1970 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
1970 United States Senate elections

← 1968 November 3, 1970 1972 →

35 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate
51 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Michael Joseph Mansfield.jpg SenHughScott.jpg
Leader Mike Mansfield Hugh Scott
Party Democratic Republican
Leader since January 3, 1961 September 24, 1969
Leader's seat Montana Pennsylvania
Seats before 56 43
Seats after 54 44
Seat change Decrease 2 Increase 1
Popular vote 25,435,247[1] 19,373,972[1]
Percentage 52.4% 39.9%
Swing Increase 3.1% Decrease 6.6%
Seats up 24 10
Races won 22 11

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Conservative Independent
Seats before 0 1
Seats after 1 1
Seat change Increase 1 Steady
Popular vote 2,183,572[1] 516,149[1]
Percentage 4.5% 0.1%
Seats up 0 1
Races won 1 1

1970 Senate election map.svg
Results of the elections:
     Democratic gain      Republican gain      Independent gain      Conservative gain
     Democratic hold      Republican hold
     No election

Majority Leader before election

Mike Mansfield
Democratic

Elected Majority Leader

Mike Mansfield
Democratic

The 1970 United States Senate elections was an election for the United States Senate, taking place in the middle of Richard Nixon's first term as President. The Democrats lost a net of three seats, while the Republicans and the Conservative Party of New York picked up one net seat each, and former Democrat Harry F. Byrd Jr. was re-elected as an independent.

This was the most recent election in which a third party won a seat in the Senate until 2006.

These were the last elections (at least through 2018) where a member of a political party other than the Democrats or Republicans had won one or more seats in the chamber (not including Independents, members of no political party). This was also the last midterm election until the 2018 midterm elections where a sitting President's party simultaneously experienced net gains in the Senate and net losses in the House. As of 2020, this is also the most recent cycle in which Democrats won Senate elections in Utah and Wyoming, and the most recent in which Republicans won a Senate election in Hawaii.

Results summary[edit]

54 1 1 44
Democratic I C Republican
Parties Total
Democratic Republican Conservative Independent Other
Last election (1968) 58 42 0 0 0 100
Before these elections 56 43 0 1 0 100
Not up 32 33 0 65
Up 24 10 1 35
Class 1 (1964→1970) 24 8 1 33
Special: Class 2 0 1 0 1
Special: Class 3 0 1 0 1
Incumbent retired 3 1 0 4
Held by same party 2 1 3
Replaced by other party Decrease1 Democrat replaced by Increase1 Republican 1
Result 2 2 0 0 0 4
Incumbent ran 21 9 1 31
Won re-election 17 6 1 24
Lost re-election Decrease2 Republicans replaced by Increase2 Democrats
Decrease3 Democrats replaced by Increase3 Republicans
Decrease1 Republican replaced by Increase1 Conservative
6
Lost renomination,
but held by same party
1 0 1
Result 20 9 1 1 0 31
Total elected 22 11 1 1 0 35
Net gain/loss Decrease2 Increase1 Increase1 Steady Steady 2
Nationwide vote 25,435,247 19,373,972 2,183,572 516,149 1,049,884 48,558,824
Share 52.38% 39.90% 4.50% 1.06% 2.16% 100%
Result 54 44 1 1 0 100

Source: Office of the Clerk[1]

Getting out the vote[edit]

President Nixon said that rather than violent protests, the best way for the American public to get their opinion heard was by voting:

The most powerful four letter word is a clean word, it’s the most powerful four letter word in the history of men, it's called vote. V-O-T-E. My friends, I say that the answer to those that engage in disruption, to those that shout their filthy slogans, to those that try to shout down speakers, it's not to answer in kind, but go to the polls in election day, and in the quiet of that ballot box, stand up and be counted, the great silent majority of America.

— Richard Nixon, "1970 Election: 1970 Year in Review". UPI.com.

Retirements[edit]

Democratic holds[edit]

  1. Florida: Spessard Holland (D) retired and was replaced by Lawton Chiles (D).
  2. Minnesota: Eugene McCarthy (DFL) retired and was replaced by former Vice President (and former senator) Hubert Humphrey (DFL).

Republican hold[edit]

  1. Delaware: John J. Williams (R) retired and was replaced by William Roth (R). He subsequently (December 31, 1970) resigned to give Roth additional seniority in the next term.

Republican gain[edit]

  1. Ohio: Stephen M. Young (D) retired and was replaced by Robert Taft Jr. (R).

Incumbents who lost their seats[edit]

Democratic hold[edit]

  1. Texas: Ralph Yarborough (D) lost renomination to Lloyd Bentsen (D).

Democratic gains[edit]

  1. California: George Murphy (R) lost re-election to John V. Tunney (D).
  2. Illinois (Special): Ralph Tyler Smith (R) lost re-election to Adlai Stevenson III (D).

Conservative gain[edit]

  1. New York: Charles Goodell (R), who was appointed in September 1968 to finish the term of the assassinated Robert F. Kennedy, lost election to James L. Buckley (C).

Republican gains[edit]

  1. Connecticut: Thomas J. Dodd (D) dropped out of the Democratic primary, ran as an independent, and lost re-election to Lowell Weicker (R).
  2. Maryland: Joseph Tydings (D) lost re-election to J. Glenn Beall Jr. (R).
  3. Tennessee: Albert Gore Sr. (D) lost re-election to Bill Brock (R).

Other changes[edit]

Independent gain[edit]

  1. Virginia: Harry F. Byrd Jr. (D) won re-election as an Independent. He broke with the Democratic Party because they asked him to sign an oath of loyalty to the party. Instead of signing the restrictive contract, Byrd ran as an independent. He continued to caucus with the Democrats, and maintained his seniority.

Change in composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Minn.
Retired
D39
Mich.
Ran
D38
Mass.
Ran
D37
Md.
Ran
D36
Maine
Ran
D35
Ind.
Ran
D34
Fla.
Retired
D33
Conn.
Ran
D32 D31
D41
Miss.
Ran
D42
Mo.
Ran
D43
Mont.
Ran
D44
Nev.
Ran
D45
N.J.
Ran
D46
N.M.
Ran
D47
N.D.
Ran
D48
Ohio
Ran
D49
R.I.
Ran
D50
Tenn.
Ran
Majority → D51
Texas
Ran
R41
N.Y.
Ran
R42
Pa.
Ran
R43
Vt.
Ran
I1
Va.
Ran
D56
Wyo.
Ran
D55
Wis.
Retired
D54
W.Va.
Ran
D53
Wash.
Ran
D52
Utah
Ran
R40
Neb.
Ran
R39
Ill. (sp)
Ran
R38
Hawaii
Ran
R37
Del.
Retired
R36
Calif.
Ran
R35
Ariz.
Ran
R34
Alaska (sp)
Ran
R33 R32 R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Mo.
Re-elected
D39
Miss.
Re-elected
D38
Minn.
Hold
D37
Mich.
Re-elected
D36
Mass.
Re-elected
D35
Maine
Re-elected
D34
Ind.
Re-elected
D33
Fla.
Hold
D32 D31
D41
Mont.
Re-elected
D42
Nev.
Re-elected
D43
N.J.
Re-elected
D44
N.M.
Re-elected
D45
N.D.
Re-elected
D46
R.I.
Re-elected
D47
Texas
Hold
D48
Utah
Re-elected
D49
Wash.
Re-elected
D50
W.Va.
Re-elected
Majority → D51
Wis.
Re-elected
R41
Conn.
Gain
R42
Md.
Gain
R43
Ohio
Gain
R44
Tenn.
Gain
C1
N.Y.
Gain
I1
Va.
Re-elected
D54
Ill. (sp)
Gain
D53
Calif.
Gain
D52
Wyo.
Re-elected
R40
Vt.
Re-elected
R39
Pa.
Re-elected
R38
Neb.
Re-elected
R37
Hawaii
Re-elected
R36
Del.
Hold
R35
Ariz.
Re-elected
R34
Alaska (sp)
Elected[a]
R33 R32 R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
Key:
C# Conservative (New York)
D# Democratic
R# Republican
I# Independent

Race summary[edit]

Special elections during the 91st Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated during 1970 or before January 3, 1971; ordered by election date, then state.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alaska
Special (Class 2)
Ted Stevens Republican 1968 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 3, 1970.
Illinois
Special (Class 3)
Ralph Tyler Smith Republican 1969 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected November 3, 1970.
Democratic gain.

Elections leading to the next Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1971; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Arizona Paul Fannin Republican 1964 Incumbent re-elected.
California George Murphy Republican 1964
1964 (Appointed)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain
Incumbent resigned January 1, 1971 to give successor preferential seniority.
Winner appointed January 2, 1971.
Connecticut Thomas J. Dodd Democratic 1958
1964
Incumbent lost renomination and then re-election as an Independent.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Delaware John J. Williams Republican 1946
1952
1958
1964
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Incumbent resigned December 31, 1970 to give successor preferential seniority.
Winner appointed January 1, 1971.
  • Green tickY William Roth (Republican) 58.8%
  • Jacob Zimmerman (Democratic) 40.1%
Florida Spessard Holland Democratic 1946 (Appointed)
1946
1952
1958
1964
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Hawaii Hiram Fong Republican 1959
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana Vance Hartke Democratic 1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Maine Edmund Muskie Democratic 1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland Joseph Tydings Democratic 1964 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Massachusetts Ted Kennedy Democratic 1962 (Special)
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Michigan Philip Hart Democratic 1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Minnesota Eugene McCarthy Democratic-Farmer-Labor[2] 1958
1964
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Mississippi John C. Stennis Democratic 1947 (Special)
1952
1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri Stuart Symington Democratic 1952
1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Montana Mike Mansfield Democratic 1952
1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Nebraska Roman Hruska Republican 1954 (Special)
1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Nevada Howard Cannon Democratic 1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
New Jersey Harrison A. Williams Democratic 1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
New Mexico Joseph Montoya Democratic 1964 (Special)
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Joseph Montoya (Democratic) 52.3%
  • Anderson Carter (Republican) 46.6%
New York Charles Goodell Republican 1968 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected.
Conservative gain.
North Dakota Quentin Burdick Democratic 1960 (Special)
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio Stephen M. Young Democratic 1958
1964
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Pennsylvania Hugh Scott Republican 1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Rhode Island John Pastore Democratic 1950 (Special)
1952
1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee Albert Gore Sr. Democratic 1952
1958
1964
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Texas Ralph Yarborough Democratic 1957 (Special)
1958
1964
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Utah Frank Moss Democratic 1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Vermont Winston L. Prouty Republican 1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia Harry F. Byrd Jr. Independent 1965 (Appointed)
1966 (Special)
Incumbent changed party from Democratic and re-elected.
Washington Henry M. Jackson Democratic 1952
1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
West Virginia Robert Byrd Democratic 1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Robert Byrd (Democratic) 77.6%
  • Elmer H. Dodson (Republican) 22.4%
Wisconsin William Proxmire Democratic 1957 (Special)
1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.
Wyoming Gale W. McGee Democratic 1958
1964
Incumbent re-elected.

Alaska (special)[edit]

Alaska special election

← 1966
1972 →
  Ted Stevens 1973.jpg Blank2x3.svg
Nominee Ted Stevens Wendell P. Kay
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 47,908 32,456
Percentage 59.61% 40.39%

U.S. senator before election

Ted Stevens
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Ted Stevens
Republican

Republican Ted Stevens was appointed December 24, 1968 to finish the term of Democrat Bob Bartlett, who had died in office. The open primary was held August 25, 1970, in which Stevens received 40,411 votes (55.91%), Key received 29,459 votes (23.94%), State senator Joe Josephson received 12,730 votes (18.22%) and Fritz Singer (R) received 1,349 votes (1.93%).[3][4] In the November 3, 1970 special election to finish the term, he ran against the Democratic Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives Wendell P. Kay. Stevens easily won with almost 60% of the vote.[5]

1970 United States Senate special election in Alaska[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ted Stevens (Incumbent) 47,908 59.61
Democratic Wendell P. Kay 32,456 40.39
Majority 14,452 18.22
Turnout 80,364
Republican hold

Arizona[edit]

Arizona election

← 1964
1976 →
  Paul Fannin.jpg Blank2x3.svg
Nominee Paul Fannin Sam Grossman
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 228,284 179,512
Percentage 55.98% 44.02%

1970 Arizona.png
Results map.
     Counties won by Fannin
     Counties won by Grossman

U.S. senator before election

Paul Fannin
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Paul Fannin
Republican

Incumbent Republican Paul Fannin decided to run for re-election to a second term, running unopposed in the Republican primary. Fannin defeated Democratic businessman Sam Grossman in the general election.

Democratic primary results[7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Sam Grossman 78,006 65.24
Democratic John Kruglick, Doctor 27,324 22.85
Democratic H. L. Kelly 14,238 11.91
Total votes 119,568 100.00
1970 United States Senate election in Arizona[8]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Paul Fannin 228,284 55.98
Democratic Sam Grossman 179,512 44.02
Majority 48,772 11.96
Turnout 407,796
Republican hold

California[edit]

California election

← 1964
1976 →
  JohnTunney.jpg GeorgeMurphy.jpg
Nominee John V. Tunney George Murphy
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 3,496,558 2,877,617
Percentage 53.86% 44.33%

California Senate Election Results by County, 1970.svg
County results
Tunney:      40–50%      50–60%      60–70%
Murphy:      40–50%      50–60%

U.S. senator before election

George Murphy
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

John V. Tunney
Democratic

1970 United States Senate election in California[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John V. Tunney 3,496,558 53.86
Republican George Murphy (Incumbent) 2,877,617 44.32
Peace and Freedom Robert Scheer 61,251 0.94
American Independent Charles C. Ripley 56,731 0.87
Majority 618,941 9.54
Turnout 6,492,157
Democratic gain from Republican

Connecticut[edit]

Connecticut election

← 1964
1976 →
  Lweicker.jpg Blank2x3.svg Thomasjdodd.jpg
Nominee Lowell P. Weicker Jr. Joseph Duffey Thomas J. Dodd
Party Republican Democratic Independent
Popular vote 454,721 368,111 266,497
Percentage 41.74% 33.79% 24.46%

Connecticut R Sweep.svg
County results

U.S. senator before election

Thomas J. Dodd
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Lowell P. Weicker Jr.
Republican

Republican Lowell P. Weicker Jr. defeated Democrat Joseph Duffey and incumbent Thomas J. Dodd who ran this time as an independent. Dodd entered the race at the last minute and split the Democratic vote, allowing Weicker to win with only 42% of the vote.

Connecticut general election[9]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Lowell P. Weicker Jr. 454,721 41.74
Democratic Joseph Duffey 368,111 33.79
Independent Thomas J. Dodd 266,497 24.46
Majority 86,610 7.95
Turnout 1,089,329
Republican hold

Delaware[edit]

1970 United States Senate election in Delaware

← 1964
1976 →
  Senator William V Roth.jpg No image.svg
Nominee William Roth Jacob W. Zimmerman
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 94,979 64,740
Percentage 58.83% 40.10%

Delaware Senate Election Results by County, 1966.svg
County Results
Roth:      50-60%      60-70%

U.S. senator before election

John J. Williams
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

William Roth
Republican

1970 United States Senate election in Delaware[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican William Roth 94,979 58.83%
Democratic Jacob W. Zimmerman 64,740 40.10%
American Independent Donald G. Gies 1,720 1.07%
Majority 30,239 18.73%
Turnout 161,439
Republican hold

Florida[edit]

Florida election

← 1964
1976 →
  Senator Lawton Chiles.jpg William Cato Cramer.jpg
Nominee Lawton Chiles William C. Cramer
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 902,438 772,817
Percentage 53.9% 46.1%

U.S. senator before election

Spessard Holland
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Lawton Chiles
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Spessard Holland retired instead of seeking a fifth term. During the Democratic primary, former Governor C. Farris Bryant and State senator Lawton Chiles advanced to a run-off, having received more votes than Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives Frederick H. Schultz, attorney Alcee Hastings, and State Representative Joel T. Daves, III. Chiles soundly defeated Bryant in the run-off election, scoring a major upset due to his comparatively small name recognition prior to the election. To acquire name recognition and media coverage, Chiles walked about 1,003 miles (1,614 km) across the state of Florida and was given the nickname "Walkin' Lawton".

The Republican primary exposed an in-party feud between Governor Claude R. Kirk Jr. and U.S. Representative William C. Cramer. In the election, Cramer handily defeated G. Harrold Carswell and body shop owner George Balmer; the former was a Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals judge favored by Kirk and had been rejected as a Supreme Court of the United States nominee a few months prior to the primary. Chiles won the election by a relatively small margin of 7.8%, receiving 902,438 votes against Cramer's 772,817 votes.

Incumbent Spessard Holland, who served in the Senate since 1946, decided to retire rather than seek a fifth term.[10] Although the Democratic Party had dominated state elections since the Reconstruction Era, Claude R. Kirk Jr. and Edward Gurney, both Republicans, were elected senator and Governor in 1966 and 1968, respectively.[11]

Democratic Party primary results[12]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic C. Farris Bryant 240,222 32.90
Democratic Lawton Chiles 188,300 25.79
Democratic Frederick H. Schultz 175,745 24.07
Democratic Alcee Hastings 91,948 12.59
Democratic Joel Daves 33,939 4.65
Total votes 730,154 100.00
Democratic Party primary runoff results[12]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Lawton Chiles 474,420 65.74
Democratic Farris Bryant 247,211 34.26
Total votes 721,631 100.00
Republican Primary results[12]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Bill Cramer 220,553 62.52
Republican G. Harrold Carswell 121,281 34.38
Republican George Balmer, body shop owner 10,947 3.10
Total votes 352,781 100.00
1970 United States Senate election in Florida[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Lawton Chiles 902,438 53.87 -10.09%
Republican William C. Cramer 772,817 46.13 +10.09%
Majority 129,621 7.74 -20.17%
Turnout 1,675,255 [?] [?]
Democratic hold Swing

Hawaii[edit]

1970 United States Senate election in Hawaii

← 1964
1976 →
  Hiram Fong.jpg CecilHeftel.jpg
Nominee Hiram Fong Cec Heftel
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 124,163 116,597
Percentage 51.57% 48.43%

Hawaii Senate Election Results by County, 1970.svg
Fong:      50–60%

U.S. senator before election

Hiram Fong
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Hiram Fong
Republican

1970 United States Senate election in Hawaii[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Hiram Fong (Incumbent) 124,163 51.57
Democratic Cecil Heftel 116,597 48.43
Majority 7,566 3.14
Turnout 240,760
Republican hold

Illinois (special)[edit]

Illinois special election

← 1968
1974 →
Turnout67.43%
  Adlai Stevenson III 50334a (1).jpg Ralph T. Smith (1).jpg
Nominee Adlai Stevenson III Ralph Tyler Smith
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 2,065,054 1,519,718
Percentage 57.37% 42.22%

Illinois Senate Election Results by County, 1970.svg
County Results
Stevenson:      50–60%      60–70%
Smith:      50–60%      60–70%

U.S. senator before election

Ralph Tyler Smith
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Adlai Stevenson III
Democratic

A special election was held to fill the remainder of the term of Republican Everett Dirksen, who had died in office. Republican Ralph Tyler Smith had been appointed to fill the seat after Dirksen's death, and he lost the special election to Democrat Adlai Stevenson III.

1970 United States Senate special election in Illinois[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Adlai Stevenson III 2,065,054 57.37
Republican Ralph Tyler Smith (Incumbent) 1,519,718 42.22
Socialist Workers Lynn Henderson 8,859 0.25
Socialist Labor Louis Fisher 5,564 0.15
None Scattering 77 0.00
Majority 545,336 15.15
Turnout 3,599,272
Democratic gain from Republican

Indiana[edit]

Indiana election

← 1964
1976 →
  Vance Hartke.jpg Richard L. Roudebush (Indiana Congressman).jpg
Nominee Vance Hartke Richard Roudebush
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 870,990 866,707
Percentage 50.12% 49.88%

Indiana Senate Election Results by County, 1970.svg
County Results
Hartke:      50–60%      60–70%
Roudebush:      50–60%      60–70%      70–80%

U.S. senator before election

Vance Hartke
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Vance Hartke
Democratic

1970 United States Senate election in Indiana[6][13]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Vance Hartke (Incumbent) 870,990 50.12
Republican Richard L. Roudebush 866,707 49.88
Majority 4,283 0.24
Turnout 1,737,697
Democratic hold

Maine[edit]

Maine election

← 1964
1976 →
  Edmund Muskie.jpg Blank2x3.svg
Nominee Edmund Muskie Neil S. Bishop
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 199,954 123,906
Percentage 61.74% 38.26%

Maine Senator Election Results by County, 1970.svg
County results

Muskie:      50–60%      60–70%      70–80%

Bishop:      50–60%

U.S. senator before election

Edmund Muskie
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Edmund Muskie
Democratic

1970 United States Senate election in Maine[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Edmund S. Muskie (Incumbent) 199,954 61.74
Republican Neil S. Bishop 123,906 38.26
Majority 76,048 23.48
Turnout 323,860
Democratic hold

Maryland[edit]

Maryland election

← 1964
1976 →
  Jglennbealljr (cropped).jpg Joseph d tydings.jpg
Nominee J. Glenn Beall Jr. Joseph Tydings
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 484,960 460,422
Percentage 50.71% 48.14%

Maryland Senate Election Results by County, 1970.svg
County results
Beall:      50–60%      60–70%      70–80%
Tydings:      50–60%      60–70%

U.S. senator before election

Joseph Tydings
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

J. Glenn Beall Jr.
Republican

1970 United States Senate election in Maryland[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican John Glenn Beall Jr. 484,960 50.71
Democratic Joseph D. Tydings (Incumbent) 460,422 48.14
American Independent Harvey Wilder 10,988 1.15
Majority 24,538 2.57
Turnout 956,370
Republican gain from Democratic

Massachusetts[edit]

Massachusetts election

← 1964
1976 →
  Edward Kennedy.jpg Blank2x3.svg
Nominee Ted Kennedy Josiah Spaulding
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,202,856 715,978
Percentage 62.2% 37.0%

1970 MA Senate.png
Results by town.
Red indicates towns won by Spaulding.
Blue indicates towns won by Kennedy.

U.S. senator before election

Ted Kennedy
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Ted Kennedy
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Ted Kennedy defeated his challengers. This was Kennedy's first election run since the 1969 Chappaquiddick incident. Kennedy won 62.2%, down from 74.3% that he won in the previous election in 1964; this decrease was due to numerous factors including Chappaquiddick and a far more favorable environment for the Republicans than the Democratic landslide year of 1964.

The Republican nominee was Josiah Spaulding, a businessman and Republican leader in Massachusetts. He led a group of delegates at the 1968 Republican National Convention who unsuccessfully sought to nominate Nelson A. Rockefeller over Richard Nixon.[14]

Other candidates were Lawrence Gilfedder (Socialist Labor) and Mark R. Shaw (Prohibition), a former Prohibition Party candidate for U.S. senator from Massachusetts in 1946, 1952, 1958, 1969, 1962, and 1966. He was the party's candidate for governor of Massachusetts in 1948 and 1956. In 1964, he was the Prohibition Party's candidate for vice-president of the United States.[15]

Massachusetts results by county
General election[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Edward M. Kennedy (Incumbent) 1,202,856 62.16 -12.1
Republican Josiah Spaulding 715,978 37.00 +11.58
Socialist Labor Lawrence Gilfedder 10,378 0.54 +0.33
Prohibition Mark R. Shaw 5,944 0.31 +0.19
None Scattering 451 0.02 +0.02
Majority 486,878 25.16
Turnout 1,935,607
Democratic hold Swing

Michigan[edit]

Senator Philip Hart
1970 United States Senate election in Michigan[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Philip Hart (Incumbent) 1,744,672 66.83
Republican Lenore Romney 858,438 32.88
Socialist Workers Paul Ludieu 3,861 0.15
Socialist Labor James Sim 3,254 0.12
None Scattering 538 0.02
Majority 886,234 33.95
Turnout 2,610,763
Democratic hold

Minnesota[edit]

Minnesota election

← 1964
1976 →
  Hubert Humphrey crop.jpg Clark MacGregor.jpg
Nominee Hubert H. Humphrey Clark MacGregor
Party Democratic (DFL) Republican
Popular vote 788,256 568,025
Percentage 57.75% 41.62%

U.S. senator before election

Eugene J. McCarthy
Democratic (DFL)

Elected U.S. senator

Hubert H. Humphrey
Democratic (DFL)

Incumbent Democrat Eugene McCarthy retired instead of seeking a third term. Former Democratic U.S. senator, Vice President and 1968 presidential nominee Hubert Humphrey defeated Republican U.S. Representative Clark MacGregor.

Democratic primary election results[17]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic (DFL) Hubert H. Humphrey 338,705 79.25
Democratic (DFL) Earl D. Craig 88,709 20.76
Republican primary election results[18]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Clark MacGregor 220,353 93.31
Republican John D. Baucom 15,797 6.69
General election results[19][20]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic (DFL) Hubert H. Humphrey 788,256 57.75
Republican Clark MacGregor 568,025 41.62
Socialist Workers Nancy Strebe 6,122 0.45
Industrial Government William Braatz 2,484 0.18
Majority 220,231 16.13
Turnout 1,364,887
Democratic (DFL) hold

Mississippi[edit]

Mississippi election
Flag of Mississippi (1894-1996).svg
← 1964
1976 →
  JohnCStennis.jpg Blank2x3.svg
Nominee John C. Stennis William Richard Thompson
Party Democratic Independent
Popular vote 286,622 37,593
Percentage 88.40% 11.60%

U.S. senator before election

John C. Stennis
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

John C. Stennis
Democratic

1970 United States Senate election in Mississippi[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John C. Stennis (Incumbent) 286,622 88.40
Independent William Richard Thompson 37,593 11.60
Majority 249,029 76.80
Turnout 324,215
Democratic hold

Missouri[edit]

1970 United States Senate election in Missouri[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Stuart Symington (Incumbent) 654,831 51.03
Republican John C. Danforth 617,903 48.15
American Independent Gene Chapman 10,065 0.78
Independent E. J. DiGirolamo 513 0.04
Majority 36,928 2.88
Turnout 1,283,312
Democratic hold

Montana[edit]

Montana election

← 1964
1976 →
  Michael Joseph Mansfield.jpg Blank2x3.svg
Nominee Mike Mansfield Harold E. Wallace
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 150,060 97,809
Percentage 60.54% 39.46%

U.S. senator before election

Mike Mansfield
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Mike Mansfield
Democratic

Democratic incumbent Mike Mansfield, the Senate Majority Leader who was first elected to the Senate in 1952, and was re-elected in 1958 and 1964, ran for re-election. Mansfield won the primary against several opponents, and advanced to the general election, where he was opposed by Harold E. Wallace, a sporting goods salesman and the Republican nominee. While his margin of victory decreased slightly from 1964, Mansfield still managed to defeat Wallace overwhelmingly, winning his fourth and (what would turn out to be his) final term in the Senate.

Democratic Party primary results[21]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Mike Mansfield (Incumbent) 68,146 77.17
Democratic Tom McDonald 10,773 12.20
Democratic John W. Lawlor 19,384 10.63
Total votes 88,303 100.00
Republican Primary results[21]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Harold E. Wallace 45,549 100.00
Total votes 45,549 100.00
1970 United States Senate election in Montana[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Mike Mansfield (Incumbent) 150,060 60.54 -3.97%
Republican Harold E. Wallace 97,809 39.46 +3.97%
Majority 52,251 21.08 -7.95%
Turnout 247,869
Democratic hold Swing

Nebraska[edit]

Senator Roman Hruska
1970 United States Senate election in Nebraska[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Roman Hruska (Incumbent) 240,894 52.49
Democratic Frank B. Morrison 217,681 47.43
None Scattering 391 0.09
Majority 23,213 5.06
Turnout 458,966
Republican hold

Nevada[edit]

Nevada election

← 1964
1976 →
  Howard Cannon.jpg William raggio NV state senate.jpg
Nominee Howard Cannon William Raggio
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 85,187 60,838
Percentage 57.7% 41.2%

U.S. senator before election

Howard Cannon
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Howard Cannon
Democratic

Democrat Howard Cannon, the incumbent since 1959, won re-election to a third term over William Raggio, the Washoe County District Attorney.

In the Senate, Cannon was known as a moderate in the Democratic Party. He served as chairman of several committees, including the rules committee and the inaugural arrangements committee. Cannon was nearly defeated for re-election in 1964 by Republican Lieutenant Governor Paul Laxalt in one of the closest election in history. However, he became more popular over the next few years and defeated D.A. William Raggio, whose 1970 senate campaign began his long political career. Raggio ran for the Nevada Senate in 1972 and won. He then served there for decades to come.

General election results[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Howard Cannon (Incumbent) 85,187 57.65 +7.63%
Republican William Raggio 60,838 41.17 -8.81%
American Independent Harold G. DeSellem 1,743 1.18
Majority 24,349 16.48 +16.44%
Turnout 147,768
Democratic hold Swing

New Jersey[edit]

New Jersey election

← 1964
1976 →
  Harrison Williams(D-NJ).jpg Blank2x3.svg
Nominee Harrison A. Williams Nelson G. Gross
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,157,074 903,026
Percentage 54.02% 42.16%

1970 US Senate Election in New Jersey by County.svg
County Results
Williams:      40–50%      50–60%      60–70%
Gross:      40–50%      50-60%

U.S. senator before election

Harrison A. Williams
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Harrison A. Williams
Democratic

1970 United States Senate election in New Jersey[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Harrison A. Williams (Incumbent) 1,157,074 56.17
Republican Nelson G. Gross 903,026 43.83
Majority 254,048 12.34
Turnout 2,060,100
Democratic hold

New Mexico[edit]

New Mexico election

← 1964
1976 →
  Joseph M Montoya.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Joseph Montoya Anderson Carter
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 151,486 135,004
Percentage 52.3% 46.6%

New Mexico Senatorial Election Results by County, 1970.svg
County results

U.S. senator before election

Joseph Montoya
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Joseph Montoya
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Joseph Montoya successfully ran for re-election to a second term, defeating Republican Anderson Carter.

Democratic primary results[23]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Joseph Montoya, Incumbent 85,285 73.10
Democratic Richard B. Edwards 31,381 26.90
Majority 53,904 46.20
Total votes 116,666 100.00
Republican primary results[24]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Anderson Carter 32,122 57.76
Republican David Cargo, Governor of New Mexico 16,951 32.28
Republican Harold G. Thompson 5,544 9.97
Majority 14,171 25.48
Total votes 55,617 100.00
General election results[25]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Joseph Montoya, Incumbent 151,486 52.26
Republican Anderson Carter 135,004 46.57
People's Constitutional William Higgs 3,382 1.17
Majority 16,482 5.69
Total votes 289,872 100.00
Democratic hold

New York[edit]

New York election

← 1964
1976 →
  JamesLBuckley.jpg 1979 p96 Richard Ottinger.jpg Goodell.jpg
Nominee James L. Buckley Richard Ottinger Charles Goodell
Party Conservative Democratic Republican
Popular vote 2,288,190 2,171,232 1,404,472
Percentage 38.95% 36.96% 23.91%

NewYorkSenatorial1970.svg
County results

U.S. senator before election

Charles Goodell
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

James L. Buckley
Conservative

Incumbent Republican Charles Goodell, who was recently appointed to the seat by Governor Nelson Rockefeller after senator Bobby Kennedy (D) was assassinated, ran for a full term, but was defeated by the Conservative Party of New York nominee James L. Buckley. Other candidates included: Richard Ottinger, U.S. Congressman (1965–1971, 1975–1985), Kevin P. McGovern, Paul O'Dwyer, Former New York City Council Member from Manhattan, Ted Sorensen, Former Advisor and Speechwriter to President John F. Kennedy, Richard D. McCarthy, U.S. Congressman (1965-1971).

Conservative Party Convention results[26]
Party Candidate Votes %
Conservative James L. Buckley 37,940 91.38
Conservative Kevin P. McGovern 3,580 8.62
Total votes 41,520 100.00
Democratic Party Primary results[27]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Richard Ottinger 366,789 39.61
Democratic Paul O'Dwyer 302,438 32.66
Democratic Ted Sorensen 154,434 16.68
Democratic Richard D. McCarthy 102,224 11.04
Total votes 925,885 100.00
Republican Party Convention results[26]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Charles Goodell 311 86.39
Abstaining 49 13.61
Total votes 360 100.00
Liberal Party Convention results[28]
Party Candidate Votes %
Liberal Charles Goodell 201 67.00
Liberal Paul O'Dwyer 48 16.00
Liberal Richard D. McCarthy 33 11.00
Liberal Richard Ottinger 12 4.00
Liberal Ted Sorensen 6 2.00
Total votes 300 100.00
General election results[29]
Party Candidate Votes %
Conservative James L. Buckley 2,288,190 38.95
Democratic Richard Lawrence Ottinger 2,171,232 36.96
Republican Charles Goodell 1,178,679
Liberal Charles Goodell 225,793
total Charles Goodell 1,404,472 23.91
Communist Arnold Johnson 4,097 0.07
Socialist Workers Kipp Dawson 3,549 0.06
Socialist Labor John Emanuel 3,204 0.06
Majority 116,958 1.99
Turnout 5,904,744
Conservative gain from Republican

North Dakota[edit]

North Dakota election

← 1964
1976 →
  Quentin Burdick.jpg Thomas S Kleppe.gif
Nominee Quentin Burdick Thomas Kleppe
Party Democratic-NPL Republican
Popular vote 134,519 82,996
Percentage 61.27% 37.80%

North Dakota Senate Election Results by County, 1970.png
U.S. Senate election results map.
Blue denotes counties won by Burdick.
Red denotes those won by Kleppe.

U.S. senator before election

Quentin Burdick
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Quentin Burdick
Democratic

Incumbent Democratic-NPL Party Senator Quentin N. Burdick was re-elected to his third term, defeating Republican candidate Thomas S. Kleppe, who later became the United States Secretary of the Interior.[22]

Only Burdick filed as a Dem-NPLer, and the endorsed Republican candidate was Thomas S. Kleppe, who was finishing his second and final term as a Representative for North Dakota's second congressional district. Burdick and Kleppe won the primary elections for their respective parties.

One independent candidate, Russell Kleppe, also filed before the deadline.

1970 United States Senate election in North Dakota[22]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Quentin Burdick (Incumbent) 134,519 61.27
Republican Thomas S. Kleppe 82,996 37.80
Independent Russell Kleppe 2,045 0.93
Majority
Turnout 219,560
Democratic hold

Ohio[edit]

1970 United States Senate election in Ohio[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Robert Taft Jr. 1,565,682 49.68
Democratic Howard M. Metzenbaum 1,495,262 47.45
American Independent Richard B. Kay 61,261 1.94
Socialist Labor John O'Neill 29,069 0.92
Majority 70,420 2.23
Turnout 3,151,274
Republican gain from Democratic

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania election

← 1964
1976 →
  SenHughScott.jpg Blank2x3.svg
Nominee Hugh Scott William Sesler
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,874,106 1,653,774
Percentage 51.4% 45.4%

Pennsylvania Senatorial Election Results by County, 1970.svg
County results

U.S. senator before election

Hugh Scott
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Hugh Scott
Republican

Incumbent Republican Hugh Scott won re-election, defeating Democratic nominee State senator William Sesler.

General election results[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Hugh Scott (Incumbent) 1,874,106 51.43 +0.84%
Democratic William Sesler 1,653,774 45.38 -3.74%
Constitution Frank W. Gaydosh 85,813 2.36 +2.36%
American Independent W. Henry McFarland 18,275 0.50 +0.50%
Socialist Labor Herman A. Johnson 4,375 0.12 -0.02%
Socialist Workers Robin Maisel 3,970 0.11 -0.04%
Consumer William R. Mimms 3,932 0.11 +0.11%
N/A Other 60 0.00 N/A
Majority 220,332 6.05
Turnout 3,644,305
Republican hold Swing

Rhode Island[edit]

Rhode Island election

← 1964
1976 →
  John Pastore in 1961.jpg John McLaughlin in 1974.jpg
Nominee John Pastore John McLaughlin
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 230,469 107,351
Percentage 67.5% 31.5%

Rhode Island Election Results by County, all Democratic.svg
County results

U.S. senator before election

John Pastore
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

John Pastore
Democratic

1970 United States Senate election in Rhode Island[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John O. Pastore (Incumbent) 230,469 67.54
Republican John McLaughlin 107,351 31.46
Peace and Freedom David N. Fenton 2,406 0.71
Socialist Workers Daniel B. Fein 996 0.29
Majority 123,118 36.08
Turnout 341,222
Democratic hold

Tennessee[edit]

1970 United States Senate election in Tennessee

← 1964
1976 →
  Bill brock.jpg Albert Gore Sr..jpg
Nominee Bill Brock Albert Gore Sr.
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 562,645 519,858
Percentage 51.29% 47.39%

U.S. senator before election

Albert Gore Sr.
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Bill Brock
Republican

Republican Bill Brock defeated incumbent senator Albert Gore Sr.

1970 United States Senate election in Tennessee[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Bill Brock 562,645 51.29
Democratic Albert Gore Sr. (Incumbent) 519,858 47.39
American Independent Cecil Pitard 8,691 0.79
Independent Dan R. East 5,845 0.53
None Scattering 2 0.00
Majority 42,787 3.90
Turnout 1,097,041
Republican hold

Texas[edit]

1970 United States Senate election in Texas

← 1964
1976 →
  Lloyd Bentsen crop.jpg George HW Bush 90th congress.jpg
Nominee Lloyd Bentsen George H. W. Bush
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,194,069 1,035,794
Percentage 53.3% 46.6%

U.S. senator before election

Ralph Yarborough
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Lloyd Bentsen
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Ralph Yarborough was defeated by former Representative Lloyd Bentsen in the Democratic primary. Bentsen then defeated Representative George H.W. Bush in the general election. When Bush was running for President in 1988, his Democratic opponent, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis, selected Bentsen as his vice presidential running mate.

1970 United States Senate election in Texas[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Lloyd Bentsen 1,226,568 53.34
Republican George H. W. Bush 1,071,234 46.58
None Scattering 1,808 0.08
Majority 155,334 6.76
Turnout 2,299,610
Democratic hold

Utah[edit]

Senator Frank Moss
1970 United States Senate election in Utah[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Frank Moss (Incumbent) 210,207 56.16
Republican Laurence J. Burton 159,004 42.48
American Independent Clyde B. Freeman 5,092 1.36
Majority 51,203 13.68
Turnout 374,303
Democratic hold

Vermont[edit]

Vermont election

  WinstonProuty.jpg Philip H. Hoff for Vermont Governor poster 1962 (cropped 2).jpg
Nominee Winston L. Prouty Philip H. Hoff
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 91,198 62,271
Percentage 58.9% 40.2%

Vermont Senate Election Results by County, 1970.svg
County results
Prouty:      50–60%      60–70%      70–80%

U.S. senator before election

Winston L. Prouty
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Winston L. Prouty
Republican

1970 United States Senate election in Vermont[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Winston L. Prouty (Incumbent) 91,198 58.88
Democratic Philip H. Hoff 62,271 40.20
Liberty Union William H. Meyer 1,416 0.91
None Scattering 14 0.01
Majority 28,927 18.68
Turnout 154,899
Republican hold

Virginia[edit]

Virginia election

  Hbyrdjr.jpg Blank2x3.svg
Nominee Harry F. Byrd Jr. George Rawlings
Party Independent Democratic
Popular vote 506,237 294,582
Percentage 53.5% 31.2%

 
Nominee Ray L. Garland
Party Republican
Popular vote 144,765
Percentage 15.3%

1970 virginia senate election map.png
U.S. Senate election results map. Gray denotes counties/districts won by Byrd. Blue denotes those won by Rawlings. Red denotes those won by Garland.

U.S. senator before election

Harry F. Byrd Jr.
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Harry F. Byrd Jr.
Independent

Incumbent Harry F. Byrd Jr. was re-elected to his first full term after winning a race 4 years earlier to finish the remainder of his father's term. He beat George C. Rawlings Jr. (D), a former member of the Virginia House of Delegates, and Ray L. Garland (R), a member of Virginia House of Delegates.

1970 United States Senate election in Virginia[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Harry F. Byrd Jr. (Incumbent) 506,237 53.54 +53.54%
Democratic George Rawlings 294,582 31.15 -22.15%
Republican Ray L. Garland 144,765 15.31 -22.07%
Write-ins 30 <0.01 -0.02%
Majority 211,655 22.38 +6.46%
Turnout 945,614
Independent gain from Democratic

Washington[edit]

Washington Election

← 1964
1976 →
  HenryJackson.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Henry M. Jackson Charles W. Elicker
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 879,385 170,790
Percentage 82.43% 16.01%

U.S. senator before election

Henry M. Jackson
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Henry M. Jackson
Democratic

1970 United States Senate election in Washington[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Henry M. Jackson (Incumbent) 879,385 82.43
Republican Charles W. Elicker 170,790 16.01
Socialist Workers Bill Massey 9,255 0.87
Buffalo Edison S. 'Pinky' Fisk 7,377 0.69
Majority 708,595 66.42
Turnout 1,066,807
Democratic hold

West Virginia[edit]

Senator Robert Byrd
1970 United States Senate election in West Virginia[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Robert C. Byrd (Incumbent) 345,965 77.64
Republican Elmer H. Dodson 99,658 22.36
Majority 246,307 54.28
Turnout 445,623
Democratic hold

Wisconsin[edit]

1970 United States Senate election in Wisconsin[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William Proxmire (Incumbent) 948,445 70.83
Republican John E. Erickson 381,297 28.48
American Independent Edmond E. Hou-Seye 6,137 0.46
Independent Elizabeth (Betty) Boardman 2,022 0.15
Socialist Workers Martha M. Quinn 580 0.04
Socialist Labor Adolf Wiggert 428 0.03
None Scattering 58 0.00
Majority 567,148 42.35
Turnout 1,338,967
Democratic hold

Wyoming[edit]

1970 United States Senate election in Wyoming[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Gale W. McGee (Incumbent) 67,207 55.78
Republican John S. Wold 53,279 44.22
Majority 13,928 11.56
Turnout 120,486
Democratic hold

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Appointee elected

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. "STATISTICS OF THE CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION OF NOVEMBER 3, 1970" (PDF). United States House of Representatives. p. 1, 39. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  2. ^ The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party is affiliated nationally with the Democratic Party (United States).
  3. ^ "AK US Senate - Special Open Primary". Retrieved June 23, 2018 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  4. ^ https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/16444162/
  5. ^ "AK US Senate - Special". Retrieved June 23, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1970" (PDF). Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. p. 7. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
  7. ^ "AZ US Senate - D Primary Race - September 8, 1970". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  8. ^ "AZ US Senate Race - November 3, 1970". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  9. ^ Our Campaigns - CT US Senate Race - November 3, 1970
  10. ^ "Spessard Lindsey Holland". Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Department of State. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  11. ^ "Cramer v. Kirk," p. 403
  12. ^ a b c "Tabulation of Official Votes, Florida Primary Election, Democratic and Republican, September 8, 1970 and September 29, 1970" (PDF). Florida Secretary of State. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - IN US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1970". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-09-11.
  14. ^ Josiah Spaulding at ourcampaigns.com
  15. ^ Mark R. Shaw at ourcampaigns.com
  16. ^ Massachusetts race details at ourcampaigns.com
  17. ^ "MN US Senate- D Primary Race - September 15, 1970". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  18. ^ "MN US Senate- R Primary Race - September 15, 1970". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  19. ^ https://www.leg.state.mn.us/archive/sessions/electionresults/1970-11-03-g-man.pdf
  20. ^ "MN US Senate Race - November 3, 1970". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  21. ^ a b "Report of the Official Canvass of the Vote Cast at the Primary Election Held in the State of Montana, June 2, 1970". Montana Secretary of State. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
  22. ^ a b c d e f http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/1970election.pdf
  23. ^ "NM US Senate - D Primary". OurCampaigns. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
  24. ^ "NM US Senate - R Primary". OurCampaigns. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
  25. ^ "NM US Senate". OurCampaigns. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
  26. ^ a b "NY US Senate - C Convention Race - April 7, 1970". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  27. ^ "NY US Senate - D Primary Race - June 23, 1970". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  28. ^ "NY US Senate - L Convention Race - May 11, 1970". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  29. ^ "NY US Senate Race - November 3, 1970". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.