United States Senate elections, 1912 and 1913

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United States Senate elections, 1912 and 1913
United States
← 1910 / 1911 January 16, 1912 –
January 29, 1913
1914 / 1915 →

32 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
(as well as special elections)

49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JohnWKern.jpg Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg
Leader John W. Kern
(Conference Chairman)
Jacob H. Gallinger
(Conference Chairman)
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Indiana New Hampshire
Seats before 43 52
Seats won 17 12
Seats after 47 45
Seat change Increase 4 Decrease 7
Seats up 13 19

US 1912 senate election map.svg
Results including special elections
     Democratic gains      Republican gains
     Democratic holds      Republican holds

Majority conference chairman before election

Shelby Moore Cullom
Republican

Elected Majority conference chairman

John W. Kern
Democratic

In the United States Senate elections of 1912 and 1913, Democrats gained control of the Senate from the Republicans. This coincided with Democrat Woodrow Wilson's victory in the presidential election amid a divide in the Republican Party. In the Senate, Joseph M. Dixon and Miles Poindexter defected from the Republican Party and joined Theodore Roosevelt's new Progressive Party. Dixon, however, lost his seat during this election.

Some states elected their Senators directly even before passage of the 17th Amendment in 1913. Oregon pioneered direct election and experimented with different measures over several years until it succeeded in 1907. Soon after, Nebraska followed suit and laid the foundation for other states to adopt measures reflecting the people's will. By 1912, as many as 29 states elected senators either as nominees of their party's primary or in conjunction with a general election.

This was the first time in 20 years that the Democrats won a majority in the Senate.

Results summary[edit]

Parties Total Seats
Incumbents This election Result +/-
Not up Up Re-
elected
Held Gained Lost
  Democratic 43 30 13 5 5 Increase 7 Decrease 2 47 Increase 4
  Republican 52 33 19 6 4 Increase 2 Decrease 7 45 Decrease 7
Others 0 0 0 0 0 Steady Steady 0 Steady
Vacant 1 1 0 Steady Steady Increase 3 Steady 4 Increase 3
Total 96 64 32 11 9 Increase 12 Decrease 9 96 Decrease 3

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the March 1912 elections to elect Senators from the new states of New Mexico and Arizona.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Ran
D37
Ran
D36
Ran
D35
Ran
D34
Ran
D33
Ran
D32
Ran
D31
Ran
D30 D29
D39
Ran
D40
Ran
D41
Retired
D42
Retired
D43
Retired
V1 R52
Retired
R51
Retired
R50
Retired
R49
Retired
Majority → R48
Retired
R39
Ran
R40
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R43
Ran
R44
Ran
R45
Ran
R46
Ran
R47
Retired
R38
Ran
R37
Ran
R36
Ran
R35
Ran
R34
Ran
R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Result of the general elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Hold
D37
Hold
D36
Hold
D35
Re-elected
D34
Re-elected
D33
Re-elected
D32
Re-elected
D31
Re-elected
D30 D29
D39
Hold
D40
Hold
D41
Gain
D42
Gain
D43
Gain
D44
Gain
D45
Gain
D46
Gain
V1 V2
D Loss
Majority with vacancies → D47
Gain
R39
Re-elected
R40
Hold
R41
Hold
R42
Hold
R43
Hold
R44
Gain
R45
Gain
V4
R Loss
V3
R Loss
R38
Re-elected
R37
Re-elected
R36
Re-elected
R35
Re-elected
R34
Re-elected
R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 V1
Seated late
V2
Majority with vacancies→ D47
R39 R40 R41 R42 P1
Changed
D49
Gain
D48
Gain
V4
Invalidated
V3
R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Beginning of the first session, April 7, 1913[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
R39 R40 R41 R42 R43
Gain
R44
Gain
P1 D51
Gain
D50
Gain
R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key:
D# Democratic
P# Progressive
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Complete list of races[edit]

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the 62nd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated in the 62nd Congress during 1912 or before March 4, 1913; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Virginia
(Class 1)
Claude A. Swanson Democratic 1910 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 23, 1912. Claude A. Swanson (Democratic)
Unopposed[1]
New Mexico
(Class 1)
New seat New senator elected March 27, 1912.
Republican gain.
√ (Class 2) Albert B. Fall (Republican) 39 votes
√ (Class 1) Thomas B. Catron (Republican) 38 votes
Felix Martinez (Democratic) 25 votes
Andrieus A. Jones (Democratic) 23 votes
William G. Mills[2] (Republican) 7 votes
Herbert J. Hagerman (Progressive Republican) 3 votes
L. Bradford Prince (Republican) 3 votes
Eugene Romero (Republican) 3 votes
W. H. Gillenwater (Progressive Republican) 2 votes
O.A. Larrazola (Republican) 2 votes
Jose D. Sena (Republican) 1 vote[1]
New Mexico
(Class 2)
New seat New senator elected March 27, 1912.
Republican gain.
Winner was also subsequently elected to the next term, see below.
Arizona
(Class 1)
New seat New senator elected March 26, 1912, ratifying the popular selection made in December 12, 1911 state elections.
Democratic gain.
Henry F. Ashurst (Democratic)
Unopposed[1]
In state elections:
Henry F. Ashurst (Democratic) 50.00%
Ralph Cameron (Republican) 44.33%
E. Johnson (Socialist) 5.67%[3]
Arizona
(Class 3)
New seat New senator elected March 26, 1912, ratifying the popular selection made in December 12, 1911 state elections.
Democratic gain.
Marcus A. Smith (Democratic)
Unopposed[1]
In state elections:
Marcus A. Smith (Democratic) 50.35%
Hoval A. Smith (Republican) 43.84%
E.B. Simonton (Socialist) 5.8%[3]
Maine
(Class 2)
Obadiah Gardner Democratic 1911 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected April 2, 1912.[4] Obadiah Gardner (Democratic) 98 votes
Frederick A. Powers (Republican) 5 votes[1]
Colorado
(Class 3)
Vacant Charles J. Hughes, Jr. (D) had died January 11, 1911.
New senator elected January 14, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.
Democratic gain.
Charles S. Thomas (Democratic) 28 votes
Waterman 4 votes
Vincent (Progressive) 1 vote[5]
In state elections:
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Newell Sanders Republican 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 23, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Winner did not run for election to the following term, see below.
William R. Webb (Democratic) 73 votes
M. T. Bryan (Democratic) 53 votes
J. A. Clements (Democratic) 1 vote
C. W. Tyler (Democratic) 1 vote[6]
Texas
(Class 2)
Rienzi Johnston Democratic 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected January 23, 1913.
Democratic hold.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Morris Sheppard (Democratic) 104 votes
Rienzi Johnston (Democratic) 66 votes[6]
Idaho
(Class 3)
Kirtland I. Perky Democratic 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected January 24, 1913.
Republican gain.
James H. Brady (Republican) 43 votes
James F. Ailshie 7 votes
John F. Nugent (Democratic) 5 votes
James E. Babb 5 votes
Robert N. Dunn 4 votes
E. H. Dewey 4 votes
J. T. Morrison 3 votes
Burton L. French 2 votes
James Hanrahan (Democratic) 2 votes
C. A. Beale 1 vote
George Fields 1 vote
J. F. Maclane 1 vote
T. L. Burkland 1 vote
W. C. Courtney 1 vote[5]
Arkansas
(Class 2)
John N. Heiskell Democratic 1913 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 27, 1913.
Democratic hold.
Winner did not run for election to the following term, see below.
William Kavanaugh (Democratic) 77 votes
Others 58 votes[5]
Nevada
(Class 1)
William A. Massey Republican 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected[7] January 28, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.
Democratic gain.
Key Pittman (Democratic) Unanimous except:
George Stale (Socialist) 2 votes
In state elections:
Key Pittman (Democratic) 39.78%
William A. Massey (Republican) 39.34%
George Stale (Socialist) 13.73%
S. Summerfield (Progressive) 7.15%[8]

In this early election, the winner was seated in the 64th Congress, starting March 4, 1915.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Louisiana
(Class 3)
John Thornton Democratic 1910 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected early May 21, 1912.
Democratic hold.
Robert F. Broussard (Democratic)
Unopposed[1]

Races leading to the 63rd Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1913; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama John H. Bankhead Democratic 1907 (Appointed)
1907 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected early January 17, 1911, for the term beginning March 4, 1913. John H. Bankhead (Democratic)
Unopposed[9]
Arkansas John N. Heiskell Democratic 1913 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 29, 1913.
Democratic hold.
Joseph T. Robinson (Democratic) 71 votes
Stephen Brundige (Democratic) 36 votes
Norwood 15 votes
Kirby 8 votes
Oldfield 1 vote
Martin 1 vote
Reid 1 vote
Taylor 1 vote[5]
Colorado Simon Guggenheim Republican 1907 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 14, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.[7]
Democratic gain.
John F. Shafroth (Democratic) 86 votes
Clyde Dawson (Republican) 11 votes
Frank Catlin (Progressive) 1 vote
Hunter (Democratic) 1 vote[5]
In state election:
John F. Shafroth (Democratic) 47.34%
Clyde Dawson (Republican) 26.8%
Frank Catlin (Progressive) 23.48%
Mary E. Miller (Prohibition) 2.38%[10]
Delaware Harry A. Richardson Republican 1907 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 29, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Willard Saulsbury, Jr. (Democratic) 28 votes
H. A. Richardson (Republican) 11 votes
John G. Townsend (Republican) 5 votes
Alfred I. du Pont (Republican) 3 votes
Alexander P. Corbit (Republican) 1 vote
Simeon S. Pennewill (Republican) 1 vote
Ruby R. Vale (Republican) 1 vote[5]
Georgia Augustus Bacon Democratic 1894
1900
1907 (Appointed)
1907 (Special)
Incumbent ran for re-election but the legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
Incumbent was then appointed to begin the term.[5]
Augustus Bacon (Democratic)
Idaho William Borah Republican 1907 Incumbent re-elected January 14, 1913. William Borah (Republican) 75 votes
George A. Tannahill (Democratic) 2 votes
Kirtland I. Perky (Democratic) 2 votes[5]
Illinois Shelby M. Cullom Republican 1882
1888
1894
1901
1907
Incumbent lost renomination.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
A new senator was later elected, see below.
Bernard Berlyn (Socialist)
Charles Boeschenstein (Democratic)
Frank H. Funk (Progressive)
J. Hamilton Lewis (Democratic)
McDonald (Socialist)
Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican)[5]
Iowa William S. Kenyon Republican 1911 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1913. William S. Kenyon (Republican)
D. W. Hamilton (Democratic)[5]
Kansas Charles Curtis Republican 1907 (Special)
1907
Incumbent lost re-election.[7]
New senator elected January 28, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.[7]
Democratic gain.
William H. Thompson (Democratic)
Walter R. Stubbs (Republican) 3 votes
Henry J. Allen (Progressive) 1 vote[11]
In state election:
William H. Thompson (Democratic) 49.34%
Walter R. Stubbs (Republican) 43.35%
Allan Ricker (Socialist) 7.32%[12]
Kentucky Thomas H. Paynter Democratic 1906 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 16, 1912.
Democratic hold.
Ollie James (Democratic) 105 votes
Edwin T. Morrow (Republican) 28 votes[1]
Louisiana Murphy J. Foster Democratic 1900
1904
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected May 21, 1912.
Democratic hold.
Joseph E. Ransdell (Democratic)
Unopposed[1]
Maine Obadiah Gardner Democratic 1911 (Appointed)
1912 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 15, 1913.
Republican gain.
Edwin C. Burleigh (Republican) 91 votes
Obadiah Gardner (Democratic) 82 votes
E.M. Thompson (Progressive) 7 votes[13]
Massachusetts Winthrop M. Crane Republican 1904 (Appointed)
1905 (Special)
1907
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 14, 1913.
Republican hold.
John W. Weeks (Republican)160 votes
Sherman L. Whipple (Democratic) 80 votes
John Graham Brooks (Progressive) 5 votes
John A. Keliher (Democratic) 1 vote
Joseph C. Pelletier (Democratic) 1 vote
Scattering 25 votes[13]
Michigan William A. Smith Republican 1911 Incumbent re-elected January 14, 1913. William A. Smith (Republican) 74 votes
Alfred Lucking (Democratic) 41 votes
Theodore Joslin (Progressive) 17 votes[13]
Minnesota Knute Nelson Republican 1895
1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.[7] Knute Nelson (Republican) 178 votes
In state election:
Knute Nelson (Republican) 62.8%
Daniel Lawler (Democratic) 37.2%[14]
Mississippi LeRoy Percy Democratic 1910 (Special) Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected January 16, 1912.
Democratic hold.
James K. Vardaman (Democratic)
Unopposed[1]
Montana Joseph M. Dixon Republican 1907 Incumbent lost re-election as a Progressive.[7]
New senator elected January 14, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.
Democratic gain.
Thomas J. Walsh (Democratic)
Unopposed[13]
In state election:
Thomas J. Walsh (Democratic) 41.17%
Joseph M. Dixon (Progressive) 32.1%
Henry C. Smith (Republican) 26.73%[15]
Nebraska Norris Brown Republican 1907 Incumbent lost renomination.[16]
New senator elected January 21, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.
Republican hold.
George W. Norris (Republican)
Unopposed[13]
In state election:
George W. Norris (Republican)
Ashton C. Shallenberger (Democratic)[17]
New Hampshire Henry E. Burnham Republican 1901
1907
Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
New senator was elected late, see below.
Robert P. Bass (Progressive)
Sherman E. Burroughs (Republican)
Clarence Carr (Democratic)
Henry F. Hollis (Democratic)
John H. Bartlett (Republican)
Edward N. Pearson (Republican)
William Swart (Independent)
Henry B. Quinby (Republican)
Gordon Woodbury (Democratic)
New Jersey Frank O. Briggs Republican 1907 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 28, 1913.
Democratic gain.
William Hughes (Democratic) 63 votes
Frank O. Briggs (Republican) 17 votes[13]
New Mexico Albert B. Fall Republican 1912 (New state) Incumbent re-elected June 6, 1912.
Legislature invalidated the election.
Incumbent then re-elected January 28, 1913.
January 28, 1913 election:
Albert B. Fall (Republican) 43 votes
Scattering 25 votes[13]
June 6, 1912 election:
Albert B. Fall (Republican) 40 votes
W. H. Andrews (Republican) 2 votes
R. L. Byea (Republican) 2 votes[1]
North Carolina Furnifold Simmons Democratic 1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1913. Furnifold Simmons (Democratic) 144 votes
Cyrus Thompson (Republican) 19 votes[13]
Oklahoma Robert L. Owen Democratic 1907 Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1913.[7] Robert L. Owen (Democratic)[13]
In state election:
Robert L. Owen (Democratic) 50.43%
Joseph Dickerson (Republican) 33.28%
John Wills (Socialist) 16.3%[18]
Oregon Jonathan Bourne, Jr. Republican 1907 Incumbent lost renomination and then lost re-election as Progressive.
New senator elected, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.[7]
Democratic gain.
Harry Lane (Democratic)[13]
In state election:
Harry Lane (Democratic) 30.07%
Ben Selling (Republican) 28.79%
Jonathan Bourne, Jr. (Progressive) 19.41%
Benjamin Ramp (Socialist) 8.31%
A. E. Clark (Progressive-WI) 8.3%
B. Lee Paget (Prohibition) 5.13%[19]
Rhode Island George P. Wetmore Republican 1894
1900
1907 (No election)
1908 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 21, 1913.[20]
Republican hold.
LeBaron B. Colt (Republican) 88 votes
Addison P. Munroe (Democratic) 42 votes
George W. Parks (Progressive) 7 votes[13]
South Carolina Benjamin Tillman Democratic 1894
1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected January 28, 1913. Benjamin Tillman (Democratic)
Unopposed[13]
South Dakota Robert J. Gamble Republican 1901
1907
Incumbent lost renomination.[21]
New senator elected January 22, 1913.
Republican hold.
Thomas Sterling (Republican) 97 votes[22]
Tennessee Newell Sanders Republican 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 23, 1913.
Democratic gain.
John K. Shields (Democratic) 69 votes
Charles T. Cates, Jr. (Independent Democratic) 61 votes[6]
Texas Rienzi Johnston Democratic 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 28, 1913.
Democratic hold.
Morris Sheppard (Democratic)
Unopposed[6]
Virginia Thomas S. Martin Democratic 1893 (Early)
1899 (Early)
1906
Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1912. Thomas S. Martin (Democratic)
Unopposed[23]
West Virginia Clarence Watson Democratic 1911 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 28, 1913.
Republican gain.
Winner took seat late.
Nathan Goff Jr. (Republican) 60 votes
Clarence W. Watson (Democratic) 43 votes
Robert W. Dailey (Democratic) 1 vote
John W. Davis (Democratic) 1 vote
John W. Hamilton (Democratic) 1 vote[6]
Wyoming Francis E. Warren Republican 1890
1893 (Lost)
1895
1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected January 28, 1913. Francis E. Warren (Republican) 45 votes
John B. Kendrick (Democratic) 38 votes[6]

Elections during the 63rd Congress[edit]

In these elections (some special, some merely late), the winners were seated in 1913 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect, see above.
New senator elected March 13, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Henry F. Hollis (Democratic) 189 votes
John H. Bartlett (Republican) 121 votes
Henry B. Quinby (Republican) 18 votes
Edward N. Pearson (Republican) 14 votes
Robert P. Bass (Progressive) 12 votes
Scattering 17 votes[13][24]
Illinois
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect, see above.
New senator elected March 26, 1913.
Democratic gain.
J. Hamilton Lewis (Democratic) 164 votes
Frank H. Funk (Progressive) 22 votes
Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican) 9 votes
Bernard Berlyn (Socialist) 4 votes[5]
Illinois
(Class 3)
Vacant 1909 election of William Lorimer (R) had been voided July 13, 1912.
New senator elected March 26, 1913.
Republican gain.
Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican) 143 votes
Charles Boeschenstein (Democratic) 25 votes
Frank H. Funk (Republican) 22 votes
McDonald (Socialist) 4 votes
Scattering 2 votes[5]
Georgia
(Class 2)
Augustus Bacon Democratic 1894
1900
1907 (Appointed)
1907 (Special)
1913 (Appointed)
Interim appointee re-elected July 15, 1913, in popular vote.[7] Augustus Bacon (Democratic)
Unopposed.[5]
Maryland
(Class 1)
William P. Jackson Republican 1912 (Appointed) Appointee retired when elected successor qualified.
New senator elected November 4, 1913 to finish the term ending March 3, 1917.
Winner did not qualify until January 28, 1914.[25]
Democratic gain.
Blair Lee (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races[edit]

Virginia[edit]

Virginia held non-binding primaries in September 1911 for the class 2 seat held by Democrat Thomas S. Martin, who was running for re-election, and the class 1 seat held by Democrat Claude Swanson, who had been appointed to fill a vacancy.[26] Claude A. Swanson won the Class 1 Democratic primary for the term ending in 1917 with 67,495 votes over Carter Glass's 28,757 votes.[27] Thomas S. Martin won the Class 2 Democratic primary for the term ending in 1919, receiving 57,120 votes to 25,005 for William Atkinson Jones. On January 24, 1912, the Virginia General Assembly unanimously elected both Swanson and Martin, thus ratifying the results of the primary.[28][29]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j United States Senators Chosen, 1912, p. 457.
  2. ^ [sic], probably "William J. Mills"
  3. ^ a b "AZ US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  4. ^ Byrd & Wolff, p. 118
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m United States Senators Chosen, 1913, p. 458.
  6. ^ a b c d e f United States Senators Chosen, 1913, p. 460.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Senator was selected by some form of direct voting and then subsequently elected by state legislatures.
  8. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=36483
  9. ^ United States Senators Chosen, 1911, p. 455.
  10. ^ "CO US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  11. ^ United States Senators Chosen, 1913, pp. 458–459.
  12. ^ "KS US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m United States Senators Chosen, 1913, p. 459.
  14. ^ "MN US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  15. ^ "MT US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  16. ^ "NE US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  17. ^ "NE US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  18. ^ "OK US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  19. ^ "OR US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  20. ^ The New York Times, January 22, 1913, p. 4.
  21. ^ "SD US Senate - R Primary". Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  22. ^ United States Senators Chosen, 1913, pp. 459–460.
  23. ^ "Anti-Saloon Men Heard at Richmond". Washington Gerald. Washington, DC. January 25, 1912. p. 1. (Subscription required (help)). 
  24. ^ "NH US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  25. ^ The Election Case of William P. Jackson v. Blair Lee of Maryland (1914)
  26. ^ "Martin-Swanson Majority Swells". Newport Daily Press. Newport News, Virginia. September 9, 1911. p. 1. (Subscription required (help)). 
  27. ^ Bell, James B. (1911). Congressional Directory, 62nd Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 107. 
  28. ^ "Return Martin to Senate: Virginia Assembly Re-Elects him Senator, also Elects Swanson". Belvidere Daily Republican. Belvidere, IL. January 25, 1912. p. 1. (Subscription required (help)). 
  29. ^ "Returned to United States Senate by Vieginia". New Philadelphia Daily Times. New Philadelphia, Ohio. January 25, 1912. p. 8. (Subscription required (help)). 

References[edit]