Marine Corps War Memorial
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|Marine Corps War Memorial|
|United States of America|
Marine Corps War Memorial
|For the Marine dead of all wars, and their comrades of other services who fell fighting beside them.|
|Unveiled||November 10, 1954|
near Rosslyn, Virginia
|Designed by||Felix de Weldon (sculptor)
Horace W. Pealee (architect)
The United States Marine Corps War Memorial (Iwo Jima Memorial) is a national monument in Arlington, Virginia, United States. It is located in Arlington Ridge Park, at the back entrance to Arlington National Cemetery and next to the Netherlands Carillon. The war memorial is dedicated to all United States Marine Corps personnel who have died in the defense of the United States since 1775.
The memorial was inspired by the iconic 1945 photograph of six servicemen raising an American flag atop Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II. It was taken by Associated Press combat photographer Joe Rosenthal. Upon first seeing the photograph, sculptor Felix de Weldon created a maquette for a sculpture based on it, in a single weekend. He and architect Horace W. Peaslee designed the memorial. Their proposal was presented to Congress, but funding was not possible during the war. In 1947 a federal foundation was established to raise funds for the memorial.
The centerpiece of the memorial is a colossal sculpture group depicting the five Marines and one Navy corpsman who raised the second (and larger) U.S. flag atop Mount Suribachi on February 23, 1945. They were: Sergeant Michael Strank, Corporal Harlon Block, Private First Class Rene Gagnon, Private First Class Ira Hayes, Private First Class Franklin Sousley, and Pharmacist Mate Second Class John Bradley (USN).
The flag-raising also was recorded by Marine Sergeant Bill Genaust, a combat motion picture cameraman, who filmed the event in color while standing beside Rosenthal. Genaust's footage was included in the 1945 newsreel "Carriers Hit Tokyo," and established that the second flag raising was not staged. He was killed by the Japanese after entering a cave on Iwo Jima during the battle. Genaust's remains have never been found.
The commission for the memorial was awarded in 1951. De Weldon spent three years creating a full-sized master model in plaster, with figures 32 feet (9.8 m) tall. This was disassembled like a giant puzzle, and each piece was separately cast in bronze. Peaslee's base for the memorial is made of black diabase granite from a quarry in Lönsboda, a small town in the southernmost province of Sweden. It features a number of inscriptions. Construction of the memorial began in September 1954. The bronze pieces of the sculpture were assembled, to which was added a 60 feet (18 m) flagpole. The total cost of the memorial was $850,000, including the development of the site. It was paid for with donations, mostly from U.S. Marines; no public funds were used.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower dedicated the memorial on November 10, 1954, the 179th anniversary of the founding of the Marine Corps. On June 12, 1961, President John F. Kennedy issued a proclamation that a Flag of the United States should fly over the memorial 24 hours a day, one of the few official sites where this is required.
The memorial is located on a high ridge, overlooking the national capital. The Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. uses the memorial as the centerpiece of its weekly Sunset Parade, featuring the Drum and Bugle Corps and the Silent Drill Platoon.
The memorial consists of front and rear inscriptions, and inscribed in gold letters around the polished black granite upper base of the memorial is the date and location of every United States Marine Corps major action up to the present time.
Front (west side): "Uncommon Valor Was A Common Virtue" - "Semper Fidelis"
Rear (east side): "In Honor And Memory Of The Men Of The United States Marine Corps Who Have Given Their Lives To Their Country Since 10 November 1775"
Felix de Weldon's and Joe Rosenthal's names are also inscribed on the bottom left and bottom right base of the front side of the memorial. Rosenthal's name was added in 1982.
"Dedicated To The Marine Dead Of All Wars, And Their Comrades Of Other Services Who Fell Fighting Beside Them.
Created By Felix De Weldon, And Inspired By The Immortal Photograph Taken By Joseph J. Rosenthal On February 23, 1945, Atop Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands.
Erected By The Marine Corps War Memorial Foundation, With Funds Provided By Marines And Their Friends, And With The Cooperation And Support Of Many Public Officials.
Dedicated November 10, 1954"
Memorial rumor and criticism
A persistent rumor has attributed the existence of a thirteenth hand from the six statues of the men depicted on the memorial and speculation about the possible reasons for it. When informed of the rumor, de Weldon exclaimed, "Thirteen hands. Who needed 13 hands? Twelve were enough."
In the siting controversy for the United States Air Force Memorial, originally to be near de Weldon's work, J. Carter Brown (in 1998, chairman of the United States Commission of Fine Arts) described the Marine Corps Memorial as, "I would say that the Iwo Jima memorial is kitsch. It was taken from a photograph, it is by a sculptor, even though he was a member of this commission at one point, who is not going to go down as a Michelangelo in history—and yet it is very effective, largely because of its site." This remark was met with calls for Brown's resignation from the commission, and disagreement over the categorization from the commission's staff.
On April 29, 2015, philanthropist David Rubenstein pledged over five million dollars to refurbish the memorial in honor of his father, a Marine veteran from World War II who died in 2013, "and all Marines who have died in service to the United States." The $5.37 million donation, made through the National Park Foundation, will support cleaning and waxing the statue, polishing the black granite panels, regilding inscriptions, relandscaping, and making repairs to the pavement, lighting and flagpole. Most of the work, expected to last two years, will be done in 2016. While the Park Service performs regular routine maintenance, this will the first comprehensive refurbishment of the memorial since its dedication in 1954.
When there were no government funds for sculpture during the war, the sculptor financed a concrete version of similar design in a one-third size that was placed on a parcel of land in Washington, D.C. until 1947, when it was put into storage. It later was restored and displayed at a museum on an aircraft carrier and again, returned to storage. This small concrete statue of the second U.S. flag raising at Iwo Jima in 1945 was scheduled to be auctioned in February 2013 at a New York auction dedicated to World War II artifacts, but it failed to receive the minimum bid required for the auction of it to begin.
The original plaster working model for the bronze and granite memorial statue currently stands in Harlingen, Texas at the Marine Military Academy, a private Marine Corps-inspired youth military academy. The academy also is the final resting place of Corporal Block, one of the flag raisers who was killed in action on Iwo Jima.
There also are scaled-down replicas at three Marine bases: just outside the front gate of Marine Corps Base Quantico in Virginia, adjacent to the parade deck at Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island in South Carolina, and just inside the main gate at Marine Corps Base Hawaii in Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawaii.
The 5th Marine Division Memorial, at the U.S. flag-raising site on Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima.
Marine Corps Memorial, Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia.
Iwo Jima Memorial, Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island, South Carolina.
Pacific War Memorial, Marine Corps Base Hawaii.
War Memorial (1973), U.S. Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island
National Iwo Jima Memorial (1995), Newington, Connecticut
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marine Corps War Memorial.|
- http://www.gemeneman.se/MinSommar2005.pdf (in Swedish) Translation, page 3 line 28-29: The most famous war memorial in the United States, U.S. Marine Corps Memorial in Washington D.C., stands on a base in granite pieces from Hägghult. Hägghult is the name of the quarry, just outside Lönsboda.
- Kelly, John (February 23, 2005). "One Marine's Moment". The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post Company). p. C13. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2008-07-13.[dead link]
- "Iwo Jima memorial called 'kitsch'". Deseret News. 8 March 1998. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- Ruane, Michael E. (April 29, 2015). "Billionaire David Rubenstein gives $5M to refurbish Iwo Jima sculpture". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- Zongker, Brett (29 April 2015). "Marine Corps Memorial to be restored after $5.4M donation". The Associated Press. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- "Original Iwo Jima monument could fetch up to $1.8M at NYC auction". Fox News. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Iwo Jima Memorial". SWFL Art & Community Theater. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- Froyd, Madeline (31 August 2015). "195 Things: Fall River's Iwo Jima monument honors veterans". The Herald News. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- Official website
- Uncommon Valor A short USMC-created film about the Iwo Jima Memorial
- Marine Military Academy Iwo Jima monument
- USMC War Memorial photographs at WW2DB
- Marine Corps War Memorial (Marine Barracks Washington webpage)
- Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS) No. VA-9, "United States Marine Corps War Memorial, Marshall Drive, Arlington, Arlington County, VA"