United States House of Representatives elections, 1846
All 230[Note 2] seats to the United States House of Representatives
116 seats were needed for a majority
Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 30th Congress were held at different dates in the various states, from August 2, 1846 (Missouri) to November 2, 1847 (Mississippi and Louisiana) during James K. Polk's term in office. The Whigs picked up 37 seats to win 116 seats, while the rival Democrats lost 30 and fell to 112 seats[Note 3] in the House. The result was a switch of partisan control of the House, with the Whigs gaining a narrow majority of just one seat, having only four more seats than the Democrats. The Whigs picked up seats in New England and the South. The nativist American Party, dedicated to opposition to immigration and anti-Catholicism, lost five of its Representatives and was left with only a single seat. In addition, one Independent, Amos Tuck, was elected to New Hampshire's 1st District.
The Mexican–American War was the biggest issue of concern during this election. While the war was widely supported west of the Appalachian Mountains, many people in eastern urban regions were opposed. The extreme loyalty of the Democratic Congress—with only 14 representatives voting against the war—was a huge factor in the Whig pick-up. Growing divisions over slavery were also a contentious concern, as this ever-present issue had been brought to the forefront by Congressional rejection of the Wilmot Proviso.
The remaining multi-member at-large districts were abolished for this election, leaving all states with two or more Representatives divided into districts. In 1845, Congress had passed a law establishing a uniform date throughout the Union for choosing electors. The law did not apply to Congressional elections, but the date was gradually adopted for Congressional elections as well. In 1846, only three states (Michigan, New Jersey, and New York) used that date (November 3, 1846).
|Michigan||District||November 3, 1846
|New York||District||34||23||14||11[Note 4]||10||0||4|
|Arkansas||At-large||August 3, 1846||1||0||1||0|
|Delaware||At-large||November 10, 1846||1||1||0||0|
|Florida||At-large||October 5, 1846||1||1||1||0||1||0|
|Georgia||District||October 5, 1846||8||4||1||4||1||0|
|Illinois||District||August 3, 1846||7||1||6[Note 5]||0|
|Maine||District||September 14, 1846||7||1||6||0|
|Massachusetts||District||November 9, 1846||10||10||0||0|
|Missouri||District[Note 6]||August 2, 1846||5||0||5||0|
|Ohio||District||October 13, 1846||21||11||3||10||3||0|
|Pennsylvania||District||October 13, 1846||24||16||6||7||5||1[Note 7]||1|
|South Carolina||District||October 12–13, 1846||7||0||7||0|
|Texas||District||November 2, 1846||2||0||2||0|
|Vermont||District||September 1, 1846||4||3||1||0|
|Alabama||District||August 2, 1847||7||2||1||5||1||0|
|Connecticut||District||April 5, 1847||4||4||0||0|
|Indiana||District||August 2, 1847||10||4||2||6||2||0|
|Iowa||District[Note 6]||August 2, 1847||2||0||2||0|
|Kentucky||District||August 2, 1847||10||6||1||4||1||0|
|Louisiana||District||November 2, 1847||4||1||3||0|
|Maryland||District||October 6, 1847||6||4||2||2||2||0|
|Mississippi||District[Note 6]||November 1–2, 1847||4||1||1||3||1||0|
|New Hampshire||District[Note 6]||March 9, 1847||4[Note 8]||1||1||2||1||1[Note 9]||1|
|North Carolina||District||August 5, 1847||9||6||3||3||3||0|
|Rhode Island||District||April 7, 1847||2||1||1||1||1||0|
|Tennessee||District||August 2. 1847||11||5||6||0|
|Virginia||District||April 22, 1847||15||6||5||9||5||0|
|Wisconsin[Note 10]||District||May 8, 1848||2||0||2||2||0|
|Florida at-large||William H. Brockenbrough||Democratic||1845 (special)||Retired
|Edward C. Cabell (W) 50.9%
William A. Kain (D) 49.1%
- United States elections, 1846
- 29th United States Congress
- 30th United States Congress
- Excludes states admitted during the 30th Congress.
- Includes late elections
- Includes 2 Independent Democrats elected to IL-01 and NY-17 – see: Martis, p. 100-101.
- Includes George Petrie, who was elected to NY-17 as an Independent Democrat.
- Includes Robert Smith, who was elected to IL-01 as an Independent Democrat.
- Changed from at-large
- 1 American
- One seat had been vacant during the entire 29th Congress.
- Amos Tuck was elected to NH-01 as an Independent.
- New state
- Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
- Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
- "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)