United States House of Representatives elections, 1794

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1794

← 1792 August 24, 1794 - September 5, 1795[Note 1] 1796 →

All 105[Note 2] seats to the United States House of Representatives
53 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Frederick Muhlenberg.jpg JDayton.jpg
Leader Frederick Muhlenberg Jonathan Dayton[1][Note 3]
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Leader's seat Pennsylvania 2 New Jersey at-large
Last election 54 seats 51 seats
Seats won 59[Note 4] 47
Seat change Increase 5 Decrease 4

4thHouse.svg
     Federalist majority      Democratic-Republican majority      Even split

Speaker before election

Frederick Muhlenberg
Anti-Administration

Elected Speaker

Jonathan Dayton
Federalist

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 4th Congress were held on various dates in each state between August 25, 1794 (New Hampshire), and September 5, 1795 (Kentucky). The election was held during President George Washington's second term. The voters of Tennessee elected their first congressional representative (Andrew Jackson) on October 7, 1796.

In the second election for the House of Representatives with organized political parties, the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Thomas Jefferson, once again defeated the Federalist Party, led by Alexander Hamilton, and slightly increased their majority. These new wins by the Democratic-Republicans can mostly be attributed to the popularity of Jeffersonian ideas of agrarian democracy in the Western territories of the United States.

Election summaries[edit]

During this period, each state fixed its own date for a congressional general election. Elections took place both in the even-numbered year before and in the odd-numbered year when a Congress convened. In some states, the congressional delegation was not elected until after the legal start of the Congress (on the 4th day of March in the odd-numbered year).

One new seat was added during the 4th Congress upon the admission of Tennessee on June 1, 1796.[2] Tennessee was not represented in the 1st session.

59 47
Democratic-Republican Federalist
State Type
Date
Total
seats
Democratic-
Republican
[Note 5]
Federalist[Note 6]
Seats Change Seats Change
Connecticut At-large September 15, 1794 7 0 Steady 7 Steady
Delaware At-large October 5, 1794 1 1 Increase1 0 Decrease1
Georgia At-large October 6, 1794 2 2 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District (8) October 6, 1794 8 4 Steady 4 Steady
Massachusetts District (14)[Note 7] November 3, 1794[Note 8] 14 4 Increase1 10 Decrease1
New Hampshire At-large August 25, 1794[Note 9] 4 1 Steady 3 Steady
New Jersey At-large December 30, 1794 5 0 Steady 5 Steady
New York District (10) December 12, 1794 10 6 Increase3 4 Decrease3
Pennsylvania District[Note 10] (12[Note 11]) October 14, 1794 13 9 Increase1 4 Decrease1
Rhode Island At-large August 26, 1794 2 0 Steady 2 Steady
South Carolina District (6) October 14, 1794 6 4 Decrease1 2 Increase1
Vermont District (2) December 30, 1794[Note 12] 2 1 Decrease1 1 Increase1
1795 elections
North Carolina District (10) February 13, 1795 10 9 Steady 1 Steady
Kentucky District (2) September 5, 1795 2 2 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District (19) March 16, 1795 19 17 Increase2 2 Decrease2
1796 election
Tennessee At-large October 7, 1796 1 1 Increase1[Note 13] 0 Steady
Total[Note 4] 106 59
55.7%
Increase5 47
44.3%
Decrease4
House seats
Democratic-Republican
55.66%
Federalist
44.34%

Late elections to 3rd Congress[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Southwest Territory at-large None (district created) On September 3, 1794 Congress admitted the first non-voting delegate after debate. The delegage elected, James White, represented voters in the Southwest Territory. He also served during the next Congress. The non-partisan delegate was elected by the territorial legislature. James White 11 votes
William Cocke 7 votes

Connecticut[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Connecticut at-large
(General ticket)
James Hillhouse Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Jonathan Trumbull Jr. (Federalist) 13.1%
Uriah Tracy (Federalist) 12.5%
James Hillhouse (Federalist) 12.4%
Joshua Coit (Federalist) 10.8%
Roger Griswold (Federalist) 10.2%
Zephaniah Swift (Federalist) 9.7%
Chauncey Goodrich (Federalist) 6.7%
Nathaniel Smith[Note 14] (Federalist) 5.7%
James Davenport[Note 14] (Federalist) 5.1%
Samuel W. Dana[Note 14] (Federalist) 3.7%
William Edmond (Federalist) 3.4%
John Allen (Federalist) 2.5%
John Treadwell (Federalist) 2.3%
David Daggett (Federalist) 2.2%
Connecticut at-large
(General ticket)
Amasa Learned Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Connecticut at-large
(General ticket)
Joshua Coit Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Connecticut at-large
(General ticket)
Jonathan Trumbull Jr. Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent retired to run for U.S. Senator.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Connecticut at-large
(General ticket)
Jeremiah Wadsworth Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Connecticut at-large
(General ticket)
Zephariah Swift Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Connecticut at-large
(General ticket)
Uriah Tracy Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.

Delaware[edit]

Only two candidates are recorded for Delaware's congressional election in 1794, suggesting that the voting procedure in place for the first three Congresses for two candidates had been changed.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware at-large Henry Latimer Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Patten (Democratic-Republican) 51.3%
Henry Latimer (Federalist) 48.7%

Georgia[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Georgia at-large
(General ticket)
Abraham Baldwin Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Milledge (Democratic-Republican) 20.6%
Abraham Baldwin (Democratic-Republican) 19.3%
Thomas P. Carnes (Democratic-Republican) 16.0%
Jacob B. Waldburber 15.9%
James Sims 13.1%
Francis Willis (Democratic-Republican) 10.6%
Lachlan MacIntosh 4.0%
James Adcock 0.5%
Georgia at-large
(General ticket)
Thomas P. Carnes Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Kentucky[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1
"The Southern district"
Christopher Greenup Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Christopher Greenup[Note 15] (Democratic-Republican)
Kentucky 2
"The Northern district"
Alexander D. Orr Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Alexander D. Orr[Note 15] (Democratic-Republican)

Maryland[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maryland 1 George Dent Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
George Dent (Federalist) 67.6%
Philip Key (Federalist) 32.4%
Maryland 2 Vacant John F. Mercer (Anti-Administration) resigned April 13, 1794.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Gabriel Duvall (Democratic-Republican) 69.5%[Note 16]
Richard A. Contee (Federalist) 30.5%
Maryland 3 Uriah Forrest Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Jeremiah Crabb (Federalist) 100%
Maryland 4 Thomas Sprigg Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Thomas Sprigg (Democratic-Republican) 61.4%
Roger Nelson (Federalist) 38.6%
Maryland 5 Samuel Smith Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Samuel Smith (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Maryland 6 Gabriel Christie Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Gabriel Christie (Democratic-Republican) 70.4%
Robert Wright (Federalist) 29.6%
Maryland 7 William Hindman Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
William Hindman (Federalist) 63.8%
George Jackson (Democratic-Republican) 26.8%
William Whitely (Democratic-Republican) 9.3%
Maryland 8 William V. Murray Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
William V. Murray (Federalist) 100%

Massachusetts[edit]

Massachusetts redistricted between the 3rd and 4th Congress, dividing itself into 14 districts. The 12th-14th districts were in the District of Maine (the modern State of Maine). A majority was required for election. Additional ballots were required in five districts due to the majority requirement not being met on the first ballot.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
First ballot Second ballot Third ballot Fourth ballot
Massachusetts 1
"The 1st Western District"
Theodore Sedgwick
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Theodore Sedgwick (Federalist) 53.8%
Thomson J. Skinner (Democratic-Republican) 46.2%
Massachusetts 2
"The 2nd Western District"
William Lyman Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
William Lyman (Democratic-Republican) 52.1%
William Shepard (Federalist) 47.9%
Massachusetts 3
"The 3rd Western District"
None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Samuel Lyman (Federalist) 65.5%
Daniel Bigelow (Democratic-Republican) 34.5%
Massachusetts 4
"The 4th Western District"
Dwight Foster
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Dwight Foster (Federalist) 50.8%
Levi Lincoln Sr. (Democratic-Republican) 46.1%
Samuel Blackburn 3.1%
Massachusetts 5
"The 1st Southern District"
Peleg Coffin Jr.
Redistricts from the 3rd district
Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Nathaniel Freeman Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 70.0%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Federalist) 30.0%
Massachusetts 6
"The 2nd Southern District"
None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
John Reed Sr. (Federalist) 74.5%
George Partridge 25.5%
Massachusetts 7
"The 3rd Southern District"
David Cobb
Redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
David Cobb (Federalist) 42.3%
George Leonard (Federalist) 35.8%
Phanuel Bishop (Democratic-Republican) 21.9%
David Cobb (Federalist) 39.9%
George Leonard (Federalist) 39.9%
Phanuel Bishop (Democratic-Republican) 20.2%
George Leonard (Federalist) 48.9%
David Cobb (Federalist) 17.4%
John Smith 13.7%
Phanuel Bishop (Democratic-Republican) 12.5%
Scattering 7.6%
George Leonard (Federalist) 76.3%
Elisha May 16.5%
Phanuel Bishop (Democratic-Republican) 7.2%
Massachusetts 8
"The 1st Middle District"
Fisher Ames
Redistricted from the 1st district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Fisher Ames (Federalist) 56.6%
Charles Jarvis (Democratic-Republican) 43.4%
Massachusetts 9
"The 2nd Middle District"
Samuel Dexter
Redistricted from the 1st district
Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
A petition by various citizens of Massachusetts contested the election. The Committee on Elections ruled in the winner's favor and added "that the attempt to deprive him of his seat was rather the act of malevolence than a desire to promote the public good." On January 25, 1797, these words were stricken out and expressions of compliment to the member were substituted, and the report was agreed to.[1]
Samuel Dexter (Federalist) 40.5%
Elbridge Gerry (Democratic-Republican) 30.9%
Joseph Bradley Varnum (Democratic-Republican) 28.6%
Joseph Bradley Varnum (Democratic-Republican) 49.4%
Samuel Dexter (Federalist) 48.8%
Scattering 1.8%
Joseph Bradley Varnum (Democratic-Republican) 51.4%
Samuel Dexter (Federalist) 48.6%
Massachusetts 10
"The 3rd Middle District"
Benjamin Goodhue
Redistricted from the 1st district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Benjamin Goodhue (Federalist) 68.2%
Samuel Holten (F[Note 17]) 31.8%
Samuel Holten
Redistricted from the 1st district
Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Massachusetts 11
"The 4th Middle District"
None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Theophilus Bradbury (Federalist) 43.5%
Bailey Bartlett (Federalist) 19.8%
Josiah Smith (Democratic-Republican) 10.5%
Stephen Cross 9.1%
Theophilus Parsons 7.0%
Scattering 10.1%
Theophilus Bradbury (Federalist) 38.1%
William Pearson 36.6%
Bailey Bartlett (Federalist) 25.3%
Theophilus Bradbury (Federalist) 100%
Massachusetts 12
"The 1st Eastern District, District of Maine"
Henry Dearborn
Redistricted from the 4th district
Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Henry Dearborn (Democratic-Republican) 64.1%
John Bowman 35.9%
Massachusetts 13
"The 2nd Eastern District, District of Maine"
Peleg Wadsworth
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Peleg Wadsworth (Federalist) 44.1%
William Widgery (Democratic-Republican) 33.4%
Stephen Longfellow 10.0%
Samuel Thompson 5.3%
Scattering 7.3%
Peleg Wadsworth (Federalist) 60.3%
William Widgery (Democratic-Republican) 39.7%
Massachusetts 14
"The 3rd Eastern District, District of Maine"
George Thatcher
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
George Thatcher (Federalist) 45.7%
Nathaniel Wells 31.6%
Ichabod Godwin 8.8%
Joseph Tucker 6.4%
Scattering 7.4%
George Thatcher (Federalist) 68.4%
Scattering 31.6%

New Hampshire[edit]

Under New Hampshire's electoral laws, a majority of voters (12.5% of votes) was required for election. Only three candidates achieved a majority, and so a run-off election was held for the fourth seat.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
First ballot Second ballot
New Hampshire at-large
(General ticket)
Jeremiah Smith Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Jeremiah Smith (Federalist) 20.5%
John Samuel Sherburne (Democratic-Republican) 17.2%
Nicholas Gilman (Federalist) 13.0%
Abiel Foster (Federalist) 11.1%
Paine Wingate (Federalist) 8.1%
Others 30.1%
 
New Hampshire at-large
(General ticket)
John Samuel Sherburne Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New Hampshire at-large
(General ticket)
Nicholas Gilman Pro-Administration 1788/89 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
New Hampshire at-large
(General ticket)
Paine Wingate Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Abiel Foster (Federalist) 82.7%
Paine Wingate (Federalist) 17.3%

New Jersey[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Jersey at-large
(General ticket)
Elias Boudinot Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Jonathan Dayton (Federalist) 13.6%
Aaron Kitchell[Note 16] (Federalist) 11.0%
Thomas Henderson (Federalist) 9.3%
Isaac Smith (Federalist) 7.9%
Mark Thomson (Federalist) 7.9%
Thomas Sinnickson (Federalist) 7.5%
Joseph Bloomfield 6.6%
John Beatty (Federalist) 6.4%
James Linn 6.3%
Ebenezer Elmer 5.8%
James Schureman (Federalist) 4.1%
Lambert Cadwalader (Federalist) 4.0%
Richard Smith 3.0%
Charles Stewart 2.3%
Jonathan Elmer (Federalist) 2.1%
John Harring 1.4%
Robert Ogden 0.7%
James F. Armstrong 0.2%
New Jersey at-large
(General ticket)
Vacant Abraham Clark (Pro-Administration) died September 15, 1794.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New Jersey at-large
(General ticket)
Jonathan Dayton Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
New Jersey at-large
(General ticket)
Lambert Cadwalader Pro-Administration 1789
1792
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New Jersey at-large
(General ticket)
John Beatty Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.

New York[edit]

New York's districts were not numbered at the time, but were later numbered retroactively.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1 Thomas Tredwell Anti-Administration 1791 (Special) Ran for election in district 7
Democratic-Republican gain.
Jonathan Nicoll Havens (Democratic-Republican) 38.6%
Whitehead Cornwell (Democratic-Republican) 26.2%
Samuel Jones (Federalist) 23.4%
John Smith (Democratic-Republican) 11.9%
New York 2 John Watts Pro-Administration 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Edward Livingston (Democratic-Republican) 52.9%
John Watts (Federalist) 47.1%
New York 3 Philip Van Courtlandt Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Philip Van Courtlandt (Democratic-Republican) 50.5%
Richard Morris 49.5%
New York 4 Peter Van Gaasbeck Pro-Administration 1793 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Hathorn (Democratic-Republican) 70.8%
Conrad E. Elmendorf (Federalist) 27.2%
William Thompson (Federalist) 1.9%
Peter Gansevoort (Democratic-Republican) 0.1%
New York 5 Theodorus Bailey Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Theodorus Bailey (Federalist) 57.1%
David Brooks (Federalist) 42.9%
New York 6 Ezekiel Gilbert Pro-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Ezekiel Gilbert (Federalist) 57.6%
John Bay (Democratic-Republican) 21.7%
Matthew Adgate (Democratic-Republican) 20.7%
New York 7 John E. Van Alen Pro-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
John E. Van Alen (Federalist) 78.8%
Thomas Tredwell (Democratic-Republican) 21.2%[Note 18]
New York 8 Henry Glen Pro-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Henry Glen (Federalist) 94.0%
Abraham Yates (Democratic-Republican) 2.8%
John Tayler (Democratic-Republican) 2.6%
James Fairlie (Democratic-Republican) 0.6%
New York 9 James Gordon Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Williams (Democratic-Republican) 48.4%
Ebenezer Russel (Federalist) 40.2%
Alexander Webster (Democratic-Republican) 11.4%
New York 10 Vacant Incumbent Silas Talbot (Pro-Administration) resigned earlier to accept an appointment to the Navy
Federalist gain.
William Cooper (Federalist) 55.9%
John Winn (Democratic-Republican) 31.4%
James Cochran (Federalist) 11.8%
Jonathan Fitch (Democratic-Republican) 0.9%

North Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
North Carolina 1 Joseph McDowell Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Holland (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Joseph McDowell (Democratic-Republican)
North Carolina 2 Matthew Locke Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Matthew Locke (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
North Carolina 3 Joseph Winston Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Jesse Franklin (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Joseph Winston (Democratic-Republican)
North Carolina 4 Alexander Mebane Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Alexander Mebane (Democratic-Republican) 75.8%
Samuel Benton (Federalist) 19.5%
Stephen Moore (Federalist) 4.7%
North Carolina 5 Nathaniel Macon Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Nathaniel Macon (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
North Carolina 6 James Gillespie Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Gillespie (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
William H. Hill (Federalist)
North Carolina 7 William B. Grove Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
William B. Grove (Federalist)[Note 15]
North Carolina 8 William J. Dawson Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Dempsey Burges (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
John Baker (Democratic-Republican)
Clement Hale (Democratic-Republican)
David Stone (Federalist)
William J. Dawson (Democratic-Republican)
Charles Johnson (Federalist)
North Carolina 9 Thomas Blount Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Thomas Blount (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
John Benford (Federalist)
Willis Alston (Federalist)
North Carolina 10 Benjamin Williams Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Nathan Bryan (Democratic-Republican) 61.0%
Benjamin Williams (F[Note 17]) 29.6%
David Witherspoon (Federalist) 9.4%

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania once again divided itself into districts instead of electing representatives at-large, as it had for the 3rd Congress. The state divided intself into 12 districts, one of which (the 4th) had two seats. Pennsylvania would continue to use one or more plural districts until 1842.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[3]
Pennsylvania 1 Thomas Fitzsimons
Redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Swanwick (Democratic-Republican) 51.2%
Thomas Fitzsimons (Federalist) 48.8%
Pennsylvania 2 Frederick Muhlenberg
Redistricted from at-large district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Frederick Muhlenberg (Democratic-Republican) 56.3%
Samuel Miles (Federalist) 43.7%
Pennsylvania 3 None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Richard Thomas (Federalist) 68.2%
Thomas Ross (Democratic-Republican) 31.8%
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 2 seats
None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Samuel Sitgreaves (Federalist) 36.2%
John Richards (Democratic-Republican) 20.0%
James Morris (Democratic-Republican) 20.2%
Robert Lollar (Democratic-Republican) 13.1%
Peter Muhlenberg (Democratic-Republican) 8.1%
James Barclay 2.4%
Peter Muhlenberg
Redistricted from the at-large district
Anti-Administration 1788
1792
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Morris disputed the election. The original returns showed Morris in 2nd place and Richards in a close 3rd place, but Richards disputed it. Morris died July 10, 1795, before the House could act. The Elections Committee ruled in favor of Richards on January 18, 1796.
Pennsylvania 5 Daniel Hiester
Redistricted from at-large district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Daniel Hiester (Democratic-Republican) Unopposed
Pennsylvania 6 None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Samuel Maclay (Democratic-Republican) 46.0%
John A. Hanna (Democratic-Republican) 43.3%
John Carson (Federalist) 10.7%
Pennsylvania 7 John W. Kittera
Redistricted from at-large district
Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
John W. Kittera (Federalist) Unopposed
Pennsylvania 8 Thomas Hartley
Redistricted from at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Hartley (Federalist) Unopposed
Pennsylvania 9 Andrew Gregg
Redistricted from at-large district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Andrew Gregg (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
James Wallace (Federalist)
William Irvine (Democratic-Republican)
William Irvine
Redistricted from the at-large district
Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 10 None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
David Bard (Democratic-Republican) 52.9%
James McLane (Democratic-Republican) 31.9%
James Chambers (Federalist) 15.2%
Pennsylvania 11 William Findley
Redistricted from at-large district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
William Findley (Democratic-Republican) Unopposed
Pennsylvania 12 Thomas Scott
Redistricted from at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788
1792
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Albert Gallatin (Democratic-Republican) 33.1%
Thomas Scott (Federalist) 27.7%
Daniel Hamilton (Democratic-Republican) 16.2%
Isaac Tichenor (Federalist) 11.0%
Hugh H. Brackenridge (DR?) 6.0%
John Woods (Federalist) 5.9%

Rhode Island[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Rhode Island at-large Seat A Benjamin Bourne Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Benjamin Bourne (Federalist) 62.3%
Peleg Arnold (Democratic-Republican) 37.7%
Rhode Island at-large Seat B Francis Malbone Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Francis Malbone (Federalist) 61.9%
Joseph Stanton Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 38.1%

South Carolina[edit]

Electoral data are only available for the 1st and 5th district of South Carolina's 6 districts at the time of the elections of 1794.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 William L. Smith Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
William L. Smith (Federalist) 51.7%
John Rutledge, Jr. (Federalist) 37.3%
Thomas Tucker 11.0%
South Carolina 2 John Hunter Anti-Administration 1793 Ran for election in 5th district
Democratic-Republican gain.
Robert Barnwell[Note 15]
South Carolina 3 Lemuel Benton Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Lemuel Benton (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
South Carolina 4 Richard Winn Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Richard Winn (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
South Carolina 5 Vacant Alexander Gillon (Anti-Administration) died October 6, 1794>
Federalist gain.
Robert Goodloe Harper[Note 16] (Federalist) 58.3%
John Hunter[Note 19] (Democratic-Republican) 41.7%
South Carolina 6 Andrew Pickens Anti-Administration 1793 Democratic-Republican gain[Note 20] Samuel Earle (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]

Representative-elect Barnwell of the 2nd district declined to serve. A special election was held to fill the resulting vacancy, electing Wade Hampton (Democratic-Republican).

Tennessee[edit]

Tennessee elected its first representative in 1796 for this Congress.

Vermont[edit]

Vermont's laws required a majority for election to Congress, with a second election to be held if the first did not return a majority. Run-off elections were required in both districts.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[Note 21]
First ballot Second ballot
Vermont 1
"The Western District"
Israel Smith Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
The loser unsuccessfully contested the election[1]
Matthew Lyon (Democratic-Republican) 41.7%
Israel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 32.9%
Isaac Tichenor (Federalist) 9.9%
Gideon Olin (Democratic-Republican) 8.7%
Others 6.8%
Israel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 48.5%
Matthew Lyon (Democratic-Republican) 48.0%
Others 3.5%
Vermont 2
"The Eastern District"
Nathaniel Niles Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Nathaniel Niles (Democratic-Republican) 31.6%
Daniel Buck (Federalist) 21.2%
Jonathan Hunt 11.0%
Stephen Jacob 10.9%
Lewis R. Morris (Federalist) 8.3%
Cornelius Lynde 4.7%
Paul Brigham 3.3%
Lot Hall 2.7%
Elijah Robinson 1.3%
Others 4.8%
Daniel Buck (Federalist) 55.6%
Nathaniel Niles (Democratic-Republican) 39.1%
Jonathan Hunt 2.3%
Stephen Jacob 1.8% 1.2%

Virginia[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Virginia 1 Robert Rutherford Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Robert Rutherford (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Daniel Morgan (Federalist)
Virginia 2 Andrew Moore Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Andrew Moore (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Virginia 3 Joseph Neville Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
George Jackson (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Joseph Neville (Democratic-Republican)
Thomas Wilson
John Skidmore
Virginia 4 Francis Preston Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Francis Preston (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Arthur Campbell
Virginia 5 George Hancock Pro-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
George Hancock (Federalist)[Note 15]
Virginia 6 Isaac Coles Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Isaac Coles (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Simon Crae MacMahon
Matthew Clay (Democratic-Republican)
Virginia 7 Abraham B. Venable Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Abraham B. Venable (Democratic-Republican) 61.0%
Thomas Woodson 19.8%
Joseph Wyatt 18.9%
Peter Johnson 0.2%
William Wilson 0.1%
Virginia 8 Thomas Claiborne Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Thomas Claiborne (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Jesse Brown
Samuel Hopkins
Samuel Goode (Democratic-Republican)
Sterling Edmunds
Virginia 9 William B. Giles Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
William B. Giles (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Virginia 10 Carter B. Harrison Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Carter B. Harrison (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Virginia 11 Josiah Parker Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Josiah Parker (Federalist)[Note 15]
Robert Cowper
Virginia 12 John Page Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Page (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Virginia 13 Samuel Griffin Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
The loser unsuccessfully contested the election[1]
John Clopton (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Burwell Bassett (Democratic-Republican)
Miles Selden
Meriwether Jones
Virginia 14 Francis Walker Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Samuel J. Cabell (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Virginia 15 James Madison Jr. Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Madison Jr. (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Virginia 16 Anthony New Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Anthony New (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Virginia 17 Richard Bland Lee Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Richard Brent (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Richard Bland Lee (P)
Virginia 18 John Nicholas Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Nicholas (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]
Virginia 19 John Heath Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Heath (Democratic-Republican)[Note 15]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Excluding states admitted during the 4th Congress
  2. ^ 1 more seat was added by the admission of Tennessee after the start of this Congress
  3. ^ Elected Speaker of the House
  4. ^ a b Including late elections
  5. ^ Previously Anti-Administration
  6. ^ Previously Pro-Administration
  7. ^ Previously 4 plural districts + 1 at-large district
  8. ^ Majority required for election, 3 additional ballots were required in 5 districts held January 17, March 23, and June 1, 1795
  9. ^ Majority required for election, a run-off was required for the 4th seat held on December 8, 1794
  10. ^ Changed from at-large method
  11. ^ Includes 1 plural district
  12. ^ Majority required for election, an additional ballot was required in both districts held on February 10, 1795
  13. ^ New state
  14. ^ a b c Elected in subsequent special election
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Source does not give numbers of votes or has incomplete data
  16. ^ a b c Elected to fill vacancy in 3rd Congress
  17. ^ a b Changed parties
  18. ^ Originally from district 1, Tredwell moved to district 7 and ran there
  19. ^ 2nd district incumbent
  20. ^ No information available in source on whether incumbent lost re-election or did not run
  21. ^ Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]