United States Senate elections, 1918

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United States Senate elections, 1918
United States
← 1916 November 5, 1918[1] 1920 / 1921 →

32 of the 96 seats in the U.S. Senate
(as well as special elections)

49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Henry Cabot Lodge c1916.jpg Oscar W. Underwood.jpg
Leader Henry Cabot Lodge
(Unofficial)
Oscar Underwood
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Massachusetts Alabama
Seats before 44 52
Seats won 18 14
Seats after 48 48
Seat change Increase 4 Decrease 4
Seats up 14 18

US 1918 senate election map.svg
Results including special elections
     Democratic gains      Republican gains
     Democratic holds      Republican holds

Majority leader before election

Thomas S. Martin
(as Conference Chairman)
Democratic

Elected Majority leader

Henry Cabot Lodge
(Unofficial)
Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1918[1] were held November 5, 1918 coinciding with the midpoint of Woodrow Wilson's second term as President of the United States. The Republican Party gained control with a slim 2-seat majority after picking up a net six seats. The change in control was particularly important, as it meant that the Republicans were in a position to deny entry of the United States into the League of Nations, the centerpiece of Wilson's post-war foreign policy. It was the first election in which all Class 2 senators were subject to direct election following the enactment of the Seventeenth Amendment, making them the final class under the old system.

Gains and losses[edit]

Republicans gained seven seats:

Democrats gained one seat:

Senate Party Division, 66th Congress (1919–1921)[edit]

Majority Party: Republican (49 seats)

Minority Party: Democratic (47 seats)

Other Parties: 0

Total Seats: 96

Source: United States Senate Official Website

Note: These numbers represent composition as result of 1918 Senatorial Elections. Actual composition often changes during term, due to deaths, resignations or party shifting.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

Before the November 5, 1918 general election.

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Ran
D37
Ran
D36
Ran
D35
Ran
D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39
Ran
D40
Ran
D41
Ran
D42
Ran
D43
Ran
D44
Ran
D45
Ran
D46
Ran
D47
Ran
D48
Ran
Majority → D49
Ran
R39
Ran
R40
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Retired
R43
Retired
R44
Retired
D52
Retired
D51
Retired
D50
Ran
R38
Ran
R37
Ran
R36
Ran
R35
Ran
R34
Ran
R33
Ran
R32
Ran
R31
Ran
R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

After the general elections[edit]

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Re-elected
D37
Re-elected
D36
Re-elected
D35
Re-elected
D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39
Re-elected
D40
Re-elected
D41
Re-elected
D42
Re-elected
D43
Re-elected
D44
Hold
D45
Hold
D46
Hold
D47
Hold
D48
Gain
Majority with VP vote ↑
R39
Hold
R40
Hold
R41
Hold
R42
Retired
R43
Retired
R44
Retired
R45
Gain
R46
Gain
R47
Gain
R48
Gain
R38
Re-elected
R37
Re-elected
R36
Re-elected
R35
Re-elected
R34
Re-elected
R33
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R31
Re-elected
R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

After the special elections[edit]

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44
Appointee elected
D45
Appointee elected
D46
Hold
D47
Hold
R49
Gain
Majority →
R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 R44 R45 R46
Hold
R47
Hold
R48
Appointee elected
R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican

Complete list of races[edit]

Special elections during the 65th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated during 1918 or before March 4, 1919; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Wisconsin
(Class 3)
Paul O. Husting Democratic 1914 Incumbent died October 21, 1917.
New senator elected April 2, 1918.
Republican gain.
Irvine Lenroot (Republican)
Joseph E. Davies (Democratic)
Idaho
(Class 3)
John F. Nugent Democratic 1918 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 5, 1918. John F. Nugent (Democratic), 50.5%
Frank R. Gooding (Republican), 49.5%[2]
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Walter Guion Democratic 1918 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 5, 1918.
Democratic hold.
Edward James Gay Jr. (Democratic)
Unopposed[3]
Missouri
(Class 3)
Xenophon P. Wilfley Democratic 1918 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost nomination.
New senator elected November 5, 1918.
Republican gain.
Selden P. Spencer (Republican), 52.39%
Joseph W. Folk (Democratic), 46.29%
Caleb Lipscomb (Socialist), 1.16%
William Wesley Cox (Socialist Labor), 0.16%[4]
Nevada
(Class 3)
Charles Henderson Democratic 1918 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 5, 1918. Charles Henderson (Democratic), 47.71%
Edwin E. Roberts (Republican), 31.5%
Anne Martin (Independent), 18.01%
Martin Scanlan (Socialist), 2.78%[5]
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Irving W. Drew Republican 1918 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 5, 1918.
Republican hold.
George H. Moses (Republican), 50.76%
John B. Jameson (Democratic), 49.24%[6]
New Jersey
(Class 2)
David Baird Republican 1918 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 5, 1918. David Baird (Republican), 49.17%
Charles O. Hennessy (Democratic), 44.64%
James M. Reilly (Socialist), 3.82%
Grafton Day (Prohibition), 2.38%[7]
Oregon
(Class 2)
Charles L. McNary Republican 1917 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 5, 1918.
Republican hold.
Winner subsequently resigned so winner of the general election could be appointed early.
Frederick W. Mulkey (Republican), 84.53%
Martha Bean (Socialist), 15.47%[8]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Christie Benet Democratic 1918 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected November 5, 1918.
Democratic hold.
William P. Pollock (Democratic)
Unopposed

Elections leading to the 66th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1919; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama John H. Bankhead Democratic 1907 (Appointed)
1907 (Special)
1911 (Early)
Incumbent re-elected. John H. Bankhead (Democratic)
Unopposed[9]
Arkansas Joseph Robinson Democratic 1913 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph Robinson (Democratic)
Unopposed[10]
Colorado John F. Shafroth Democratic 1913 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Lawrence C. Phipps (Republican), 49.49%
John F. Shafroth (Democratic), 47.94%
P. A. Richardson (Prohibition), 2.58%[11]
Delaware Willard Saulsbury, Jr. Democratic 1913 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
L. Heisler Ball (Republican), 51.17%
Willard Saulsbury, Jr. (Democratic), 47.83%
William H. Connor (Socialist), 1%[12]
Georgia Thomas W. Hardwick Democratic 1914 (Special) Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
William J. Harris (Democratic), 88.34%
G. H. Williams (Republican), 11.66%[13]
Idaho William Borah Republican 1907
1913
Incumbent re-elected. William Borah (Republican), 67.21%
Frank L. Moore (Democratic), 32.79%[14]
Illinois J. Hamilton Lewis Democratic 1913 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Joseph M. McCormick (Republican), 50.5%
J. Hamilton Lewis (Democratic), 44.92%
William B. Lloyd (Socialist), 3.91%
John M. Francis (Socialist Labor), 0.34%[15]
Iowa William S. Kenyon Republican 1911 (Special)
1913
Incumbent re-elected. William S. Kenyon (Republican), 65.4%
Charles Rollin Keyes (Democratic), 34.6%[16]
Kansas William Thompson Democratic 1913 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Arthur Capper (Republican), 63.69%
William Thompson (Democratic), 33.73%
Eva Harding (Socialist), 2.58%[17]
Kentucky George B. Martin Democratic 1918 (Appointed) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Augustus O. Stanley (Democratic), 50.77%
Ben Bruner (Republican), 49.23%[18]
Louisiana Joseph E. Ransdell Democratic 1912 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph E. Ransdell (Democratic)
Unopposed[19]
Maine Bert M. Fernald Republican 1916 (Special) Incumbent re-elected September 9, 1918. Bert M. Fernald (Republican), 55.4%
Earl Newbert (Democratic), 44.6%[20]
Massachusetts John W. Weeks Republican 1913 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
David I. Walsh (Democratic), 49.67%
John W. Weeks (Republican), 45.07%
Thomas W. Lawson (Independent), 5.26%[21]
Michigan William Alden Smith Republican 1911
1913
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Truman Handy Newberry (Republican), 50.19%
Henry Ford (Democratic), 48.47%
E. O. Foss (Socialist), 1.09%
William Faull (Prohibition), 0.26%[22]
Minnesota Knute Nelson Republican 1895
1901
1907
1913
Incumbent re-elected. Knute Nelson (Republican), 60.05%
Willis Calderwood (Nationalist), 39.95%[23]
Mississippi James K. Vardaman Democratic 1912 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.[24]
Democratic hold.
Pat Harrison (Democratic), 95.04%
Summer W. Rose (Socialist), 4.96%
Democratic hold[25]
Montana Thomas J. Walsh Democratic 1913 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas J. Walsh (Democratic), 41.07%
Oscar Lanstrum (Republican), 35.79%
Jeannette Rankin (Nationalist), 23.14%[26]
Nebraska George W. Norris Republican 1913 Incumbent re-elected. George W. Norris (Republican), 54.52%
John H. Morehead (Democratic), 45.49%[27]
New Hampshire Henry F. Hollis Democratic 1913 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Henry W. Keyes (Republican), 53.54%
Eugene Elliott Reed (Democratic), 46.46%[28]
New Jersey David Baird Republican 1918 (Appointed)
1918 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Walter Evans Edge (Republican), 50.34%
George M. La Monte (Democratic), 43.23%
James M. Reilly (Socialist), 4.14%
Grafton Day (Prohibition), 1.62%
William J. Wallace (Single Tax), 0.66%[29]
New Mexico Albert B. Fall Republican 1912 (New state)
1912 (Long term)
Invalidated.
1913 (Long term)
Incumbent re-elected. Albert B. Fall (Republican), 51.4%
William B. Walton (Democratic), 47.48%
W. P. Metcalf (Socialist), 1.12%[30]
North Carolina Furnifold Simmons Democratic 1901
1907
1913
Incumbent re-elected. Furnifold Simmons (Democratic), 60.5%
John M. Morehead (Republican), 39.5%[31]
Oklahoma Robert L. Owen Democratic 1907
1913
Incumbent re-elected. Robert Latham Owen (Democratic), 55.44%
W. B. Johnson (Republican), 40.73%
C. M. Greenland (Socialist), 3.83%[32]
Oregon Charles L. McNary Republican 1917 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected to the next term but not to finish the term.
Winner subsequently appointed to begin next term early when winner of the special election, see above, resigned.
Charles L. McNary (Republican), 54.17%
Oswald West (Democratic), 42.3%
Albert Slaughter (Socialist), 3.53%[33]
Rhode Island LeBaron B. Colt Republican 1913 Incumbent re-elected. LeBaron B. Colt (Republican), 51.76%
George F. O'Shaunessy (Democratic), 46.24%
Frederick W. Hunt (Socialist), 2%[34]
South Carolina Christie Benet Democratic 1918 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Nathaniel B. Dial (Democratic)
Unopposed
South Dakota Thomas Sterling Republican 1913 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Sterling (Republican), 55.07%
W. T. Rinehart (Democratic), 38.95%
Orville Rafferty (Independent), 5.98%[35]
Tennessee John K. Shields Democratic 1913 Incumbent re-elected. John K. Shields (Democratic), 62.17%
Henry Clay Evans (Republican), 37.83%[36]
Texas Morris Sheppard Democratic 1913 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Morris Sheppard (Democratic), 86.69%
J. Webster Flanagan (Republican), 12.41%
M. A. Smith (Socialist), 0.9%[37]
Virginia Thomas S. Martin Democratic 1893 (Early)
1899 (Early)
1906
1912
Incumbent re-elected. Thomas S. Martin (Democratic)
Unopposed[38]
West Virginia Nathan Goff, Jr. Republican 1913 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Davis Elkins (Republican), 53.53%
Clarence Wayland Watson (Democratic), 45.4%
D. M. S. Holt (Socialist), 1.06%[39]
Wyoming Francis E. Warren Republican 1890
1893 (Lost)
1895
1901
1907
1913
Incumbent re-elected in 1918. Francis E. Warren (Republican), 57.77%
John Eugene Osborne (Democratic), 42.23%[40]

Elections during the 66th Congress[edit]

There were no elections in 1919.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b There was a general election September 9, 1918 in Maine, as well as special elections in April and November 1918.
  2. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267718
  3. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267720
  4. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=261810
  5. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=36480
  6. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267722
  7. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267723
  8. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=268213
  9. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3322
  10. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=36581
  11. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267963
  12. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267936
  13. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267937
  14. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=49597
  15. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=18608
  16. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267938
  17. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267964
  18. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=268010
  19. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267970
  20. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267956
  21. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267966
  22. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=268228
  23. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267821
  24. ^ Street, William B. (March 21, 1965). "The Man Who Invented The Redneck". The Commercial Appeal. 
  25. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267973
  26. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=97655
  27. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267939
  28. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=268008
  29. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=268238
  30. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267726
  31. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=117330
  32. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=268218
  33. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267716
  34. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267825
  35. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=268246
  36. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267969
  37. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=36607
  38. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267978
  39. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267941
  40. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=267942