1916 United States Senate elections

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1916 United States Senate elections

← 1914 November 7, 1916[a] 1918 →

35 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JohnWKern.jpg Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg
Leader John W. Kern[b]
(lost re-election)
Jacob H. Gallinger[c]
Party Democratic Republican
Leader since March 4, 1911 March 4, 1911
Leader's seat Indiana New Hampshire
Seats before 56 40
Seats won 17 18
Seats after 54 42
Seat change Decrease 2 Increase 2
Seats up 19 16

1916 United States Senate elections results map.svg
Results of the elections:
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold
     No election

Majority conference chairman before election

John W. Kern
Democratic

Elected Majority conference chairman

Thomas S. Martin
Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1916 were elections that coincided with the re-election of Democratic President Woodrow Wilson. Republicans gained a net of two seats from the Democrats.

Senate Party Division, 65th Congress (1917–1919)[edit]

Majority Party: Democratic (54 seats)

Minority Party: Republican (42 seats)

Other Parties: 0

Total Seats: 96

Gains and losses[edit]

Republicans picked up seven seats:

Democrats picked up five seats:

Change in composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Ariz.
Ran
D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39
Ark. (sp)
Died
D40
Ind. (sp)
Ran
D41
Fla.
Ran
D42
Ind. (reg)
Ran
D43
Maine (reg)
Ran
D44
Md.
Ran
D45
Miss.
Ran
D46
Mo.
Ran
D47
Mont.
Ran
D48
Neb.
Ran
Majority → D49
Nev.
Ran
R39
Wis.
Ran
R40
Wyo.
Ran
D56
W.Va.
Ran
D55
Va.
Ran
D54
Texas
Ran
D53
Tenn.
Ran
D52
Ohio
Ran
D51
N.Y.
Retired
D50
N.J.
Ran
R38
Wash.
Ran
R37
Vt.
Ran
R36
Utah
Ran
R35
R.I.
Ran
R34
Pa.
Retired
R33
N.D.
Ran
R32
N.M.
Retired
R31
Minn.
Ran
R30
Mich.
Ran
R29
Mass.
Ran
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
Calif.
Retired
R26
Conn.
Ran
R27
Del.
Ran
R28
Maine (sp)
Died
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Elections results[edit]

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Ariz.
Re-elected
D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39
Ark. (sp)
Hold
D40
Del.
Gain
D41
Fla.
Hold
D42
Miss.
Re-elected
D43
Mo.
Re-elected
D44
Mont.
Re-elected
D45
Neb.
Re-elected
D46
Nev.
Re-elected
D47
N.M.
Gain
D48
Ohio
Re-elected
Majority → D49
R.I.
Gain
R39
Vt.
Re-elected
R40
Wash.
Re-elected
R41
W.Va.
Gain
R42
Wis.
Re-elected
D54
Wyo.
Gain
D53
Va.
Re-elected
D52
Utah
Gain
D51
Texas
Re-elected
D50
Tenn.
Hold
R38
Pa.
Hold
R37
N.D.
Re-elected
R36
N.Y.
Gain
R35
N.J.
Gain
R34
Minn.
Hold
R33
Mich.
Re-elected
R32
Mass.
Re-elected
R31
Md.
Gain
R30
Maine (sp)
Hold
R29
Maine (reg)
Gain
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
Calif.
Hold
R26
Conn.
Re-elected
R27
Ind. (reg)
Gain
R28
Ind. (sp)
Gain
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key
D# Democratic
R# Republican

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 64th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated during 1916 or before March 4, 1917; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Maine
(Class 2)
Edwin C. Burleigh Republican 1913 Incumbent died June 16, 1916.
A new senator elected September 11, 1916.
Republican hold.
Arkansas
(Class 3)
James Paul Clarke Democratic 1903
1909
1914
Incumbent died October 1, 1916.
New senator elected November 7, 1916.
Democratic hold.
Indiana
(Class 3)
Thomas Taggart Democratic 1916 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish term.
New senator elected November 7, 1916.
Republican gain.

Elections leading to the 65th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1917; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Arizona Henry F. Ashurst Democratic 1912 Incumbent re-elected.
California John D. Works Republican 1911 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Connecticut George P. McLean Republican 1911 Incumbent re-elected.
Delaware Henry A. du Pont Republican 1906 (Special)
1911
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Florida Nathan P. Bryan Democratic 1911 (Appointed)
1911 (Late)
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Indiana John W. Kern Democratic 1911 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Maine Charles Fletcher Johnson Democratic 1911 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected September 11, 1916.
Republican gain.
Maryland Blair Lee I Democratic 1913 (Special) Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Massachusetts Henry Cabot Lodge Republican 1893
1899
1905
1911
Incumbent re-elected
Michigan Charles E. Townsend Republican 1911 Incumbent re-elected.[13]
Minnesota Moses E. Clapp Republican 1901 (Special)
1905
1911
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Mississippi John Sharp Williams Democratic 1908 (Early) Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri James A. Reed Democratic 1911 Incumbent re-elected.
Montana Henry L. Myers Democratic 1911 Incumbent re-elected.
Nebraska Gilbert Hitchcock Democratic 1911 Incumbent re-elected.
Nevada Key Pittman Democratic 1913 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
New Jersey James Edgar Martine Democratic 1911 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
New Mexico Thomas B. Catron Republican 1912 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
New York James Aloysius O'Gorman Democratic 1911 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
North Dakota Porter J. McCumber Republican 1911 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio Atlee Pomerene Democratic 1911 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania George T. Oliver Republican 1909 (Special)
1911
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Rhode Island Henry F. Lippitt Republican 1911 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee Luke Lea Democratic 1911 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.[25]
Democratic hold.
Texas Charles Allen Culberson Democratic 1899
1905
1911
Incumbent re-elected.
Utah George Sutherland Republican 1905
1911
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Vermont Carroll S. Page Republican 1908 (Special)
1910
Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia Claude A. Swanson Democratic 1910 (Appointed)
1911 (Appointed)
1912 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected.
Washington Miles Poindexter Republican 1911 Incumbent re-elected.
West Virginia William E. Chilton Democratic 1911 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Wisconsin Robert M. La Follette, Sr. Republican 1905
1911
Incumbent re-elected.
Wyoming Clarence D. Clark Republican 1911 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.

Arizona[edit]

Arkansas (Special)[edit]

Three-term Democratic Senate President pro tempore James Paul Clarke died October 1, 1916.

Democrat William F. Kirby was elected November 7, 1916 to finish the term. He served only the rest of this term, losing renomination in 1920.

California[edit]

Connecticut[edit]

Delaware[edit]

Florida[edit]

Indiana[edit]

Indiana senators
James Eli Watson
James Eli Watson, winner of the class 3 special election
Frederick Hale
Harry Stewart New, winner of the class 1 regular election

There were two elections held November 7, 1916 due to a vacancy. The elections converted both seats from Democratic to Republican, thus marking the first time since the popular-election of Senators was mandated by the Seventeenth Amendment three years earlier that both Senate seats in a state flipped from one party to the other in a single election cycle.

Indiana (Special)[edit]

Two-term Democrat Benjamin F. Shively was re-elected in 1914 but died March 14, 1916. Democrat Thomas Taggart was appointed March 20, 1916 to continue the term until a November 7, 1916 special election. Taggart lost the special election to Republican James Eli Watson.

Watson would finish out the term, be re-elected twice, and serve until his 1932 re-election loss.

Indiana (Regular)[edit]

One-term Democrat John W. Kern was elected in 1911. He lost re-election to Republican Harry Stewart New.

New served only until losing renomination in 1922.

Maine[edit]

Maine senators
Bert M. Fernald
Bert M. Fernald, winner of the class 2 special election
Frederick Hale
Frederick Hale, winner of the class 1 regular election

There were two elections due to a vacancy. Both elections were held September 11, 1916, as Maine routinely held its annual elections in September at the time.

Maine (Special)[edit]

One-term Republican Edwin C. Burleigh was elected in 1913, and died June 16, 1916. Republican Bert M. Fernald was elected September 12, 1916 to finish the term.

Fernand would later be re-elected twice and serve until his 1926 death.

Maine (Regular)[edit]

One-term Democrat Charles Fletcher Johnson was elected in 1911. He lost re-election to Republican Frederick Hale.

Hale would later be re-elected three times and serve until his 1935 retirement.

Maryland[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

Michigan[edit]

Minnesota[edit]

Mississippi[edit]

Missouri[edit]

Montana[edit]

Nebraska[edit]

Nevada[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

New Mexico[edit]

New York[edit]

North Dakota[edit]

Ohio[edit]

Pennsylvania[edit]

Rhode Island[edit]

Tennessee[edit]

Texas[edit]

Utah[edit]

Vermont[edit]

The 1916 United States Senate election in Vermont took place on November 7, 1916.[35] It was the second direct election for the U.S. Senate to take place in Vermont following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution and the first for Vermont's Class I seat. The incumbent, Republican Carroll S. Page successfully ran for re-election to a second full term.[36]

In the primary election, which was held on September 11, Page gained re-nomination by winning 62 percent of the vote to defeat former governor Allen M. Fletcher (20.3) and current governor Charles W. Gates (17.7).[37]

With the Republican Party dominant in Vermont, as it had been since its founding in the 1850s, Democratic candidate Oscar C. Miller was little more than a token opponent for Page.[38] In the general election, Page defeated Miller 74.4 percent to 23.5.[36]

Virginia[edit]

Virginia election

  Claude Augustus Swanson.jpg
Nominee Claude A. Swanson
Party Democratic
Popular vote 133,061
Percentage 100.0%

U.S. senator before election

Claude A. Swanson
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Claude A. Swanson
Democratic

Virginia election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Claude A. Swanson (incumbent) 133,061 100.00
Total votes 133,061 100.00
Democratic hold

Washington[edit]

Washington election
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg
← 1911
1922 →
  MilesPoindexter.jpg George Turner (U.S. politician).jpg
Nominee Miles Poindexter George Turner
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 202,287 135,339
Percentage 55.4% 37.1%

 
Nominee Bruce Rogers
Party Socialist
Popular vote 21,709
Percentage 6.0%

U.S. senator before election

Miles Poindexter
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Miles Poindexter
Republican

Washington election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Miles Poindexter (incumbent) 202,287 55.39
Democratic George Turner 135,339 37.06
Socialist Bruce Rogers 21,709 5.95
Prohibition Joseph A. Campbell 4,411 1.21
Progressive Walter J. Thompson 1,442 0.40
Majority 66,948 18.33
Total votes 365,188 100.00
Republican hold

West Virginia[edit]

West Virginia election

← 1911
1922 →
  HowardSutherland.jpg WilliamEChilton.jpg
Nominee Howard Sutherland William E. Chilton
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 144,243 138,585
Percentage 50.1% 48.2%

U.S. senator before election

William E. Chilton
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Howard Sutherland
Republican

West Virginia election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Howard Sutherland 144,243 50.14
Democratic William E. Chilton (incumbent) 138,585 48.17
Socialist G. A. Gneiser 4,881 1.70
Majority 5,658 1.97
Total votes 287,709 100.00
Republican gain from Democratic

Wisconsin[edit]

Wisconsin election

← 1911
1922 →
  Famous Living Americans - Robert M. LaFollette.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Robert M. La Follette William F. Wolfe
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 249,906 134,611
Percentage 59.2% 31.9%

 
Nominee Richard Elsner
Party Socialist
Popular vote 28,908
Percentage 6.9%

U.S. senator before election

Robert M. La Follette
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Robert M. La Follette
Republican

Wisconsin election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Robert M. La Follette (incumbent) 249,906 59.23
Democratic William F. Wolfe 134,611 31.90
Socialist Richard Elsner 28,908 6.85
Prohibition Charles L. Hill 8,528 2.02
Majority 115,295 27.32
Total votes 421,953 100.00
Republican hold

Wyoming[edit]

Wyoming election

← 1911
1922 →
  JohnBKendrick.jpg Clarence Don Clark.jpg
Nominee John B. Kendrick Clarence D. Clark
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 26,324 23,258
Percentage 51.5% 45.5%

U.S. senator before election

Clarence D. Clark
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

John B. Kendrick
Democratic

Wyoming election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John B. Kendrick 26,324 51.47
Republican Clarence D. Clark (incumbent) 23,258 45.47
Socialist Paul L. Paulsen 1,334 2.61
Prohibition Arthur B. Campbell 231 0.45
Majority 3,066 5.99
Total votes 51,147 100.00
Democratic gain from Republican

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ME US Senate - Special Election Race - September 11, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  2. ^ "AR US Senate Special Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  3. ^ "IN US Senate - Special Election Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  4. ^ "AZ US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  5. ^ "CA US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  6. ^ "CT US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  7. ^ "DE US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  8. ^ "FL US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  9. ^ "IN US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  10. ^ "ME US Senate Race - September 11, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  11. ^ "MD US Senate - D Primary Race - May 1, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  12. ^ "MD US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  13. ^ a b "MA US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  14. ^ "MN US Senate - R Primary Race - June 19, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  15. ^ "MN US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  16. ^ "MS US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  17. ^ "MO US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  18. ^ "MT US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  19. ^ "NE US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  20. ^ "NV US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  21. ^ "NJ US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  22. ^ "NM US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  23. ^ "ND US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  24. ^ "OH US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  25. ^ a b "PA US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  26. ^ "RI US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  27. ^ "TX US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  28. ^ "UT US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  29. ^ "VT US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  30. ^ "VA US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  31. ^ "WA US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  32. ^ "WV US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  33. ^ "WI US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  34. ^ "WY US Senate Race - November 7, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  35. ^ "Fair Weather for Today's Election -- Fair Weather Assured". The Burlington Free Press. Burlington, VT. November 7, 1916. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com.
  36. ^ a b "Vote for U.S. Senator". The Burlington Free Press. Burlington, VT. January 4, 1917. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com.
  37. ^ "State Primary Official Vote". Rutland Herald. Rutland, VT. September 19, 1916. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com.
  38. ^ Hand, Samuel B (Fall 1980). "The Mechanisms of Control: The Mountain Rule" (PDF). Vermont History. Vermont Historical Society: Montpelier, VT. p. 198 – via Newspapers.com.