|
- Charles Cooper Nott, Sr., Chief Justice (1896–1905)
- George W. Atkinson, Associate Justice (1905–1916)
- Category:Judges of the United States Court of Claims
- U.S. Courts, United States Court of Federal Claims: The People's Court.
- 12 Stat. 765
- Gordon v. United States, 69 U.S. 561 (1864)
- see also Gordon v. United States, 117 U.S. 697 (1864).
- 14 Stat. 9
- Williams v. United States, 289 U.S. 553 (1933)
- Pub.L. 83–158, 67 Stat. 226
- 370 U.S. 530 (1962)
- Pub.L. 89–681, 80 Stat. 958
- Pub.L. 89–425, 80 Stat. 139
- United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians, 448 U.S. 371 (1980)
- Lazarus, Edward (1991). Black Hills, White Justice. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-016557-X.
- Pub.L. 97–164, 96 Stat. 50
- Richardson, William Adams (1885). History, Jurisdiction, and Practice of the Court of Claims (United States) (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
- Bennett, Marion Tinsley (1976). The United States Court of Claims: A History; Part I: The Judges, 1855–1976. Washington, D.C.: Committee on the Bicentennial of Independence and the Constitution of the Judicial Conference of the United States.
- Cowen, Wilson; Philip Nichols, Jr., and Marion T. Bennett (1978). The United States Court of Claims: A History; Part II: Origin, Development, Jurisdiction, 1855–1978. Washington, D.C.: Committee on the Bicentennial of Independence and the Constitution of the Judicial Conference of the United States.