United States House of Representatives elections, 1918

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1918
United States
← 1916 November 5, 1918[Note 1] 1920 →

All 435 seats in the United States House of Representatives
218 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Frederick Gillett.jpg ChampClark.jpg
Leader Frederick Gillett Champ Clark
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Massachusetts-2nd Missouri-9th
Last election 216 seats 214 seats
Seats won 240 192
Seat change Increase 25 Decrease 22

  Third party Fourth party
Party Farmer–Labor Prohibition
Last election 0 seats 1 seat
Seats won 1 1
Seat change Increase 1 Steady

Speaker before election

Champ Clark

Elected Speaker

Frederick Gillett

The 1918 United States House of Representatives elections were held November 5, 1918, which occurred in the middle of President Woodrow Wilson's second term.

With the country now in World War I (contrary to previous promises by Wilson), and Wilson's personal popularity ebbing, the Republican Party was able to gain 25 seats and take over control of the House from Wilson's Democratic Party. Internal divide among Democratic leadership over aspects related to payment of the war also decreased the unity of the party, which had been the organization's strength during the decade. The Progressive Party also disappeared, with its former members generally becoming Democrats. Minnesota's Farmer-Labor Party, a descendant of populism, also gained its very first seat.

Frederick H. Gillett (R-Massachusetts) became Speaker, and previous speaker Champ Clark (D-Missouri) became Minority Leader.

Overall results[edit]

Party Total
Change Seat
Republican Party 240 Increase25 55.2%
Democratic Party 192 Decrease22 44.2%
Farmer-Labor Party 1 Increase1 0.2%
Prohibition Party 1 Steady 0.2%
Totals 4351 Steady 100.0%

1 One vacancy, Victor L. Berger, a member of the Socialist Party of America, whom the House refused to seat.

Election summaries[edit]

240 1 1 1 192
Republican Pn FL S Democratic
House seats
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Democratic
  80.1-100% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  60.1-80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Farmer-Labor
  1-2 Republican gain
  1-2 Socialist
  no net change

Complete list of races[edit]


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Alabama 1 Oscar Lee Gray Democratic 1914 Retired
Democratic hold
John McDuffie (D) Unopposed
Alabama 2 S. Hubert Dent, Jr. Democratic 1908 Re-elected S. Hubert Dent, Jr. (D) Unopposed
Alabama 3 Henry B. Steagall Democratic 1914 Re-elected Henry B. Steagall (D) Unopposed
Alabama 4 Fred L. Blackmon Democratic 1910 Re-elected Fred L. Blackmon (D) 66.15%
J. A. Bingham (R) 33.85%
Alabama 5 J. Thomas Heflin Democratic 1904 Re-elected J. Thomas Heflin (D) Unopposed
Alabama 6 William B. Oliver Democratic 1914 Re-elected William B. Oliver (D) Unopposed
Alabama 7 John L. Burnett Democratic 1898 Re-elected John L. Burnett (D) 56.23%
Oliver D. Street (R) 43.78%
Alabama 8 Edward B. Almon Democratic 1914 Re-elected Edward B. Almon (D) Unopposed
Alabama 9 George Huddleston Democratic 1914 Re-elected George Huddleston (D) 85.78%
Joseph O. Thompson (R) 14.22
Alabama 10 William B. Bankhead Democratic 1916 Re-elected William B. Bankhead (D) Unopposed


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Arizona At-Large Carl Hayden Democratic 1911 Re-elected Carl Hayden (D) 60.40%
Thomas Maddock (R) 37.90%
Peter T. Robertson (S) 1.70%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Arkansas 1 Thaddeus H. Caraway Democratic 1912 Re-elected Thaddeus H. Caraway (D) Unopposed
Arkansas 2 William A. Oldfield Democratic 1908 Re-elected William A. Oldfield (D) Unopposed
Arkansas 3 John N. Tillman Democratic 1914 Re-elected John N. Tillman (D) Unopposed
Arkansas 4 Otis Wingo Democratic 1912 Re-elected Otis Wingo (D) Unopposed
Arkansas 5 Henderson M. Jacoway Democratic 1910 Re-elected Henderson M. Jacoway (D) Unopposed
Arkansas 6 Samuel M. Taylor Democratic 1913 Re-elected Samuel M. Taylor (D) Unopposed
Arkansas 7 William S. Goodwin Democratic 1910 Re-elected William S. Goodwin (D) Unopposed


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
California 1 Clarence F. Lea Democratic 1916 Re-elected Clarence F. Lea (D) (unopposed)
California 2 John E. Raker Democratic 1910 Re-elected John E. Raker (D) (unopposed)
California 3 Charles F. Curry Republican 1912 Re-elected Charles F. Curry (R) 91.6%
Allen K. Gifford (S) 8.4%
California 4 Julius Kahn Republican 1898 Re-elected Julius Kahn (R) 86.6%
William Short (S) 13.4%
California 5 John I. Nolan Republican 1912 Re-elected John I. Nolan (R) 87%
Thomas F. Feeley (S) 13%
California 6 John A. Elston Progressive 1912 Re-elected as Republican
Republican gain
John A. Elston (R[Note 2]) 88.4%
Luella Twining (S) 11.6%
California 7 Denver S. Church Democratic 1912 Retired
Republican gain
Henry E. Barbour (R) 52.1%
Henry Hawson (D) 47.9%
California 8 Everis A. Hayes Republican 1904 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Hugh S. Hersman (D) 53%
Everis A. Hayes (R) 47%
California 9 Charles H. Randall Prohibition 1914 Re-elected Charles H. Randall (Proh.) 53%
Montaville Flowers (R) 43.3%
Grace Silver Henry (S) 3.7%
California 10 Henry Z. Osborne Republican 1916 Re-elected Henry Z. Osborne (R) 88.2%
James H. Ryckman (S) 11.8%
California 11 William Kettner Democratic 1912 Re-elected William Kettner (D) 72.2%
N. D. Hamilton (Proh.) 27.8%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Colorado 1 Benjamin Clark Hilliard Democratic 1914 Lost re-election
Republican gain
William Newell Vaile (R) 54.19%
John L Stack (D) 31.88
Benjamin Clark Hilliard (I) 11.91%
Fred Underhill (S) 2.02%
Colorado 2 Charles Bateman Timberlake Republican 1914 Re-elected Charles Bateman Timberlake (R) 61.48%
R. E. Jones (D) 38.52%
Colorado 3 Edward Keating Democratic 1912 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Guy Urban Hardy (R) 50.95%
Edward Keating (D) 46.71%
Edith Halcomb (S) 2.33%
Colorado 4 Edward Thomas Taylor Democratic 1908 Re-elected Edward Thomas Taylor (D) 65.72%
Straud M. Logan (R) 34.28%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Connecticut 1 Augustine Lonergan Democratic 1916 Re-elected
Connecticut 2 Richard P. Freeman Republican 1914 Re-elected
Connecticut 3 John Q. Tilson Republican 1914 Re-elected
Connecticut 4 Schuyler Merritt Republican 1917 Re-elected
Connecticut 5 James P. Glynn Republican 1914 Re-elected


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Delaware At-Large Albert F. Polk Democratic 1916 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Caleb R. Layton (R) 51.40%
Albert F. Polk (D) 47.59%
William H. Crawford (S) 1.02%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Herbert J. Drane Democratic 1916 re-elected Herbert J. Drane (D) (unopposed)
Florida 2 Frank Clark Democratic 1904 re-elected Frank Clark (D) (unopposed)
Florida 3 Walter Kehoe Democratic 1916 Lost renomination
Democratic hold
John H. Smithwick (D) (unopposed)
Florida 4 William J. Sears Democratic 1914 re-elected William J. Sears (D) (unopposed)


This was the first election in which Idaho was divided into districts, formerly it had had a single at-large district with two seats.

District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Idaho 1 Burton L. French
Redistricted from the at-large district
Republican 1916 Re-elected Burton L. French (R) 63.35%
L. I. Purcell (D) 36.66%
Idaho 2 Addison T. Smith
Redistricted from the at-large district
Republican 1912 Re-elected Addison T. Smith (R) 63.16%
C. R. Jeppesen (D) 36.84%

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Maine held early elections on September 9, 1918.
  2. ^ Changed parties.


External links[edit]