United States Senate elections, 1944

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United States Senate elections, 1944
United States
← 1942 November 7, 1944 1946 / 1947 →

32 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  AlbenBarkley.jpg WallaceWhiteJr.jpg
Leader Alben Barkley Wallace White
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Kentucky Maine
Seats before 58 37
Seats won 58 37
Seat change Steady Steady
Popular vote 17,590,770 16,127,651
Percentage 50.3% 46.1%
Swing Increase 3.6% Decrease 3.1%
Seats up 21 11
Races won 21 11

  Third party
 
Party Progressive
Seats before 1
Seats won 1
Seat change Steady
Popular vote 73,089
Percentage 0.2%
Swing Increase 0.2%
Seats up 0
Races won 0

US 1944 senate election map.svg
Results including special elections
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican hold      Republican gain

Majority Leader before election

Alben Barkley
Democratic

Elected Majority Leader

Alben Barkley
Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1944 coincided with the re-election of Franklin D. Roosevelt to his fourth term as President. The Democrats' large majority remained the same, but they lost one seat to the Republicans in a special election.

Incumbents defeated[edit]

Democrats defeated three Republican incumbents: John A. Danaher (Connecticut), Gerald P. Nye (North Dakota), and James J. Davis (Pennsylvania).

Republicans defeated one Democratic incumbent: Guy M. Gillette (IA).

Retirements[edit]

Republicans took open seats in Indiana, Missouri, and New Jersey (where a Democrat had been appointed to a Republican vacancy).

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

At the beginning of 1944.

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Ran
D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39
Ran
D40
Ran
D41
Ran
D42
Ran
D43
Ran
D44
Ran
D45
Ran
D46
Ran
D47
Ran
D48
Ran
Majority → D49
Ran
D58
Retired
D57
Retired
D56
Retired
D55
Ran
D54
Ran
D53
Ran
D52
Ran
D51
Ran
D50
Ran
P1 R37
Ran
R36
Ran
R35
Ran
R34
Ran
R33
Ran
R32
Ran
R31
Ran
R30
Ran
R29
Ran
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27
Ran
R28
Ran
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Result of the general elections[edit]

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Re-elected
D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39
Re-elected
D40
Re-elected
D41
Re-elected
D42
Re-elected
D43
Re-elected
D44
Re-elected
D45
Re-elected
D46
Re-elected
D47
Re-elected
D48
Re-elected
Majority → D49
Re-elected
D58
Gain
D57
Gain
D56
Gain
D55
Hold
D54
Hold
D53
Hold
D52
Hold
D51
Hold
D50
Re-elected
P1 R37
Gain
R36
Gain
R35
Gain
R34
Hold
R33
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R31
Re-elected
R30
Re-elected
R29
Re-elected
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27
Re-elected
R28
Re-elected
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Result of the special elections[edit]

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
P1 D57 D56 D55 D54 D53 D52 D51 D50
R38
Gain
R37
Gain, same as general
R36
Hold
R35
Appointee elected
R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key:
D# Democratic
P# Progressive
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 78th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated during 1944 or before January 3, 1945; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Indiana
Class 3
Samuel D. Jackson Democratic 1944 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 7, 1944.
Republican gain.
Winner did not run for the next term, see below.
William E. Jenner (Republican) 52.1%
Henry F. Schricker (Democratic) ?
Massachusetts
Class 2
Sinclair Weeks Republican 1944 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 7, 1944.
Republican hold.
Leverett Saltonstall (Republican) 64.3%
John H. Corcoran (Democratic) 34.9%
New Jersey
Class 1
Arthur Walsh Democratic 1943 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 7, 1944.
Republican gain.
H. Alexander Smith (Republican) 50.4%
Elmer H. Wene (Democratic) 48.8%
Oregon
Class 2
Guy Cordon Republican 1944 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 7, 1944. Guy Cordon (Republican) 57.5%
Willis Mahoney (Democratic) 42.5%

Races leading to the 79th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1945; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Lister Hill Democratic 1938 (Appointed)
1938 (Special)
1938
Incumbent re-elected. Lister Hill (Democratic) 81.8%
John A. Posey (Republican) 17.0%
Arizona Carl Hayden Democratic 1926
1932
1938
Incumbent re-elected. Carl Hayden (Democratic) 69.4%
Fred W. Fickett (Republican) 30.6%
Arkansas Hattie W. Caraway Democratic 1931 (Appointed)
1932 (Special)
1932
1938
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
J. William Fulbright (Democratic) 85.1%
Victor M. Wade (Republican) 14.9%
California Sheridan Downey Democratic 1938 Incumbent re-elected. Sheridan Downey (Democratic) 52.3%
Frederick F. Houser (Republican) 47.7%
Colorado Eugene D. Millikin Republican 1941 (Appointed)
1942
Incumbent re-elected. Eugene D. Millikin (Republican) 56.1%
Barney L. Whatley (Democratic) 43.0%
Connecticut John A. Danaher Republican 1938 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Brien McMahon (Democratic) 51.7%
John A. Danaher (Republican) 47.3%
Florida Claude Pepper Democratic 1936 (Special)
1938
Incumbent re-elected. Claude Pepper (Democratic) 71.3%
Miles H. Draper (Republican) 28.7%
Georgia Walter F. George Democratic 1922 (Special)
1926
1932
1938
Incumbent re-elected. Walter F. George (Democratic)
Unopposed
Idaho D. Worth Clark Democratic 1938 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Glen H. Taylor (Democratic) 51.1%
C. A. Bottolfsen (Republican) 48.9%
Illinois Scott W. Lucas Democratic 1938 Incumbent re-elected. Scott W. Lucas (Democratic) 52.6%
Richard J. Lyons (Republican) 47.1%
Indiana Samuel D. Jackson Democratic 1944 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Winner did not run to finish the term, see above.
Homer E. Capehart (Republican) 50.2%
Henry F. Schricker (Democratic) 48.9%
Iowa Guy M. Gillette Democratic 1936 (Special)
1938
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Bourke B. Hickenlooper (Republican) 51.3%
Guy M. Gillette (Democratic) 48.4%
Kansas Clyde M. Reed Republican 1938 Incumbent re-elected. Clyde M. Reed (Republican) 57.8%
Thurman Hill (Democratic) 40.7%
Kentucky Alben W. Barkley Democratic 1926
1932
1938
Incumbent re-elected. Alben W. Barkley (Democratic) 54.8%
James Park (Republican) 44.9%
Louisiana John H. Overton Democratic 1932
1938
Incumbent re-elected. John H. Overton (Democratic)
Unopposed
Maryland Millard E. Tydings Democratic 1926
1932
1938
Incumbent re-elected. Millard E. Tydings (Democratic) 61.7%
Blanchard Randall, Jr. (Republican) 38.3%
Missouri Bennett Champ Clark Democratic 1932
1933 (Appointed)
1938
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Forrest C. Donnell (Republican) 50.0%
Roy McKittrick (Democratic) 49.9%
Nevada Patrick A. McCarran Democratic 1932
1938
Incumbent re-elected. Patrick A. McCarran (Democratic) 58.4%
George W. Malone (Republican) 41.6%
New Hampshire Charles W. Tobey Republican 1938 Incumbent re-elected. Charles W. Tobey (Republican) 50.9%
Joseph J. Betley (Democratic) 49.1%
New York Robert F. Wagner Democratic 1926
1932
1938
Incumbent re-elected. Robert F. Wagner (Democratic) 53.1%
Thomas J. Curran (Republican) 46.7%
North Carolina Robert R. Reynolds Democratic 1932
1932 (Special)
1938
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Clyde R. Hoey (Democratic) 70.3%
A. I. Ferree (Republican) 29.8%
North Dakota Gerald P. Nye Republican 1925 (Appointed)
1926 (Special)
1932
1938
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
John Moses (Democratic) 45.2%
Gerald P. Nye (Republican) 33.0%
Lynn U. Stambaugh (Independent) 21.2%
Ohio Robert A. Taft Republican 1938 Incumbent re-elected. Robert A. Taft (Republican) 50.3%
William G. Pickrel (Democratic) 49.7%
Oklahoma Elmer Thomas Democratic 1926
1932
1938
Incumbent re-elected. Elmer Thomas (Democratic) 55.7%
William J. Otjen (Republican) 44.0%
Oregon Rufus C. Holman Republican 1938 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Wayne Morse (Republican) 60.7%
Edgar W. Smith (Democratic) 39.3%
Pennsylvania James J. Davis Republican 1930 (Special)
1932
1938
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Francis J. Myers (Democratic) 50.0%
James J. Davis (Republican) 49.4%
South Carolina Ellison D. Smith Democratic 1909
1914
1920
1926
1932
1938
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Incumbent died November 17, 1944.
Different senator appointed just to finish the term.
Olin D. Johnston (Democratic) 93.0%
James B. Gaston (Republican) 3.7%
Osceola E. McKaine (Progressive Democratic) 3.2%
South Dakota Chandler Gurney Republican 1938 Incumbent re-elected. Chandler Gurney (Republican) 63.9%
George M. Bradshaw (Democratic) 36.1%
Utah Elbert D. Thomas Democratic 1932
1938
Incumbent re-elected. Elbert D. Thomas (Democratic) 59.9%
Adam S. Bennion (Republican) 40.1%
Vermont George D. Aiken Republican 1940 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. George D. Aiken (Republican) 65.8%
Harry W. Witters (Democratic) 34.2%
Washington Homer Bone Democratic 1932
1938
Incumbent retired to become Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Incumbent resigned November 13, 1944 and winner was appointed December 14, 1944 to the finish term.
Warren G. Magnuson (Democratic) 55.1%
Harry P. Cain (Republican) 44.4%
Ray C. Roberts (Socialist) 0.2%
Josephine B. Sulston (Prohibition) 0.2%
Wisconsin Alexander Wiley Republican 1938 Incumbent re-elected. Alexander Wiley (Republican) 50.5%
Howard J. McMurray (Democratic) 42.8%
Harry Sauthoff (Progressive) 5.8%

Complete list of races[edit]

Arizona[edit]

United States Senate election in Arizona, 1944[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Carl T. Hayden 90,335 69.37%
Republican Fred Wildon Fickett, Jr. 39,891 30.63%
Majority 50,444 38.74%
Turnout 130,226
Democratic gain from Republican Swing

Massachusetts[edit]

Incumbent U.S. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. resigned February 3, 1944 to return to active duty in the U.S. Army during World War II. Republican Sinclair Weeks was appointed February 8, 1944 to continue the term until an election was held. A special election was held on November 7, 1944 with Republican Massachusetts Governor Leverett Saltonstall defeating his challengers. He didn't take office until January 4, 1945, when his term as Governor ended.

General election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Leverett Saltonstall 1,228,754 64.29% +11.85%
Democratic John H. Corcoran 667,086 34.90% -11.71%
Socialist Labor Bernard G. Kelly 12,296 0.64% +0.29%
Prohibition E. Tallmadge Root 3,269 0.17% -0.09%

New York[edit]

The Socialist Labor state convention met on April 2 at the Cornish Arms Hotel, the corner of Eighth Avenue and Twenty-eighth Street, in New York City. They nominated Eric Hass for the U.S. Senate.[2] At that time, the party used the name "Industrial Government Party" on the ballot, but was also referred to as the "Industrial Labor Party".

The Liberal Party was organized by a state convention with about 1,100 delegates who met on May 19 and 20 at the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City. They endorsed the incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Robert F. Wagner for re-election.[3] The party filed a petition to nominate candidates which was allowed by Secretary of State Curran on August 25.[4]

The Republican State Committee met on August 8 at Albany, New York. They nominated Secretary of State Thomas J. Curran for the U.S. Senate.[5]

The Democratic State Committee met on August 8 at the National Democratic Club at 233, Madison Avenue in New York City. They re-nominated the incumbent U.S. Senator Robert F. Wagner.[6]

The American Labor state convention met on August 10. They endorsed the Democratic nominee Wagner.[7]

The Democratic/American Labor/Liberal ticket was elected and incumbent Wagner was re-elected.

Democratic Robert F. Wagner 2,485,735
Republican Thomas J. Curran 2,899,497
American Labor Robert F. Wagner 483,785
Liberal Robert F. Wagner 325,056
Industrial Government Eric Hass 15,244

Pennsylvania[edit]

General election results[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Francis J. Myers 1,864,622 49.99%
Republican James J. Davis (incumbent) 1,840,938 49.35%
Socialist J. Henry Stump 14,129 0.38%
Prohibition Charles Palmer 8,599 0.23%
Socialist Labor Frank Knotek 1,989 0.05%

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina U.S. Senate Election, 1944
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Olin D. Johnston 94,556 93.0 -5.9
Republican James B. Gaston 3,807 3.7 N/A
Progressive Democratic Osceola E. McKaine 3,214 3.2 +3.2
Republican (Tolbert) B.L. Hendrix 141 0.1 N/A
No party Write-Ins 18 0.0 0.0
Majority 90,749 89.3 -8.5
Turnout 101,736
Democratic hold
  65+% won by Johnston

Vermont[edit]

United States Senate election in Vermont, 1944[9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican George Aiken (inc.) 81,094 61.6%
Democratic Harry W. Witters 42,136 34.2%
Total votes 123,230 100.0%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3299
  2. ^ "2 CANDIDATES NAMED BY SOCIALIST LABOR". The New York Times. April 3, 1944. (Subscription required (help)). 
  3. ^ "NEW PARTY FIXES 400,000-VOTE GOAL FOR ROOSEVELT". The New York Times. May 21, 1944. (Subscription required (help)). 
  4. ^ "LIBERAL PARTY WINS; Curran Overrules Objections by O'Connor to Petitions". The New York Times. August 26, 1944. (Subscription required (help)). 
  5. ^ "CURRAN IS NAMED". The New York Times. August 9, 1944. (Subscription required (help)). 
  6. ^ "DEMOCRATS NAME WAGNER AND DYE". The New York Times. August 9, 1944. (Subscription required (help)). 
  7. ^ "ROOSEVELT NAMED AT ALP CONVENTION; Wagner, Also Renominated". The New York Times. August 11, 1944. (Subscription required (help)). 
  8. ^ "Statistics of the Congressional and Presidential Election of November 7, 1944" (PDF). Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  9. ^ "General Election Results - U.S. Senator - 1914-2014" (PDF). Office of the Vermont Secretary of State. Retrieved June 17, 2015.