United States House of Representatives elections, 1788 and 1789
All 59 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives[NC/RI 1]
30 seats needed for a majority
Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 1st Congress were held in 1788 and 1789, coinciding with the election of George Washington as first President of the United States. The dates and methods of election were set by the states. Actual political parties did not yet exist, but new members of Congress were informally categorized as either "pro-Administration" (i.e., pro-Washington and pro-Hamilton) or "anti-Administration".
The first session of the first House of Representatives came to order in Federal Hall, New York City on March 4, 1789, with only thirteen members present. The requisite quorum (thirty members out of fifty-nine) was not present until April 1, 1789. The first order of business was the election of a Speaker of the House. On the first ballot, Frederick Muhlenberg was elected Speaker by a majority of votes. The business of the first session was largely devoted to legislative procedure rather than policy.
- 1 Election summaries
- 2 House composition
- 3 Special election
- 4 Connecticut
- 5 Delaware
- 6 Georgia
- 7 Maryland
- 8 Massachusetts
- 9 New Hampshire
- 10 New Jersey
- 11 New York
- 12 North Carolina
- 13 Pennsylvania
- 14 Rhode Island
- 15 South Carolina
- 16 Virginia
- 17 See also
- 18 Notes
- 19 References
- 20 Bibliography
- 21 External links
In the 18th and much of the 19th century, each state set its own date for elections. In many years, elections were even held after the legal start of the Congress, although typically before the start of the first session. In the elections for the 1st Congress, five states held elections in 1788, electing a total of 29 Representatives, and six held elections in 1789, electing a total of 30 Representatives. Two states, North Carolina and Rhode Island, did not ratify the Constitution until November 21, 1789 and May 29, 1790 respectively, well after the Congress had met for the first time, and, consequently, elected representatives late, in 1790, leaving North Carolina unrepresented in the 1st session and Rhode Island in the 1st and 2nd sessions of a total of 3 sessions.
|South Carolina||Districts||November 24–25, 1788||5||2||3|
|Pennsylvania||At-large||November 26, 1788||8||6||2|
|New Hampshire||At-large||December 15, 1788[Note 1]||3||2||1|
|Massachusetts||Districts||December 18, 1788[Note 2]||8||6||2|
|Connecticut||At-large||December 22, 1788||5||5||0|
|Delaware||At-large||January 7, 1789||1||1||0|
|Maryland||At-large / Districts[Note 3]||January 7–11, 1789||6||2||4|
|Virginia||Districts||February 2, 1789||10||3||7|
|Georgia||At-large / Districts[Note 4]||February 9, 1789||3||0||3|
|New Jersey||At-large||February 11, 1789||4||4||0|
|New York||Districts||March 3–5, 1789||6||3||3|
|North Carolina||Districts||February 1790||5||2||3|
|Rhode Island||At-large||August 31, 1790||1||1||0|
Beginning of the 1st Congress
End of the 1st Congress (1791)
Six seats were filled late because North Carolina and Rhode Island ratified the Constitution late. One pro-Administration representative resigned and the seat remained open at the end of the Congress.
This was the first special election to the United States House of Representatives.
|District||Incumbent||Party||First elected||Results ↑||Candidates|
|New Hampshire at-large||Benjamin West||Pro-Administration||1788/89||Representative-elect (see below) chose not to serve.
New member elected June 22, 1789.
|√ Abiel Foster (Pro-Administration) 1,804 votes 58.3%|
John Samuel Sherburne (Anti-Administration) 538 votes 17.4%
James Sheate 190 votes 6.1%
Elisha Payne  139 votes 4.5%
Joshua Atherton 112 votes 3.6%
Nathaniel Peabody 86 votes 2.9%
Simeon Olcott (Pro-Administration) 76 votes 2.5%
5 seats on a general ticket
|Pro-Administration win||√ Benjamin Huntington[Note 6] (Pro-Administration)|
√ Roger Sherman (Pro-Administration)
√ Jonathan Sturges (Pro-Administration)
√ Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (Pro-Administration)
√ Jeremiah Wadsworth (Pro-Administration)
James Hillhouse (Pro-Administration)
Stephen Mix Mitchell (Pro-Administration)
Delaware had a single representative. The election was held January 7, 1789. Under the law at the time, each voter cast two votes for representative, at least one of whom had to be from a different county.
|Delaware at-large||Pro-Administration win.||√ John M. Vining (Pro-Administration) 898 votes (43.6%)|
Rhoads Shankland (Anti-Administration) 491 votes (23.9%)
Gunning Bedford, Jr. 308 votes (15.0%)
Joshua Clayton (Pro-Administration) 272 votes (13.2%)
Allen MacLean 90 votes (4.4%)
Georgia had a mixed at-large/district system for the 1st Congress. Representatives were elected at-large, but for three district-based seats.
Called the Lower district
|Anti-Administration win||√ James Jackson (Anti-Administration) 50.9%|
William Houstoun 33.6%
Henry Osborne 14.5%
James Seagrove 0.6%
Called the Middle district
|Anti-Administration win||√ Abraham Baldwin (Anti-Administration) 69.0%|
Henry Osborne 15.2%
Joseph Sumner 10.4%
Isaac Briggs 2.7%
William Houstoun 1.5%
James Jackson 0.6%
Called the Upper district
|Anti-Administration win||√ George Mathews (Anti-Administration) 96.5%|
Henry Osborne 2.0%
Anthony Wayne 0.7%
Joseph Sumner 0.4%
At the time, Maryland had a mixed district/at-large system similar to Georgia's. Under Maryland law, "candidates were elected at-large but had to be residents of a specific district with the statewide vote determining winners from each district."
|Maryland 1||Anti-Administration win||√ Michael J. Stone (Anti-Administration) 65.4%|
George Dent (Pro-Administration) 34.6%
|Maryland 2||Anti-Administration win||√ Joshua Seney (Anti-Administration) 100%|
|Maryland 3||Anti-Administration win||√ Benjamin Contee (Anti-Administration) 70.1%|
John F. Mercer (Anti-Administration) 29.9%
|Maryland 4||Anti-Administration win||√ William Smith (Anti-Administration) 69.1%|
Samuel Sterett (Anti-Administration) 30.9%
|Maryland 5||Pro-Administration win||√ George Gale (Pro-Administration) 70.7%|
John Done 23.8%
William V. Murray (Pro-Administration) 5.5%
|Maryland 6||Pro-Administration win||√ Daniel Carroll (Pro-Administration) 74.8%|
Abraham Faw 25.2%
Massachusetts required a majority vote, necessitating additional votes if no one won a majority. This was necessary in 4 of the districts.
In the fourth district,
The first election in the district was in part a reflection of the rivalry between Hampshire and Berkshire counties. Berkshire was the less populous county, but four of the six candidates who received the most votes - Theodore Sedgwick, William Whiting, Thompson J. Skinner, and William Williams - were residents of the county. The two Hampshire candidates were Samuel Lyman and John Worthington. The first election did not reflect the fact that the two counties were centers of agrarian discontent and of support for Shays's Rebellion. Nor did it reflect the fact that in the state Convention the Hampshire delegates voted 32 to 19 and the Berkshire delegates voted 16 to 6 against ratification of the Constitution. Only Whiting was regarded as a Shaysite and an Anti-Federalist, while the other five men were Federalists - and two of these - Worthington and Williams - had been virtual if not actual Loyalists during the Revolution. The issue of amendments to the Constitution was not raised during the first election in the district, but it became so important in the ensuing elections that Theodore Sedgwick, who opposed amendments, publicly promised to support them before the fifth election, which he won.— The Documentary History of the First Federal Elections: 1788-1790. I. p. 603.
In the fifth district,
The only problem was whether Partridge could retain his post of sheriff of Plymouth County and accept a seat in Congress, as he had done in 1779-1782 and 1783-1785. He received a certificate from Governor Hancock on 10 January notifying him of his election. Partridge wrote three letters to the Governor. In the first, which he apparently did not send, he refused the appointment. He accepted in the two following letters but explained that he would not take the seat if he had to give up his post as sheriff (12, 20 January, 23 February). The issue of whether or not a state officeholder could retain a state post and still serve in Congress had been and would be raised in other states. On 12 February Governor Hancock asked his Council for advice about Partridge and about George Leonard, judge of probate in Bristol County, who had been elected to Congress from the Bristol-Dukes-Nantucket District. The Council replied in writing the same day that it was 'inexpedient' for a man to hold the office of judge of probate and a seat in Congress, but that it did not find anything in the state constitution which prevented a sheriff from also being a member of Congress. The Council advised, however, that it would be inexpedient to introduce the practice of sheriffs being absent for long periods although Partridge 'may at present be indulged' and take a seat in Congress 'consistently with the safety of that county' (Council Proceedings, Thursday 12 February, M-Ar). The next day Governor Hancock sent the Council's written reply to the legislature and asked for its advice (13 February, Miscellaneous Legislative Documents, House Files, M-Ar). The two houses appointed a joint committee which wrote a report that was approved and sent to the Governor on Monday, 16 February. The legislature declared that if George Leonard continued to hold the office of judge of probate and also took a seat on Congress, any future legislature would address the Governor authorizing him and the Council to appoint another person judge of probate in Bristol County. But the legislature refused to give advice about George Partridge. It pointed out that sheriffs served during the pleasure of the governor, and (with the advice of his Council) were removable by him at any time. Sheriffs were not removable in any other way except through impeachment by the House and a trial before and conviction by the Senate. Therefore the House and Senate declared that intervention by the legislature was 'neither necessary or proper; and from the conduct and advice of your Council, they see no reason to doubt the wisdom of that constitutional provision' (House and Senate Proceedings, 13, 14, 16 February).— The Documentary History of the First Federal Elections: 1788-1790. I. p. 575-76.
In the eighth district,
It was evident before the elections were completed in Worcester District that a candidate who did not support amendments to the Constitution had no chance of winning. The three leading candidates in the three Worcester District elections were Jonathan Grout, Timothy Paine, and Artemas Ward. Grout, a local leader during the Revolution, had voted against ratification of the Constitution and in 1788 was a member of the legislature. Paine, a prominent officeholder in the county for two decades before the Revolution, had been appointed to the Royal Council in 1774. Unlike most 'mandamus councillors,' he did not become a Loyalist. By 1788 he had regained much of his influence in the town of Worcester. Ward had been appointed commanding general of Massachusetts troops after Lexington and Concord, he remained in charge until George Washington was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in July 1775. The popular Ward resigned his commission in April 1776 and returned to state politics. The past records of these three men did not become a public issue until shortly before the third and final election.
AS in the two previous election, the two Worcester newspapers, with one exception, printed nothing until their last issues before the election on 2 March. The exception consisted of two items (one of which supported Timothy Paine) in the Massachusetts Spy on 19 February. Then on 26 February the Massachusetts Spy published five articles. Two of them supported Jonathan Grout, one supported Artemas Ward, one backed Timothy Paine, and the fifth did not mention any names. On the same day the American Herald published four items. One supported Grout, one opposed Paine because he had been a mandamus councillor, and the other two items urged that he be elected. The issue of Paine's appointment as a mandamus councillor by the British government in 1774 had been brought up for the first time by the Boston Independent Chronicle, 12 February, and not by the Worcester newspapers. Despite the ambivalence of the newspapers, there was a considerable increase of interest, for the vote almost doubled over the first election on 18 December 1788: from 1,886 to 3,484. Grout was elected Representative by a decisive majority. Artemas Ward, who ran a poor third in each of the three elections, finally defeated Grout in the election to the second Congress in 1791. Paine was elected to the state House of Representatives in 1789.— The Documentary History of the First Federal Elections: 1788-1790. I. p. 601, 676.
|Massachusetts 1||Pro-Administration win||√ Fisher Ames (Pro-Administration) 818 votes (50.7%)|
Samuel Adams (Anti-Administration) 521 votes (32.3%)
Samuel A. Otis 70 votes (4.3%)
Charles Jarvis 45 votes (2.8%)
Benjamin Austin 43 votes (2.7%)
John Adams (Pro-Administration) 30 votes (1.9%)
Others 86 votes (5.3%)
|Massachusetts 2||Pro-Administration win||First ballot (December 18, 1788):|
Benjamin Goodhue (Pro-Administration) 567 votes (38.6%)
Jonathan Jackson (Pro-Administration) 392 votes (26.6%)
Nathan Daneseg 295 votes (20.1%)
Samuel Holten 202 votes (13.8%)
Scattering: 13 votes
Second ballot (January 29, 1789):
√ Benjamin Goodhue (Pro-Administration) 1,491 votes (67.0%)
Jonathan Jackson (Pro-Administration) 724 votes (33.0%)
Scattering 7 votes
|Massachusetts 3||Anti-Administration win||First ballot (December 18, 1788):|
Nathaniel Gorham 536 votes (36.4%)
Elbridge Gerry (Anti-Administration) 384 votes (26.1%)
Joseph Bradley Varnum (Anti-Administration) 254 votes (17.2%)
John Brooks (Pro-Administration) 106 votes (7.2%)
James Winthrop 50 votes (3.4%)
Loammi Baldwin 43 votes (2.9%)
Scattering 100 votes (4.4%)
Second ballot (January 29, 1789):
√ Elbridge Gerry (Anti-Administration) 1,140 votes (61.1%)
Joseph Bradley Varnum (Anti-Administration) 366 votes (19.6%)
William Hulberg 205 votes (11.0%)
James Winthrop (Anti-Administration) 82 votes (4.4%)
Ebenezer Bridge 52 votes (2.8%)
Others 22 votes (1.2%)
|Massachusetts 4||Pro-Administration win||First ballot (December 18, 1788):|
Theodore Sedgwick (Pro-Administration) 835 votes (35.6%)
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Administration) 330 votes (14.7%)
William Whiting 302 votes (13.4%)
Thomson J. Skinner (Anti-Administration) 256 votes (10.4%)
William Williams 181 votes (8.7%)
John Worthington 178 votes (7.3%)
John Bacon 93 votes (4.1%)
Second ballot (January 29, 1789):
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Administration) 718 votes (31.0%)
Theodore Sedgwick (Pro-Administration) 736 votes (31.7%)
William Whiting 578 votes (24.9%)
Thomson J. Skinner (Anti-Administration) 248 votes (10.7%)
John Bacon (Anti-Administration) 39 votes (1.7%)
Third ballot: (March 2, 1789)
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Administration) 1,847 votes (32.9%)
Theodore Sedgwick (Pro-Administration) 1,523 votes (30.6%)
William Whiting 1,109 votes (22.9%)
Thomson J. Skinner (Anti-Administration) 648 votes (12.8%)
Fourth ballot: (March 30, 1789)
Theodore Sedgwick (Pro-Administration) 1,649 votes (47.0%)
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Administration) 1,382 votes (39.3%)
William Whiting 468 votes (11.7%)
Scattering: 64 votes
Fifth ballot: (May 11, 1789)
√ Theodore Sedgwick (Pro-Administration) 2,155 votes (50.2%)
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Administration) 2,138 votes (47.8%)
John Bacon 67 votes (1.3%)
Scattering: 27 votes
|Massachusetts 5||Pro-Administration win||√ George Partridge (Pro-Administration) 501 votes (90.4%)|
Others 53 votes (9.6%)
|Massachusetts 6||Pro-Administration win||√ George Thatcher (Pro-Administration) 588 votes (62.1%)|
Josiah Thacker 182 votes (19.2%)
Nathan Willing 73 votes (7.7%)
Scattering 105 votes
|Massachusetts 7||Pro-Administration win||√ George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 710 votes (54.0%)|
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 342 votes (26.0%)
David Cobb (Pro-Administration) 241 votes (18.3%)
Scattering 23 votes
|Massachusetts 8||Anti-Administration win||First ballot (December 18, 1788):|
Jonathan Grout (Anti-Administration) 665 votes (35.3%)
Tim Paine 561 votes (29.8%)
Artemas Ward (Pro-Administration) 284 votes (15.1%)
Moses Gill 110 votes (5.8%)
Abiel Wilder 71 votes (3.8%)
John Sprague 63 votes (3.3%)
Others 132 votes (4.9%)
Second ballot (January 29, 1789):
Tim Paine (Pro-Administration) 1,040 votes (45.4%)
Jonathan Grout 990 votes (42.1%)
Artemas Ward (Pro-Administration) 258 votes (11.3%)
Others 27 votes (1.2%)
Third ballot: (March 2, 1789)
√ Jonathan Grout (Anti-Administration) 1,968 votes (55.7%)
Tim Paine 1,312 votes (37.1%)
Artemas Ward (Pro-Administration) 256 votes (7.2%)
Scattering 18 votes
New Hampshire electoral law required a candidate to receive votes from a majority of voters for election (16.7% of votes). No candidate won such a majority on the first ballot, so a second election had to be held, on February 2, 1789
|New Hampshire at-large
3 seats on a general ticket
First place winner chose not serve, resigning before the start of the Congress.
A special election was held June 22, 1789, see above.
Benjamin West (Pro-Administration) 15.4%
Samuel Livermore (Anti-Administration) 14.6%
Paine Wingate (Pro-Administration) 13.4%
Abiel Foster (Pro-Administration) 8.0%
John Sullivan 7.1%
Nicholas Gilman (Pro-Administration) 5.6%
Joshua Atherton 5.2%
Nathaniel Peabody 5.1%
Peirse Long 4.4%
Benjamin Bellows 3.4%
√ Benjamin West (Pro-Administration) 33.0%
√ Samuel Livermore (Anti-Administration) 26.2%
√ Nicholas Gilman (Pro-Administration) 19.5%
Abiel Foster (Pro-Administration) 19.5%
John Sullivan 1.9%
|New Jersey At-Large
4 seats on a general ticket
|Pro-Administration win||√ James Schureman (Pro-Administration) 19.9%|
√ Elias Boudinot (Pro-Administration) 13.0%
√ Lambert Cadwalader (Pro-Administration) 12.5%
√ Thomas Sinnickson (Pro-Administration) 12.0%
Abraham Clark (Pro-Administration) 10.5%
Jonathan Dayton (Pro-Administration) 9.9%
Robert Hoops 3.7%
Whitten Cripps 3.4%
Benjamin Van Cleve 2.9%
James Parker 2.5%
John Witherspoon 2.5%
Thomas Henderson (Pro-Administration) 1.7%
Robert L. Hooper 1.4%
Josiah Hornblower 1.0%
The election of all four representatives was contested, but the records that explained the precise grounds on which the election was contested have been lost due to the burning of Washington in the War of 1812. It is known to have related to questions of regularity and procedure. All four representatives' elections were ruled valid.
New York held elections to the 1st Congress on March 3 and 4, 1789. At the time, districts were unnumbered. They are retroactively numbered in this section.
|New York 1||Anti-Administration win||√ William Floyd (Anti-Administration) 100%|
|New York 2||Pro-Administration win||√ John Laurance (Pro-Administration) 85.7%|
John Broome (Anti-Administration) 13.2%
Philip Pell (Anti-Administration) 1.2%
|New York 3||Pro-Administration win||√ Egbert Benson (Pro-Administration) 50.4%|
Theodorus Bailey (Anti-Administration) 49.6%
|New York 4||Anti-Administration win||√ John Hathorn (Anti-Administration) 100%|
|New York 5||Pro-Administration win||√ Peter Silvester (Pro-Administration) 51.2%|
Matthew Adgate 47.2%
John Williams 1.6%
|New York 6||Anti-Administration win||√ Jeremiah Van Rensselaer (Anti-Administration) 1,456 (54.5%)|
Abraham Ten Broeck (Pro-Administration) 1,215 (45.5%)
North Carolina ratified the Constitution late and thus elected representatives to the 1st Congress in 1790.
Pennsylvania held elections to the 1st Congress on November 26, 1788. For this first election (and again in 1792 election for the 3rd Congress), Pennsylvania chose to elect all of its representatives on a single statewide general ticket, an attempt by the pro-Administration-majority legislature to prevent anti-Administration candidates from winning seats.
8 seats on a general ticket
|Pro-Administration win||√ Frederick Muhlenberg (Pro-Administration) 7.49%|
√ Henry Wynkoop (Pro-Administration) 7.09%
√ Thomas Hartley (Pro-Administration) 7.02%
√ George Clymer (Pro-Administration) 6.96%
√ Thomas Fitzsimons (Pro-Administration) 6.95%
√ Thomas Scott (Pro-Administration) 6.94%
√ Peter Muhlenberg (Anti-Administration) 6.38%
√ Daniel Hiester (Anti-Administration) 6.37%
John Allison (Pro-Administration) 6.08%
Stephen Chambers (Pro-Administration) 6.06%
William Findley (Anti-Administration) 5.66%
William Irvine (Anti-Administration) 5.58%
Charles Pettit (Anti-Administration) 5.57%
William Montgomery (Anti-Administration) 5.46%
Blair McClenachan (Anti-Administration) 5.35%
Robert Whitehall (Anti-Administration) 5.03%
Rhode Island ratified the Constitution late and thus elected representatives to the 1st Congress in 1790.
|South Carolina 1
Also known as the Charleston Division
|Pro-Administration win||√ William L. Smith (Pro-Administration) 53.1%|
Alexander Gillon (Anti-Administration) 31.4%
David Ramsay (Pro-Administration) 15.5%
|South Carolina 2
Also known as the Beaufort Division
|Anti-Administration win||√ Aedanus Burke (Anti-Administration) 99.3%|
|South Carolina 3
Also known as the Georgetown Division
|Pro-Administration win||√ Daniel Huger (Pro-Administration) 75.0%|
John Page 25.0%
|South Carolina 4
Also known as the Camden Division
|Anti-Administration win||√ Thomas Sumter (Anti-Administration) 100.0%|
|South Carolina 5
Also known as the Ninety-Six Division
|Anti-Administration win||√ Thomas Tudor Tucker (Anti-Administration) 100%|
In the 1st district, William L. Smith (Pro-Administration)'s election was contested by David Ramsay (Pro-Administration) who claimed that Smith had not been a citizen for the required 7 years at the time of his election, the House Committee on Elections ruled in Smith's favor 
|Virginia 1||Pro-Administration win||√ Alexander White (Pro-Administration) 100%|
|Virginia 2||Anti-Administration win||√ John Brown (Anti-Administration)[Note 6]|
|Virginia 3||Anti-Administration win||√ Andrew Moore (Anti-Administration)[Note 6]|
George Hancock (Pro-Administration)
|Virginia 4||Pro-Administration win||√ Richard Bland Lee (Pro-Administration)[Note 6]|
|Virginia 5||Anti-Administration win||√ James Madison, Jr. (Anti-Administration) 57.4%|
James Monroe (Anti-Administration) 42.6%.
|Virginia 6||Anti-Administration win||√ Isaac Coles (Anti-Administration)[Note 6]|
|Virginia 7||Anti-Administration win||√ John Page (Anti-Administration)[Note 6]|
|Virginia 8||Anti-Administration win||√ Josiah Parker (Anti-Administration) 48.1%|
Thomas Mathews 39.7%
Isaac Avery 12.1%
|Virginia 9||Anti-Administration win||√ Theodorick Bland (Anti-Administration)[Note 6]|
Charles B. Jones
|Virginia 10||Pro-Administration win||√ Samuel Griffin (Pro-Administration)[Note 6]|
Miles Selden, Jr.
- United States elections, 1789
- 1st United States Congress
- History of the United States Constitution#The New Government
- New Hampshire had a majority vote requirement for election. No representatives were elected in the general election and three were returned at a subsequent trial held February 2, 1789.
- Massachusetts had a majority vote requirement for election. Four representatives were elected in the general election and four in subsequent trials, a total of 5 trials had to be held between January 29, 1789 and May 11, 1789.
- Maryland had six representatives elected by the whole state electorate, who had to choose one candidate from each district.
- Georgia had three representatives elected by the whole state electorate, who had to choose one candidate from each district.
- Includes late elections: North Carolina and Rhode Island ratified the United States Constitution after the 1st Congress had started to meet, and didn't hold their elections for U.S. Representatives until February and August 1790, respectively.
- Source does not give numbers of votes.
- Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed.
- Party affiliation not available
- Election details from Ourcampaigns.com
- "A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787-1825 - Delaware 1789 U.S. House of Representatives". Tufts Digital Library, Tufts University. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
- "A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787-1825 - Maryland 1789 U.S. House of Representatives". Tufts Digital Library, Tufts University. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
- "First Congress March 4, 1789, to March 3, 1791 [membership roster]" (PDF). artandhistory.house.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 5, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
- DenBoer, Gordon, ed. (1986). The Documentary History of the First Federal Elections, 1788-1790. III. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 512.
- "1st Congress 1789-1791 At Large Election" (PDF). Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project. January 16, 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
- "A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787-1825". Tufts Digital Library, Tufts University. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
- Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
- "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)