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United States Military Standard

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A United States defense standard, often called a military standard, "MIL-STD", "MIL-SPEC", or (informally) "MilSpecs", is used to help achieve standardization objectives by the U.S. Department of Defense.

Standardization is beneficial in achieving interoperability, ensuring products meet certain requirements, commonality, reliability, total cost of ownership, compatibility with logistics systems, and similar defense-related objectives.

Defense standards are also used by other non-defense government organizations, technical organizations, and industry. This article discusses definitions, history, and usage of defense standards. Related documents, such as defense handbooks and defense specifications, are also addressed.

Definition of document types[edit]

Although the official definitions differentiate between several types of documents, all of these documents go by the general rubric of "military standard", including defense specifications, handbooks, and standards. Strictly speaking, these documents serve different purposes. According to the Government Accountability Office (GAO), military specifications "describe the physical and/or operational characteristics of a product", while military standards "detail the processes and materials to be used to make the product." Military handbooks, on the other hand, are primarily sources of compiled information and/or guidance. The GAO acknowledges, however, that the terms are often used interchangeably.

Official definitions are provided by DoD 4120.24,[1] Defense Standardization Program (DSP) Procedures, November 2014, USD (Acquisition, Technology and Logistics):

Acronym Type Definition [2]
MIL-HDBK Defense Handbook A document that provides standard procedural, technical, engineering, or design information about the materiel, processes, practices, and methods covered by the DSP. MIL-STD-967 covers the content and format for defense handbooks.
MIL-SPEC Defense Specification A document that describes the essential technical requirements for military-unique materiel or substantially modified commercial items. MIL-STD-961 covers the content and format for defense specifications.
MIL-STD Defense Standard A document that establishes uniform engineering and technical requirements for military-unique or substantially modified commercial processes, procedures, practices, and methods. There are five types of defense standards: interface standards, design criteria standards, manufacturing process standards, standard practices, and test method standards. MIL-STD-962 covers the content and format for defense standards.
MIL-PRF Performance Specification A performance specification states requirements in terms of the required results with criteria for verifying compliance but without stating the methods for achieving the required results. A performance specification defines the functional requirements for the item, the environment in which it must operate, and interface and interchangeability characteristics.
MIL-DTL Detail Specification A specification that states design requirements, such as materials to be used, how a requirement is to be achieved, or how an item is to be fabricated or constructed. A specification that contains both performance and detail requirements is still considered a detail specification.

For purposes of this article, "military standards" will include standards, specifications and handbooks.

There are also standard names with different letters behind ′MIL-′ like MIL-C-5040H, MIL-E-7016F or MIL-S-901.


The DOD has standards about the format of standards:

  • MIL-STD-961, Defense and Program-Unique Specifications Format and Content[3]
  • MIL-STD-962, Defense Standards Format and Content[4]
  • MIL-STD-967, Defense Handbooks Format and Content[5]

Origins and evolution[edit]

Defense standards evolved from the need to ensure proper performance, maintainability and reparability (ease of MRO), and logistical usefulness of military equipment. The latter two goals (MRO and logistics) favor certain general concepts, such as interchangeability, standardization (of equipment and processes, in general), cataloging, communications, and training (to teach people what is standardized, what is at their discretion, and the details of the standards). In the late 18th century and throughout the 19th, the American and French militaries were early adopters and longtime developmental sponsors and advocates of interchangeability and standardization. By World War II (1939–1945), virtually all national militaries and trans-national alliances of the same (Allied Forces, Axis powers) were busy standardizing and cataloguing. The U.S. AN- cataloguing system (Army-Navy) and the British Defence Standards (DEF-STAN) provide examples.

For example, due to differences in dimensional tolerances, in World War II American screws, bolts, and nuts did not fit British equipment properly and were not fully interchangeable.[6] Defense standards provide many benefits, such as minimizing the number of types of ammunition, ensuring compatibility of tools, and ensuring quality during production of military equipment. This results, for example, in ammunition and food cases that can be opened without tools; vehicle subsystems that can be quickly swapped into the place of damaged ones; and small arms and artillery that are less likely to find themselves with an excess of ammunition that does not fit and a lack of ammo that does.

However, the proliferation of standards also has some drawbacks. The main one is that they impose what is functionally equivalent to a regulatory burden upon the defense supply chain, both within the military and across its civilian suppliers. In the U.S. during the 1980s and early 1990s, it was argued that the large number of standards, nearly 30,000 by 1990, imposed unnecessary restrictions, increased cost to contractors (and hence the DOD, since the costs in the end pass along to the customer), and impeded the incorporation of the latest technology. Responding to increasing criticism, Secretary of Defense William J. Perry issued a memorandum in 1994 that prohibited the use of most military specifications and standards without a waiver.[7] This has become known as the "Perry Memorandum".[8] Many military specifications and standards were canceled. In their place, the DOD directed the use of performance specifications and non-government standards. "Performance specifications" describe the desired performance of the weapon, rather than describing how those goals would be reached (that is, directing which technology or which materials would be used). In 2005 the DOD issued a new memorandum,[9] which eliminated the requirement to obtain a waiver in order to use military specifications or standards. The 2005 memo did not reinstate any canceled military specifications or standards.

According to a 2003 issue of Gateway, published by the Human Systems Information Analysis Center,[10] the number of defense standards and specifications have been reduced from 45,500 to 28,300. However, other sources noted that the number of standards just before the Perry Memorandum was issued was less than 30,000, and that thousands have been canceled since then. This may be due to differences in what is counted as a "military standard".

Another potential drawback of thorough standardization is a threat analogous to monoculture (where lack of biodiversity creates higher risk of pandemic disease) or a ship without bulkhead compartmentalization (where even a small hull leak threatens the whole vessel). If an enemy discovers a drawback in a standardized system, the system's uniformity leaves it vulnerable to complete incapacitation via what might otherwise have been a limited compromise. Also, if standardization promotes use by allies, it may also ease an enemy's task of using materiel that is lost as a prize of war. However, this threat is somewhat academic, as even poorly standardized materiel presents a likelihood of supplying an enemy if overrun.

Non-exhaustive list of documents[edit]

A complete list of standards was maintained as Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards, up until 1993.[11]




  • MIL-PRF-38534, General Specification For Hybrid Microcircuits.
  • MIL-PRF-38535, General Specification For Integrated Circuits (Microcircuits) Manufacturing.
  • MIL-PRF-46374, Watch, Wrist: General Purpose.


  • MIL-C-5040H, now inactivated standard for Parachute cords.
  • MIL-E-7016F, pertains to the analysis of AC and DC loads on an aircraft.
  • MIL-I-17563C, Demonstrates a vacuum impregnation sealant is compatible with the application and that the sealant will not degrade or fail over the life of the part.[34]
  • MIL-S-901, Shock Testing for Shipboard Equipment.
  • MIL-S-82258, on rubber swim fins. "Requirements for swim fins made of gum rubber for wear by military personnel for swimming purposes and for general utility"

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Department of Defense MANUAL | Defense Standardization Program (DSP) Procedures" (PDF). Executive Services Directorate. September 24, 2014.
  2. ^ DOD 4120.24-M, (2000), "DSP Policies & Procedures", Office of the Undersecretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology and Logistics)
  3. ^ "ASSIST-QuickSearch Document Details". Quicksearch.dla.mil. Retrieved 2022-08-28.
  4. ^ "ASSIST-QuickSearch Document Details". Quicksearch.dla.mil. Retrieved 2022-08-28.
  5. ^ "ASSIST-QuickSearch Document Details". Quicksearch.dla.mil. Retrieved 2022-08-28.
  6. ^ British hardware since the early 20th century was made to BS standards, while American Hardware was made to ASA standards. Though similar, fasteners could often not be interchanged in high-precision, demanding applications until the development of the Unified Thread Standard in the late 1940s.
  7. ^ "SECDEF Memo Specifications & Standards – A New Way of Doing Business, DTD 29 Jun 94". Archived from the original on 2013-10-21. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
  8. ^ National Academies Press, The Impact of Acquisition Reform on Department of Defense Specifications and Standards for Materials and Processes: Report of the Workshop on Technical Strategies for Adoption of Commercial Materials and Processing Standards in Defense Procurement (2002): Appendix A: Perry Memorandum, accessed 14 September 2022
  9. ^ Elimination of Waivers to Cite Military Specifications and Standards [ACC]
  10. ^ "The Current State of Human Factors Standardization" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-10-17.
  11. ^ "Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards. Part 2. Numerical Listing". Archived from the original on 2018-06-03.
  12. ^ "Federal Supply Classification - Groups and Classes" (PDF). February 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-10-11.
  13. ^ "MIL-HDBK-310, MILITARY HANDBOOK: GLOBAL CLIMATIC DATA FOR DEVELOPING MILITARY PRODUCTS". Everyspec.com. US Government. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  14. ^ "MIL-HDBK-310 pdf" (PDF). Everyspec.com. US Government. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  15. ^ "MIL-STD-130: Identification Marking of U.S. Military Property". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  17. ^ "MIL-STD-348 : Radio Frequency (RF) Connector Interfaces". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  18. ^ "MIL-STD-461 : Requirements for the Control of Electromagnetic Interference Characteristics of Subsystems and Equipment". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  19. ^ "MIL-STD-464: Electromagnetic Environmental Effects Requirements for Systems". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  20. ^ "MIL-STD-498 : Software Development and Documentation". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  21. ^ "MIL-STD-704 : Aircraft Electric Power Characteristics". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  22. ^ "MIL-STD-806 : Graphical Symbols for Logic Diagrams". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  23. ^ The Magazine of standards, Volumes 30-31, American National Standards Institute, 1959, p.351, accessed at Google Books 2012-09-27
  24. ^ "MIL-STD-810 : Environmental Engineering Considerations and Laboratory Tests". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  25. ^ "MIL-STD-882: System Safety". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  26. ^ "Test Method Standard, Microcircuits - FSC 5962". Archived from the original on 2006-09-28.
  27. ^ "US Military Rifle Designations". GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on August 25, 2021. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  28. ^ "MIL-STD-1553 : Digital Time Division Command/Response Multiplex Data Bus". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  29. ^ "MIL-STD-1589 : JOVIAL Programming Language". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  30. ^ "MIL-STD-1750 : 16-Bit Computer Instruction Set Architecture". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  31. ^ "MIL-STD-1760 : Aircraft/Store Electrical Interconnection System". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  32. ^ "MIL-STD-1815 : Ada Programming Language". ASSIST Quick Search. Defense Logistics Agency. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  33. ^ Department of Defense Interface Standard: Joint Military Symbology (MIL-STD-2525D) (PDF). Washington, DC: US Government (published 10 June 2014). 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 January 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017.

Further reading[edit]

  • Christensen, David S., David A. Searle, and Caisse Vickery, (1999), "The impact of the Packard Commission's recommendations on reducing cost overruns on defense acquisition contracts", Acquisition Review Quarterly, v 6, no. 3:251-262. [1] Archived 2005-08-22 at the Wayback Machine
  • DOD 4120.24-M, (2000), "DSP Policies & Procedures", Office of the Undersecretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology and Logistics), March.
  • Fowler, Charles A., (1994), "Defense acquisition: Grab the ax", IEEE Spectrum, v 31, no. 10:55-59.
  • Kratz, Louis A., (2005), "Elimination of waivers to cite military specifications and standards in solicitations and contracts", Policy Memo 05-03, Assistant Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Logistics Plans and Programs), Department of Defense, recorded in Defense Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, July - August 2005, p 91. [2] Archived 2005-12-11 at the Wayback Machine
  • McNally, William P., (1998), "Will commercial specifications meet our future air power needs?", Acquisition Review Quarterly, v 5, no. 3:297-316. [3]
  • Perry, William, (1994), Memorandum from the Secretary of Defense to the Secretaries of the Military Departments, "Specifications & standards -- A new way of doing business", June 29, The Pentagon, Office of the Secretary of Defense. [4]
  • Poston, Alan, (2003), "The current state of human factors standardization", Gateway, Human Systems Information Analysis Center, v 14, no. 2:1-2. [5]
  • Reig, Raymond W., (2000), "Baselining acquisition reform", Acquisition Review Quarterly, v 7, no. 1:33-46. [6] Archived 2005-08-22 at the Wayback Machine
  • U.S. General Accounting Office, (1994), Acquisition Reform: DOD Begins Program to Reform Specifications and Standards, Report to Congressional Committees, October, GAO/NSIAD-95-14.
  • U.S. Department of Defense, (2000), MILSPEC Reform Final Report - An Ending: A New Beginning, April, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology & Logistics), Defense Standardization Office.
  • van Opstal, Debra, (1994), "Roadmap for MILSPEC reform: A national imperative", Program Manager, v 23, no. 1:10-13.

External links[edit]