1914 United States Senate elections

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1914 United States Senate elections

← 1912/13 November 3, 1914 1916 →

34 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JohnWKern.jpg Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg
Leader John W. Kern[a] Jacob H. Gallinger[b]
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Indiana New Hampshire
Seats before 50 44
Seats won 19 15
Seats after 53 41
Seat change Increase 3 Decrease 3
Seats up 16 18

  Third party
 
Party Progressive
Seats before 1
Seats won 0
Seats after 1
Seat change Steady
Seats up 0

US 1914 senate election map.svg
Results of the elections:
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold
     No election

Majority conference chairman before election

John W. Kern
Democratic

Elected Majority conference chairman

John W. Kern
Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1914, with the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913, were the first time that all seats up for election were popularly elected instead of chosen by their state legislatures. These elections occurred in the middle of Democratic President Woodrow Wilson's first term.

Gains and losses[edit]

Three seats held by Republicans were won by Democrats:

One incumbent senator, not up for re-election, later changed from Progressive to Republican.

Senate Party Division, 64th Congress (1915–1917)[edit]

  • Majority Party: Democratic (55 seats)
  • Minority Party: Republican (41 seats)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 96

Change in composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Ariz.
Ran
D37
Ala. (sp)
Died
Ala. (reg)
Retired
D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39
Ark.
Ran
D40
Colo.
Ran
D41
Fla.
Ran
D42
Ga. (reg)
Ran
D43
Ga. (sp)
Retired
D44
Ind.
Ran
D45
Ky. (sp)
Ran
Ky. (reg)
Retired
D46
La.
Retired
D47
Md.
Ran
D48
Mo.
Ran
Majority → D49
Nev.
Ran
R39
Utah
Ran
R40
Vt.
Ran
R41
Wash.
Ran
R42
Wisc.
Ran
P1 D53
S.C.
Ran
D52
Ore.
Ran
D51
Okla.
Ran
D50
N.C.
Ran
R38
S.D.
Ran
R37
Pa.
Ran
R36
Ohio
Retired
R35
N.D.
Ran
R34
N.Y.
Retired
R33
N.H.
Ran
R32
Kan.
Ran
R31
Iowa
Ran
R30
Ill.
Ran
R29
Idaho
Ran
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27
Calif.
Retired
R28
Conn.
Ran
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Elections results[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Ariz.
Re-elected
D37
Ala. (sp)
Hold
Ala. (reg)
Hold
D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39
Ark.
Re-elected
D40
Calif.
Gain
D41
Colo.
Re-elected
D42
Fla.
Re-elected
D43
Ga. (reg)
Re-elected
D44
Ga. (sp)
Hold
D45
Ind.
Re-elected
D46
Ky. (sp)
Elected[c]
Ky. (reg)
Hold
D47
La.
Hold
D48
Md.
Re-elected
Majority → D49
Mo.
Re-elected
R39
Wash.
Re-elected
P1 D56
Wisc.
Gain
D55
S.D.
Gain
D54
S.C.
Re-elected
D53
Ore.
Re-elected
D52
Okla.
Re-elected
D51
N.C.
Re-elected
D50
Nev.
Re-elected
R38
Vt.
Re-elected
R37
Utah
Re-elected
R36
Pa.
Re-elected
R35
Ohio
Hold
R34
N.D.
Re-elected
R33
N.Y.
Hold
R32
N.H.
Re-elected
R31
Kan.
Hold
R30
Iowa
Re-elected
R29
Ill.
Re-elected
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27
Conn.
Re-elected
R28
Idaho
Re-elected
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
R39 R40
Gain[d]
D56 D55 D54 D53 D52 D51 D50
R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key
D# Democratic
P# Progressive
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Summary of races[edit]

Special elections during the 63rd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated once elected and qualified; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama
(Class 3)
Vacant Joseph F. Johnston (D) died August 8, 1913.
New senator elected May 11, 1914.
Democratic hold.
Georgia
(Class 2)
William West Democratic 1914 (Appointed) Appointee retired.
New senator elected November 3, 1914.
Democratic hold.
Kentucky
(Class 3)
Johnson N. Camden Jr. Democratic 1914 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 3, 1914.
Winner did not run for the next term, see below.

Races leading to the 64th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1915; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Francis S. White Democratic 1914 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Arizona Marcus A. Smith Democratic 1912 Incumbent re-elected.
Arkansas James Paul Clarke Democratic 1903
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
California George Clement Perkins Republican 1893 (Appointed)
1895 (Special)
1897
1903
1909
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Colorado Charles S. Thomas Democratic 1913 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Connecticut Frank B. Brandegee Republican 1905 (Special)
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
Florida Duncan U. Fletcher Democratic 1909 (Appointed)
1909 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia M. Hoke Smith Democratic 1911 (Special). Incumbent re-elected.
Idaho James H. Brady Republican 1913 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois Lawrence Y. Sherman Republican 1913 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana Benjamin F. Shively Democratic 1909 Incumbent re-elected.
Iowa Albert B. Cummins Republican 1908 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Kansas Joseph L. Bristow Republican 1909 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.[15]
Republican hold.
Kentucky Johnson N. Camden Jr. Democratic 1914 (Appointed)
1914 (Special)
Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Louisiana John Thornton Democratic 1910 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator had already been elected early May 21, 1912.
Democratic hold.
Maryland John W. Smith Democratic 1908 (Special)
1908
Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri William J. Stone Democratic 1903
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
Nevada Francis G. Newlands Democratic 1909 Incumbent re-elected.
New Hampshire Jacob Gallinger Republican 1891
1897
1903
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
New York Elihu Root Republican 1909 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
North Carolina Lee Slater Overman Democratic 1903
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
North Dakota Asle Gronna Republican 1911 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio Theodore E. Burton Republican 1909 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Oklahoma Thomas Gore Democratic 1907 (New state)
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
Oregon George Chamberlain Democratic 1909 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania Boies Penrose Republican 1897
1903
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina Ellison D. Smith Democratic 1909 Incumbent re-elected.
South Dakota Coe I. Crawford Republican 1909 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Utah Reed Smoot Republican 1903
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
Vermont William P. Dillingham Republican 1900 (Special)
1902
1908
Incumbent re-elected.
Washington Wesley Livsey Jones Republican 1909 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin Isaac Stephenson Republican 1907 (Special)
1909
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.

Alabama[edit]

Democrat Joseph F. Johnston died August 8, 1913. Democrat Henry D. Clayton was appointed August 12, 1913, but his appointment was challenged and withdrawn. Democrat Franklin P. Glass was appointed November 17, 1913, but the Senate refused to seat him.[35]

Alabama (Special)[edit]

Democrat Francis S. White was elected May 11, 1914 to finish the current term that would end in 1915.

Alabama (Regular)[edit]

Democrat Francis S. White was then re-elected in November 1914 to the next term.

Arizona[edit]

Arkansas[edit]

California[edit]

Colorado[edit]

Connecticut[edit]

Florida[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Georgia's senators
Thomas W. Hardwick
Thomas W. Hardwick won the special election
M. Hoke Smith
M. Hoke Smith won the regular election

There were two elections due to the February 14, 1914 death of Democrat Augustus Octavius Bacon.

Georgia (Special)[edit]

Democrat William West was appointed to continue the term pending a special election, in which he was not a candidate.

Democrat Thomas W. Hardwick was elected November 3, 1914 to finish the term that would end in 1919 and served until losing renomination in 1918.

Georgia (Regular)[edit]

Democrat M. Hoke Smith, who had first won in a 1911 special election, was re-elected and would serve until his 1920 renomination loss.

Idaho[edit]

Illinois[edit]

Indiana[edit]

Iowa[edit]

Kansas[edit]

Kentucky[edit]

Kentucky's class 3 senators
Johnson N. Camden
Johnson N. Camden won the special election
J. C. W. Beckham
J. C. W. Beckham won the regular election

There were 2 elections to the same seat due to the May 23, 1914 death of one-term Republican William O. Bradley.

Kentucky (Special)[edit]

Democrat Johnson N. Camden was appointed June 16, 1914 to continue the term, pending a special election

Camden was elected in November to finish the term ending 1915.

Kentucky (Regular)[edit]

Democratic appointee Johnson N. Camden was not a candidate for the next term, instead returning to agricultural activities on a farm.

Democrat John C. W. Beckham was elected and would serve until losing re-election in 1920.

Louisiana[edit]

The senator had already been elected on 21 May 1912 indirectly by the state legislature.

Maryland[edit]

Missouri[edit]

Nevada[edit]

New Hampshire[edit]

New York[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

North Dakota[edit]

Ohio[edit]

Ohio election

← 1909
1920 →
  Warren G Harding portrait as senator June 1920.jpg Timothy Sylvester Hogan (circa 1912).png Garford 2349965084 f3c8520a68 o.jpg
Nominee Warren G. Harding Timothy S. Hogan Arthur L. Garford
Party Republican Democratic Progressive
Popular vote 526,115 423,742 67,509
Percentage 49.16% 39.60% 6.31%

Ohio Senatorial Election Results by County, 1914.svg
County results

U.S. senator before election

Theodore E. Burton
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Warren G. Harding
Republican

Republican nominee Warren G. Harding, future President of the United States, defeated Democratic nominee Timothy S. Hogan to succeed retiring incumbent Republican Senator Theodore E. Burton.[36]

Initially, Harding was not interested in running for U.S. Senate, due to the divisive remnants of the 1912 elections between the conservative and progressive factions of the Republican party. Harry Daugherty, an Ohio political boss, was interested in running for the seat himself upon learning of incumbent Senator Theodore Burton's plans to retire upon the expiration of his term, but party leaders advised him not to run. Instead, Daugherty unsuccessfully attempted to stage a draft movement to convince Harding to run for the seat. After the death of Amos Kling, the father of Harding's wife Florence, she encouraged her husband to run. The precise reasoning for this is unknown, but some in Marion, the Hardings' home town, believe that Harding had agreed not to seek higher office as part of a reuniting "truce" between Florence and her father, or that Kling had convinced Harding that it would behoove him to further his business rather than run for public office.[37]

Although Daugherty claimed it was him who had convinced Harding to run for the Senate, Harding's friend and attorney Hoke Donithen, who eventually became Harding's campaign manager, may have played a role in his decision to run. Retiring Senator Theodore Burton also claimed credit, saying to his biographer that Daugherty did not agree to throw his support behind Harding until after learning he had backed him.[37]

The Republican primary was a three-way contest between Harding, former U.S. Senator and ex-mentor Joseph B. Foraker[38] and Ralph Cole. Rather than antagonizing his opponents, Harding notably tried to keep and make friends within the Republican party, to the frustration of those running against him. Ralph Cole, in his frustration, said, "If he is not going to fight someone, why did he enter the contest?"[37] Harding eventually defeated both of his opponents in the primary, garnering 88,540 votes. Foraker finished in second with 76,817 votes, ahead of Cole with 52,237.[37]

In the general election campaign, Harding faced Democratic nominee Timothy Hogan and Progressive candidate Arthur Garford. Hogan was subject to anti-Catholic sentiment among voters, which Harding himself did not exhibit during the course of the election. Harding's supporters accused Hogan of wanting to "deliver Ohio to the Pope."[39] Harding downplayed the issue of World War I, despite the fact that the election took place just after the outbreak of the war, due to the high German immigrant population. Harding ultimately won the election and subsequently became the first United States Senator from Ohio to be popularly elected, following the passage of the 17th Amendment to the Constitution.[38]

Harding's victory in his bid for the Senate seat raised speculation that he would seek higher office, specifically the Presidency, although Harding himself did not show any interest in doing so at the time. He told family and friends after being elected to the Senate that he would return to his previous career in newspaper publishing at The Marion Daily Star after serving in the Senate.[37]

Oklahoma[edit]

Oregon[edit]

Pennsylvania[edit]

South Carolina[edit]

South Dakota[edit]

Utah[edit]

Vermont[edit]

Washington[edit]

Wisconsin[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ as Democratic Conference Chairman
  2. ^ as Republican Conference Chairman
  3. ^ Appointee elected
  4. ^ Miles Poindexter of Washington changed from Progressive to Republican.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "GA US Senate - Special Election Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  2. ^ "Container Detail Page". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  3. ^ "AL Senate Race - Nov 08, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  4. ^ "AZ US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  5. ^ "AR US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  6. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  7. ^ "CO US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  8. ^ "CT US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  9. ^ "FL US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  10. ^ "GA US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  11. ^ "ID US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  12. ^ "IL US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  13. ^ "IN US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  14. ^ "IA US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  15. ^ "BRISTOW, Joseph Little - Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. March 3, 1915. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  16. ^ "KS US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  17. ^ "KY US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  18. ^ United States Senators Chosen, 1912, p. 457.
  19. ^ "LA US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  20. ^ "MD US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  21. ^ "MO US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  22. ^ "NV US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  23. ^ "NH US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  24. ^ "NC US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  25. ^ "ND US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  26. ^ "OH US Senate Race - Nov 08, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  27. ^ "OK US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  28. ^ "OR US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  29. ^ "SD US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  30. ^ "CRAWFORD, Coe Isaac - Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  31. ^ "UT US Senate 2 Race - Nov 02, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  32. ^ "VT US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  33. ^ "WA US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  34. ^ "WI US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  35. ^ Byrd, p. 340.
  36. ^ Dubin, Michael J. (1998). United States congressional elections, 1788-1997 : the official results of the elections of the 1st through 105th congresses. Jefferson, NC [u.a.]: McFarland. p. 407. ISBN 0786402830.
  37. ^ a b c d e Dean, John W. (2004). Warren G. Harding (1. ed.). New York: Times Books. pp. 34–37. ISBN 0805069569. 1914 harding hogan.
  38. ^ a b Russell, Francis (1962). The Shadow of Blooming Grove: Warren G. Harding In His Times. Easton Press. ISBN 0-07-054338-0.
  39. ^ "Life Before the Presidency". American President: Warren Gamaliel Harding. American President: A Reference Resource. Retrieved June 12, 2012.

Bibliography[edit]