United States House of Representatives elections, 1852
All 234 seats to the United States House of Representatives
118 seats were needed for a majority
Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 33rd Congress were held at various dates in each state between August 2, 1852 (in Iowa and Missouri) and November 8, 1853 (in Mississippi).
This election cycle saw the Democrats increase their House majority and gain the presidency (under Franklin Pierce). Although sectionalism remained a huge problem, the parties got a slight boost of stability due to the unity of a bitter presidential campaign. Two small third parties, the Constitutional Unionists and States' Rights parties, quickly collapsed prior to this election, while the anti-slavery Free Soil Party held onto its four seats. In addition, one Independent, Caleb Lyon, was elected to New York's 23rd District.
Following the 1850 Census, the House was reapportioned. In the initial apportionment bill, the number of seats was unchanged at 233, but subsequently one additional seat was added to California's delegation, keeping its representation the same, and increasing the total apportionment by one seat to 234, due to returns from California being determined to be incomplete. One State lost 2 seats, 7 States lost 1 seat each, 15 States had no change in apportionment, 6 States gained 1 seat each, and 2 States gained 2 seats each.
|California||At-large||November 2, 1852
(Election Day)[Note 2]
|New York||District||33||1||21||4||10||7||1||1||1[Note 3]||1|
|Delaware||At-large||November 8, 1852||1||1||0||0||0|
|Florida||At-large||October 5, 1852||1||1||1||0||1||0||0|
|Indiana||District||October 12, 1852||11||1||10||2||1||1||0||0|
|Iowa||District||August 2, 1852||2||1||1||1||1||0||0|
|Maine||District||September 13, 1852||6||1||3||2||3||1||0||0|
|Massachusetts||District||November 8, 1852||11||1||1||9||2||1||1||0|
|Missouri||District||August 2, 1852||7||2||3||1||4||1||0||0|
|Ohio||District||October 12, 1852||21||12||1||7||1||2||1||0|
|Pennsylvania||District||October 12, 1852||25||1||16||1||9||0||0|
|Vermont||District||September 7, 1852||3||1||0||1||3||0||0|
|Alabama||District||August 8, 1853||7||6||2||1||1||0||0||1[Note 4]|
|Arkansas||District[Note 5]||August 1, 1853||2||1||2||1||0||0||0|
|Connecticut||District||April 4, 1853||4||4||1||0||1||0||0|
|Georgia||District||October 3, 1853||8||6||6||2||2||0||0||8[Note 6]|
|Kentucky||District||August 1, 1853||10||5||5||0||0|
|Louisiana||District||November 1, 1853||4||3||1||1||1||0||0|
|Maryland||District||November 2, 1853||6||4||2||2||2||0||0|
|Mississippi||District + 1 at-large||November 7–8, 1853||5||1||5||5||0||0||0||4[Note 7]|
|New Hampshire||District||March 8, 1853||3||1||3||1||0||2||0||0|
|North Carolina||District||August 4, 1853||8||1||5||2||3||3||0||0|
|Rhode Island||District||April 6, 1853||2||2||1||0||1||0||0|
|South Carolina||District||February 28-March 1, 1853||6||1||6||1||0||0||0|
|Tennessee||District||August 4, 1853||10||1||5||2||5||1||0||0|
|Texas||District||August 1, 1853||2||2||0||0||0|
|Virginia||District||May 26, 1853||13||2||13||0||2||0||0|
Note: From statehood to 1864, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858; in 1860 when California gained a seat in the House the top three vote-getters were elected.
|Edward C. Marshall||Democratic||1851 (Late)||Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
|√ James A. McDougall (Democratic) 84.4%|
|Joseph W. McCorkle||Democratic||1851 (Late)||Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
|√ James A. McDougall (Democratic) 15.6%|
|Florida at-large||Edward C. Cabell||Whig||1846||Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
|√ Augustus Maxwell (Democratic) 50.1%
Edward C. Cabell (Whig) 49.9%
- United States elections, 1852
- 32nd United States Congress
- 33rd United States Congress
- Includes 1 Independent Democrat, William Henry Bissell, elected to IL-08.
- In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections as well.
- Caleb Lyon was elected to NY-23 as an Independent.
- Previous election had 1 Constitutional Union member.
- Changed from at-large.
- Previous election had 6 Constitutional Union and 2 States' Rights.
- Previous election had 3 Constitutional Union and 1 States' Rights.
- Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
- Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
- "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)