United States Senate elections, 1982

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United States Senate elections, 1982

← 1980 November 2, 1982 1984 →

33 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate
51 seats needed for a majority

  Majority party Minority party
  Howard baker jr.jpg Robert C. Byrd – 1977.jpg
Leader Howard Baker Robert Byrd
Party Republican Democratic
Leader since March 5, 1980 January 3, 1977
Leader's seat Tennessee West Virginia
Seats before 54 45
Seats after 54 46
Seat change Steady Increase 1
Popular vote 22,412,928 27,899,651
Percentage 43.4% 54.1%
Swing Decrease 1.3% Increase 2.5%
Seats up 13 19
Races won 13 20

  Third party
 
Party Independent
Seats before 1
Seats after 0
Seat change Decrease 1
Seats up 1
Races won 0

1982 Senate election map.svg
Results of November 1982 elections
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold

Majority Leader before election

Howard Baker
Republican

Elected Majority Leader

Howard Baker
Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1982 were held on November 2, 1982. They were elections for the United States Senate following Republican gains in 1980. A total of four seats changed hands between parties, and the lone independent, Senator Harry Byrd, retired. Democrats made a net gain of one seat in the elections. A special election in 1983 was then held after the winner of Washington's 1982 election died at the beginning of the term.

Results summary[edit]

Parties Total Seats Popular Vote
1980 1982 +/- Vote %
Democratic Party 46 46 Increase 1 27,899,651 54.08%
Republican Party 53 54 Steady 22,412,928 43.44%
Libertarian Party 0 0 Steady 291,576 0.57%
Others 1 0 Decrease 1 985,840 1.91%
Total 100 100 Steady 51,589,995 100.0%

Source: Election Statistics - Office of the Clerk

54 46
Republican Democratic

Gains and losses[edit]

Incumbents Howard Cannon of Nevada and Harrison Schmitt of New Mexico lost seats to the opposite party, the open seat in Virginia that had been held by independent Harry F. Byrd, Jr. was taken by a Republican, and the open seat in New Jersey that was held by an appointed Republican was taken by a Democrat.

Later changes[edit]

In 1983, Henry M. Jackson (D-WA) died, and a Republican, Dan Evans, was appointed to fill the vacancy, holding on to the seat in a special election later that year.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27
Ran
D28
Ran
D29
Ran
D30
Ran
D40
Ran
D39
Ran
D38
Ran
D37
Ran
D36
Ran
D35
Ran
D34
Ran
D33
Ran
D32
Ran
D31
Ran
D41
Ran
D42
Ran
D43
Ran
D44
Ran
D45
Ran
I1
Retired
R54
Retired
R53
Retired
R52
Ran
R51
Ran
Majority →
R41 R42
Ran
R43
Ran
R44
Ran
R45
Ran
R46
Ran
R47
Ran
R48
Ran
R49
Ran
R50
Ran
R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27
Re-elected
D28
Re-elected
D29
Re-elected
D30
Re-elected
D40
Re-elected
D39
Re-elected
D38
Re-elected
D37
Re-elected
D36
Re-elected
D35
Re-elected
D34
Re-elected
D33
Re-elected
D32
Re-elected
D31
Re-elected
D41
Re-elected
D42
Re-elected
D43
Re-elected
D44
Re-elected
D45
Gain
D46
Gain
R54
Gain
R53
Gain
R52
Hold
R51
Re-elected
Majority →
R41 R42
Re-elected
R43
Re-elected
R44
Re-elected
R45
Re-elected
R46
Re-elected
R47
Re-elected
R48
Re-elected
R49
Re-elected
R50
Re-elected
R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican
I# Independent

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 97th Congress[edit]

There were no special elections during 1982 or before January 3, 1983.

Elections leading to the next Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1983; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Arizona Dennis DeConcini Democratic 1976 Incumbent re-elected. Dennis DeConcini (Democratic) 56.9%
Pete Dunn (Republican) 40.3%
Randall Clamons (Libertarian) 2.8%
California S. I. Hayakawa Republican 1976
1977 (Appointed)
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Pete Wilson (Republican) 51.5%
Jerry Brown (Democratic) 44.8%
Tena Dietrich (American Ind.) 1.4%
David Wald (Peace & Freedom) 1.2%
Joseph Fuhrig (Libertarian) 1.1%
Connecticut Lowell P. Weicker Jr. Republican 1970
1976
Incumbent re-elected. Lowell Weicker (Republican) 50.4%
Toby Moffett (Democratic) 46.1%
Lucien DiFazio (Conservative) 2.8%
James A. Lewis (Libertarian) 0.7%
Delaware William Roth Republican 1970
1971 (Appointed)
1976
Incumbent re-elected. Bill Roth (Republican) 55.2%
David N. Levinson (Democratic) 44.2%
Florida Lawton Chiles Democratic 1970
1976
Incumbent re-elected. Lawton Chiles (Democratic) 61.7%
Van B. Poole (Republican) 38.3%
Hawaii Spark Matsunaga Democratic 1976 Incumbent re-elected. Spark Matsunaga (Democratic) 80.1%
Clarence J. Brown (Republican) 17.0%
E. Bernier-Nachtwey (Independent) 2.9%
Indiana Richard Lugar Republican 1976 Incumbent re-elected. Richard Lugar (Republican) 53.8%
Floyd Fithian (Democratic) 45.6%
Raymond James (American) 0.6%
Maine George J. Mitchell Democratic 1980 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected. George Mitchell (Democratic) 60.9%
David F. Emery (Republican) 39.1%
Maryland Paul Sarbanes Democratic 1976 Incumbent re-elected. Paul Sarbanes (Democratic) 63.5%
Lawrence Hogan (Republican) 36.5%
Massachusetts Ted Kennedy Democratic 1962 (Special)
1964
1970
1976
Incumbent re-elected. Ted Kennedy (Democratic) 60.8%
Ray Shamie (Republican) 38.3%
Howard S. Katz (Libertarian) 0.9%
Michigan Donald W. Riegle Jr. Democratic 1976
1976 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected. Don Riegle (Democratic) 57.7%
Philip Ruppe (Republican) 40.9%
Minnesota David Durenberger Republican 1978 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. David Durenberger (Republican) 52.6%
Mark Dayton (Democratic) 46.6%
Mississippi John C. Stennis Democratic 1947 (Special)
1952
1958
1964
1970
1976
Incumbent re-elected. John C. Stennis (Democratic) 64.2%
Haley Barbour (Republican) 35.8%
Missouri John Danforth Republican 1976
1976 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected. John Danforth (Republican) 50.8%
Harriett Woods (Democratic) 49.1%
Montana John Melcher Democratic 1976 Incumbent re-elected. John Melcher (Democratic) 54.4%
Larry R. Williams (Republican) 41.7%
Larry Dodge (Libertarian) 3.9%
Nebraska Edward Zorinsky Democratic 1976
1976 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected. Edward Zorinsky (Democratic) 66.6%
Jim Keck (Republican) 28.5%
Virginia Walsh (Independent) 4.9%
Nevada Howard Cannon Democratic 1958
1964
1970
1976
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Chic Hecht (Republican) 50.1%
Howard Cannon (Democratic) 47.7%
New Jersey Nicholas F. Brady Republican 1982 (appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Incumbent resigned December 20, 1976 to give successor preferential seniority.
Winner appointed December 27, 1976.
Frank Lautenberg (Democratic) 50.9%
Millicent Fenwick (Republican) 47.8%
New Mexico Harrison Schmitt Republican 1976 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Jeff Bingaman (Democratic) 53.8%
Harrison Schmitt (Republican) 46.2%
New York Daniel Patrick Moynihan Democratic 1976 Incumbent re-elected. Daniel P. Moynihan (Democratic) 65.1%
Florence M. Sullivan (Republican) 34.2%
North Dakota Quentin N. Burdick Democratic 1960 (Special)
1964
1970
1976
Incumbent re-elected. Quentin N. Burdick (Democratic) 62.8%
Gene Knorr (Republican) 34.0%
Anna B. Bourgois (Independent) 3.1%
Ohio Howard Metzenbaum Democratic 1974 (Appointed)
1974 (Lost)
1974 (Resigned)
1976
1976 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected. Howard Metzenbaum (Democratic) 56.7%
Paul E. Pfeifer (Republican) 41.1%
Pennsylvania H. John Heinz III Republican 1976 Incumbent re-elected. H. John Heinz III (Republican) 59.3%
Cyril Wecht (Democratic) 39.2%
Rhode Island John Chafee Republican 1976
1976 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected. John Chafee (Republican) 51.2%
Julius C. Michaelson (Democratic) 48.8%
Tennessee Jim Sasser Democratic 1976 Incumbent re-elected. Jim Sasser (Democratic) 61.9%
Robin Beard (Republican) 38.1%
Texas Lloyd Bentsen Democratic 1970
1976
Incumbent re-elected. Lloyd Bentsen (Democratic) 58.6%
James M. Collins (Republican) 40.5%
Utah Orrin Hatch Republican 1976 Incumbent re-elected. Orrin G. Hatch (Republican) 58.3%
Ted Wilson (Democratic) 41.3%
George Mercier (Libertarian) 0.2%
Lawrence R Kauffman (American) 0.2%
Vermont Robert Stafford Republican 1971 (Appointed)
1972 (Special)
1976
Incumbent re-elected. Robert Stafford (Republican) 50.3%
James A. Guest (Democratic) 47.2%
Virginia Harry F. Byrd Jr. Independent 1933 (Appointed)
1933 (Special)
1934
1940
1946
1952
1958
1964
1970
1976
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Paul Trible (Republican) 51.2%
Dick Davis (Democratic) 48.8%
Washington Henry M. Jackson Democratic 1952
1958
1964
1970
1976
Incumbent re-elected. Henry M. Jackson (Democratic) 68.9%
Doug Jewett (Republican) 24.3%
King Lysen (Independent) 5.3%
Jesse Chiang (Libertarian) 1.5%
West Virginia Robert Byrd Democratic 1958
1964
1970
1976
Incumbent re-elected. Robert Byrd (Democratic) 68.5%
Cleve Benedict (Republican) 30.8%
William B. Howland (Socialist Workers) 0.7%
Wisconsin William Proxmire Democratic 1957 (Special)
1958
1964
1970
1976
Incumbent re-elected. E. William Proxmire (Democratic) 63.6%
Scott McCallum (Republican) 34.1%
Wyoming Malcolm Wallop Republican 1976 Incumbent re-elected. Malcolm Wallop (Republican) 56.7%
Rodger McDaniel (Democratic) 43.3%

Special election during the 98th Congress[edit]

In this special election, the winner was elected after January 3, 1983.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Washington
(Class 1)
Daniel J. Evans Republican 1983 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 3, 1983. Daniel J. Evans (Republican) 55.4%
Mike Lowry (Democratic) 44.6%

Arizona[edit]

Arizona election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  Dennis DeConcini.jpg No image.png
Nominee Dennis DeConcini Pete Dunn
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 411,970 291,749
Percentage 56.9% 40.3%

1982 Arizona.png
U.S. Senate election results map.
Blue denotes counties won by DeConcini.
Red denotes those won by Dunn.

U.S. Senator before election

Dennis DeConcini
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Dennis DeConcini
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Dennis DeConcini won re-election to a second term over Republican Pete Dunn, State Representative.

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Dennis DeConcini (Incumbent) 411,970 56.91% +2.90%
Republican Peter Dunn 291,749 40.30% -3.04%
Libertarian Randall Clamons 20,100 2.78% +1.79%
Write-ins 66 0.01%
Majority 120,221 16.61% +5.94%
Turnout 723,885
Democratic hold Swing

California[edit]

California election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  PeteWilson.jpg Jerry Brown in 1978 crop.jpg
Nominee Pete Wilson Jerry Brown
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 4,022,565 3,494,968
Percentage 51.4% 44.8%

U.S. Senator before election

S. I. Hayakawa
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Pete Wilson
Republican

Incumbent Republican S. I. Hayakawa decided to retire after one term. Republican Pete Wilson, Mayor of San Diego and former Assemblyman, won the open seat over Democratic Governor Jerry Brown.

Wilson was known as a fiscal conservative who supported Proposition 13, although Wilson had opposed the measure while mayor of San Diego. However, Brown ran on his gubernatorial record of building the largest state budget surpluses in California history. Both Wilson and Brown were moderate-to-liberal on social issues, including support for abortion rights. The election was expected to be close, with Brown holding a slim lead in most of the polls leading up to Election Day. Wilson hammered away at Brown's appointment of California Chief Justice Rose Bird, using this to portray himself as tougher on crime than Brown was. Brown's late entry into the 1980 Democratic presidential primary, after promising not to run, was also an issue. President Ronald Reagan made a number of visits to California late in the race to campaign for Wilson. Reagan quipped that the last thing he wanted to see was one of his home state's U.S. Senate seats falling into Democrats' hands, especially to be occupied by the man who succeeded him as governor. Despite exit polls indicating a narrow Brown victory, Wilson won by a wide margin.

General election results[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Pete Wilson 4,022,565 51.5%
Democratic Jerry Brown 3,494,968 44.8%
Libertarian Joseph Fuhrig 107,720 1.4%
Peace and Freedom David Wald 96,388 1.2%
American Independent Theresa Dietrich 83,809 1.1%
Independent Thomas Kendall (Write In) 36 0.0%
Independent Ben Leonik (Write In) 34 0.0%

Connecticut[edit]

Connecticut election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  Lweicker.jpg Toby headshot.jpg
Nominee Lowell Weicker Toby Moffett
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 545,987 499,146
Percentage 50.4% 46.1%

U.S. Senator before election

Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.
Republican

Incumbent Republican Lowell P. Weicker, Jr. won re-election to a third term over Democratic Congressman Toby Moffett.

General election results[3]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Lowell Weicker (Incumbent) 545,987 50.4%
Democratic Toby Moffett 499,146 46.1%
Conservative Lucien DiFazio 30,212 2.8%
Libertarian James Lewis 8,163 0.8%

Delaware[edit]

Delaware election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  Sen. William V. Roth (R-DE).jpg No image.svg
Nominee Bill V. Roth David N. Levinson
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 105,357 84,413
Percentage 55.2% 44.2%

U.S. Senator before election

Bill V. Roth
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Bill V. Roth
Republican

Incumbent Republican Bill V. Roth won reelection to a third term over the state's Democratic Insurance Commissioner David N. Levinson.

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Bill V. Roth (Incumbent) 105,357 55.17% -0.64%
Democratic David N. Levinson 84,413 44.20% +0.59%
Libertarian Lawrence Sullivan 653 0.34%
American Independent Charles Baker 537 0.28% -0.01%
Majority 20,944 10.97% -1.23%
Turnout 190,960
Republican hold Swing

Florida[edit]

Florida election

← 1976 November 8, 1982 1988 →

  SenatorChiles.jpg Van B Poole 2.jpg
Nominee Lawton Chiles Van B. Poole
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,637,667 1,015,330
Percentage 61.7% 38.3%

U.S. Senator before election

Lawton Chiles
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Lawton Chiles
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Lawton Chiles won re-election to a third term over Republican state senator Van B. Poole.

Democratic primary results
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Lawton Chiles 1,044,246 100.0
Republican primary results[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Van B. Poole 154,163 41.57
Republican David H. Bludworth 116,040 31.29
Republican George Snyder 100,609 27.13
Total votes 370,812 100
Republican primary runoff results[5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Van B. Poole 131,655 58.08
Republican David H. Bludworth 95,035 41.92
Total votes 226,690 100
General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Lawton Chiles 1,637,667 61.72% -1.26%
Republican Van B. Poole 1,015,330 38.26% +1.24%
Write-ins 422 0.02%
Majority 622,337 23.45% -2.50%
Total votes 2,653,419 100
Democratic hold Swing

Hawaii[edit]

Hawaii election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  Spark Matsunaga.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Spark Matsunaga Clarence Brown
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 245,386 52,071
Percentage 80.1% 17.0%

Hawaii Election Results by County, all Democratic.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Spark Matsunaga
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Spark Matsunaga
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Spark Matsunaga won re-election to a second term[6] over Republican Clarence Brown, a retired Foreign Service officer[7]

General election results[8]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Spark Matsunaga (Incumbent) 245,386 80.1%
Republican Clarence Brown 52,071 17.0%
Independent Democrat E. Bernier-Nachtwey 8,953 2.9%

Indiana[edit]

Indiana election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  Richard Lugar 1977 congressional photo.jpg Floyd Fithian.png
Nominee Richard Lugar Floyd Fithian
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 978,301 828,400
Percentage 53.83 45.58

U.S. Senator before election

Richard Lugar
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Richard Lugar
Republican

Incumbent Republican Richard Lugar faced Democratic United States Representative Floyd Fithian in the general election. Lugar won with a margin of 54% of the vote, compared to Fithian's 46%.

After the 1980 Census, the Indiana General Assembly redistricted Indiana's congressional districts, pushing Democratic representative Floyd Fithian's district into more conservative territory.[9] After redistricting, Fithian, the three term incumbent of Indiana's 2nd congressional district, decided to run for Secretary of State of Indiana, but withdrew from the primary to ultimately run for the United States Senate.[10] He challenged fellow Democrat and one term Indiana State Senator Michael Kendall of Jasper, Indiana, who Fithian earlier encouraged to run for the Senate.[11] Kendall, who represented Indiana's 47th Senate district and formed the Notre Dame Students for Robert Kennedy organization during the 1968 presidential election,[12] was seen a young progressive alternative to Fithian, who he called the "ideological twin of Richard Lugar."[13] After the bitterly contested primary, Fithian prevailed over Kendall, winning with 59% of the vote.[14]

Democratic primary results
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Floyd Fithian 262,644 59.51
Democratic Michael Kendall 178,702 40.49
Total votes 441,346 100

Incumbent United States Senator Richard Lugar won the republican nomination in an uncontested primary on May 4, 1982.[15]

Republican primary results
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Richard Lugar (Incumbent) 498,248 100
Total votes 498,248

In the general election, Lugar faced Fithian and American Party candidate Raymond James.[1]

On November 5, 1982, Lugar defeated Fithian and James in the general election, winning 74 of Indiana's 93 counties.[16]

United States Senate election in Indiana, 1982[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Richard Lugar (Incumbent) 978,301 53.83
Democratic Floyd Fithian 828,400 45.58
American

Raymond James 0.58

Maine[edit]

Maryland[edit]

Maryland election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  Paul Sarbanes.jpg Lawrence J Hogan 93rd Congressional Pictorial Directory.jpg
Nominee Paul Sarbanes Lawrence Hogan
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 707,356 407,334
Percentage 63.46% 36.54%

U.S. Senator before election

Paul Sarbanes
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Paul Sarbanes
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Paul Sarbanes won re-election to a second term in office. He defeated the Republican former Representative from Maryland's 5th district and Prince George's County Executive Lawrence Hogan.[17]

Massachusetts[edit]

Massachusetts election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  Edward Kennedy.jpg
Nominee Ted Kennedy Ray Shamie
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,247,084 784,602
Percentage 60.8% 38.3%

1982 MA Senate.png
Results by town. Red indicates towns carried by Ray Shamie, blue indicates towns carried by Ted Kennedy.

U.S. Senator before election

Ted Kennedy
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Ted Kennedy
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Ted Kennedy won re-election to his fourth full term over Republican Ray Shamie, a millionaire businessman and metalwork entrepreneur.

Results by county
General election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Ted Kennedy (Incumbent) 1,247,084 60.81 -8.50
Republican Ray Shamie 784,602 38.26 +9.25
Libertarian Howard S. Katz 18,878 0.92 +0.92
All others 205 0.01 +0.00
Total votes 2,050,769 70.26%

Michigan[edit]

Minnesota[edit]

Minnesota election

← 1978 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  DavidDurenberger.jpg Mark Dayton official photo.jpg
Nominee David Durenberger Mark Dayton
Party Independent-Republican DFL
Popular vote 949,207 840,401
Percentage 52.6% 46.6%

U.S. Senator before election

David Durenberger
Independent-Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

David Durenberger
Independent-Republican

Incumbent Republican David Durenberger won re-election to his first full term over Democratic businessman Mark Dayton.[18]

Dayton campaigning with former VP Walter Mondale.
General election results
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Mark Dayton 359,014 69.06
Democratic Eugene McCarthy 125,229 24.09
Democratic Charles E. Pearson 19,855 3.82
Democratic William A. Branstner 15,754 3.03

Dayton, 35, self-financed his campaign. Married to a Rockefeller and heir to a department store, his net worth was an estimated $30 million. Durenberger, who in 1978 and won the special election to finish the term of the late Hubert Humphrey, was largely unknown. He was considered a moderate, but supported Reagan's tax cuts. Dayton ran against Reaganomics. He has also campaigned against tax breaks for the wealthy and even promised "to close tax loopholes for the rich and the corporations—and if you think that includes the Daytons, you're right."[19] By the end of September, the senate election already became the most expensive election of all-time, with over $8 million being spent. Dayton spent over $5 million,[20] while Durenberger spent over $2 million.[21]

General election results
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican David Durenberger 949,207 52.60
Democratic Mark Dayton 840,401 46.57
Socialist Workers Bill Onasch 5,897 0.33
Libertarian Frederick Hewitt 5,870 0.33
New Union Party Jeffrey M. Miller 3,300 0.18
Majority 108,806 6.03
Turnout 1,804,675

Mississippi[edit]

Mississippi election

← 1976
1988 →

  JohnCStennis.jpg Haley Barbour cropped.jpg
Nominee John C. Stennis Haley Barbour
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 414,099 230,927
Percentage 64.2% 35.8%

U.S. Senator before election

John C. Stennis
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

John C. Stennis
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat John C. Stennis won re-election to his seventh term over Republican Haley Barbour, apolitical operative who campaigned for U.S. Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

General election results[22]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Stennis (Incumbent) 414,099 64.2
Republican Haley Barbour 230,927 35.8

Missouri[edit]

Montana[edit]

Montana election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  John Melcher.jpg No image.svg
Nominee John Melcher Larry R. Williams
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 174,861 133,789
Percentage 54.46% 41.67%

U.S. Senator before election

John Melcher
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

John Melcher
Democratic

Incumbent John Melcher, who was first elected to the Senate in 1976, opted to run for re-election. He won the Democratic primary after he faced a tough intraparty challenger, and advanced to the general election, where he faced Larry R. Williams, an author and the Republican nominee, and Larry Dodge, the Libertarian nominee. Though his margin was reduced significantly from his initial election, Melcher still comfortably won re-election to his second and final term in the Senate.

During his first term in the Senate, Melcher's relative conservatism for a Democrat prompted a primary challenger in Michael Bond, a housing contractor who campaigned on his opposition to nuclear war. Bond attacked Melcher for voting to increase spending on nuclear arms, and pledged to reduce military spending to $60 billion and to use the savings to reduce interest rates.[23] During the campaign, Bond came under fire from the state branches of the Veterans of Foreign Wars and the Disabled American Veterans for turning in his draft card in 1967 to protest the Vietnam War, who put out a statement, saying, "There is no place in the U.S. Senate for any draft dodger, draft card burner or draft protester of any kind."[24]

Democratic Party primary results[25]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Jack Melcher (inc.) 83,539 68.27
Democratic Mike Bond 33,565 27.43
Total votes 122,369 100.00
Republican Primary results[25]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Larry Williams 49,615 88.11
Republican Willie Dee Morris 6,696 11.89
Total votes 56,311 100.00
United States Senate election in Montana, 1982[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic John Melcher (Incumbent) 174,861 54.46% -9.69%
Republican Larry Williams 133,789 41.67% +5.83%
Libertarian Larry Dodge 12,412 3.87%
Majority 41,072 12.79% -15.52%
Turnout 321,062
Democratic hold Swing

Nebraska[edit]

Nebraska election

← 1976
1988 →

  ZorinskyE(D-NE).jpg No image.svg
Nominee Edward Zorinsky Jim Keck
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 363,350 155,760
Percentage 66.59% 28.55%

U.S. Senator before election

Edward Zorinsky
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Edward Zorinsky
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Edward Zorinsky won re-election.

1982 Nebraska U.S. Senate Election[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Edward Zorinsky 363,350 (66.59%) 66.59%
Republican Jim Keck 155,760 28.55%
Independent Virginia Walsh 26,443 4.85%
Majority
Turnout

Nevada[edit]

Nevada election

← 1976
1988 →

  Chic Hecht.JPG Howard Cannon.jpg
Nominee Chic Hecht Howard Cannon
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 120,377 114,720
Percentage 50.1% 47.7%

1982 NV.png
U.S. Senate election results map.
Red denotes those won by Hecht.
Blue denotes counties won by Cannon.

U.S. Senator before election

Howard Cannon
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Chic Hecht
Republican

Incumbent Democrat Howard Cannon ran for re-election to a fifth term, but lost to Republican State Senator Chic Hecht.

General election results[26]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Chic Hecht 120,377 50.1
Democratic Howard Cannon 114,720 47.7
None of These Candidates 5,297 2.2 ?

New Jersey[edit]

New Jersey election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  Frank Lautenberg 1983 congressional photo.jpg Millicent Fenwick.jpg
Nominee Frank Lautenberg Millicent Fenwick
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,117,549 1,047,626
Percentage 50.94% 47.75%

U.S. Senator before election

Nicholas F. Brady
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Frank Lautenberg
Democratic

Democrat Frank Lautenberg won for the seat held by retiring incumbent Republican Senator Nicholas Brady. Lautenberg won the seat with a margin of 3.19% over Congressperson Millicent Fenwick.

Cresitello dropped out of the race on May 27 but remained on the June 8 primary ballot.[27]

Democratic Party primary results[28]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Frank Lautenberg 104,666 25.97
Democratic Andrew Maguire 92,878 23.05
Democratic Joseph A. LeFante 81,440 20.21
Democratic Barbara Boggs Sigmund 45,708 11.34
Democratic Howard Rosen 28,427 7.05
Democratic Angelo Bianchi 17,684 4.39
Democratic Cyril Yannarelli 10,188 2.53
Democratic Frank Forst 9,563 2.37
Democratic Richard D. McAleer 8,110 2.01
Democratic Donald Cresitello 4,295 1.07
Total votes 402,959 100.00
Republican Party primary results[28]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Millicent Fenwick 193,683 54.28
Republican Jeff Bell 163,145 45.72
Total votes 356,828 100.00

The seat had been occupied by Democrat Harrison A. Williams, who resigned on March 11, 1982, after being implicated in the Abscam scandal. After Williams' resignation, Republican Governor Thomas Kean appointed Republican Nicholas F. Brady to the seat. Brady served in the Senate through the primary and general elections but did not run for the seat himself.

In the general election, Lautenberg faced popular Republican congresswoman Millicent Fenwick. She ran on a very progressive platform and polls in the Summer of 1982 put her ahead by 18 points. Even Lautenberg quipped that she was "the most popular candidate in the country."[29] Lautenberg spent more of his own money, eventually out-spending Fenwick two-to-one. He emphasised President Reagan's unpopularity, reminded the voters that she would be a vote for a Republican majority in the Senate and called Fenwick, who was 72, "eccentric" and "erratic" but denied that he was referring to her age.[29][30] He did however point out that she would be almost 80 at the end of her first term and was therefore unlikely to gain much seniority in the Senate.[29] Coincidentally, the age issue would be used against Lautenberg in his own re-election bid in 2008.

Lautenberg won by 51% to 48%, in what was considered a major upset.[29] Brady, who had just a few days left in his appointed term, resigned on December 27, 1982, allowing Lautenberg to take office several days before the traditional swearing-in of senators, which gave him an edge in seniority over the other freshman senators.

General election results[31]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Frank Lautenberg 1,117,549 50.94%
Republican Millicent Fenwick 1,047,626 47.75%
Libertarian Henry Koch 9,934 0.45%
Socialist Labor Julius Levin 5,580 0.25%
Independent Martin E. Wendelken 4,745 0.22%
Socialist Workers Claire Moriarty 3,726 0.17%
Grassroots Robert T. Bastien 2,955 0.14%
Repeal TF 807 Rose Zeidwerg Monyek 1,830 0.08%
Turnout 2,193,945 100.00%
Democratic gain from Republican Swing

New Mexico[edit]

New Mexico election

← 1976 November 3, 1982 1988 →

  Jeff-Bingaman.jpg Sen Harrison Schmitt.jpg
Nominee Jeff Bingaman Harrison Schmitt
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 217,682 187,128
Percentage 53.8% 46.2%

New Mexico Senatorial Election Results by County, 1982.svg
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

Harrison Schmitt
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Jeff Bingaman
Democratic

Incumbent Republican Harrison Schmitt was running for re-election to a second term, but lost to Democrat Jeff Bingaman, Attorney General of New Mexico.

United States Senate election in New Mexico, 1982[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Jeff Bingaman 217,682 53.77% +11.07%
Republican Harrison Schmitt (Incumbent) 187,128 46.23% -10.59%
Majority 30,554 7.55% -6.57%
Turnout 404,810
Democratic gain from Republican Swing

New York[edit]

New York election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  DanielPatrickMoynihan.jpg
Nominee Pat Moynihan Florence Sullivan
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 3,232,146 1,696,766
Percentage 65.1% 34.2%

NewYorkSenatorial1982.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Pat Moynihan
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Pat Moynihan
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Daniel Patrick Moynihan won re-election to a second term over Republican Assemblywoman Florence Sullivan.

General election results[32]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Daniel Patrick Moynihan (Incumbent) 3,232,146 65.1
Republican Florence Sullivan 1,696,766 34.2
Libertarian James J. McKeown 23,379 0.5
Socialist Workers Steven Wattenmaker 15,206 0.5

North Dakota[edit]

The incumbent, North Dakota Democratic NPL Party (Dem-NPL) Quentin Burdick, sought and received re-election to his fifth term, defeating Republican candidate Gene Knorr.[1]

Only Burdick filed as a Dem-NPLer, and the endorsed Republican candidate was cattle rancher Gene Knorr. Burdick and Knorr won the primary elections for their respective parties. Burdick's campaign was known for employing more television advertisement spending when compared with his campaigns in the past, as well as making several negative portrayals. Knorr had the support of Vice President George H. W. Bush, who campaigned in state to support his candidacy. The election was also noted as the first where Burdick's age began to become an issue. Burdick, who was 74 during the year of the election, faced a much younger Knorr, who was 41. At one point, Burdick challenged Knorr to a fistfight to prove his vitality; but the challenge, assumed to be a joke, never occurred. After being defeated, Knorr moved to Washington, D.C., where he took the position of staff vice president with Philip Morris International.

One independent candidate, Anna B. Bourgois, also filed before the deadline, running under her self-created party titled God, Family, and Country. Bourgois would later run for North Dakota's other United States Senate seat as an independent in 1986, challenging Mark Andrews. She received over 8,000 votes in the election, which is rather high for an independent. Some attribute her large number of votes to the name of her party – which was based on things that North Dakotans valued. Despite the result, Bourgois' campaign still had little impact on the outcome.

1982 United States Senate election, North Dakota
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Quentin Burdick (Incumbent) 164,873 62.84
Republican Gene Knorr 89,304 34.03
Independent Anna B. Bourgois 8,288 3.13
Majority
Turnout 262,465

Prior to the 1982 Senate campaign, Knorr had been working in Washington, DC since 1970 when he worked for the Department of Treasury. He began working in Washington, DC, residing in McLean, Virginia after receiving a Juris Doctorate from Northwestern University where he was celebrated in debate. From Treasury, he worked as a lobbyist with Charls E. Walker Associates.

Ohio[edit]

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  John Heinz.jpg No image.svg
Nominee John Heinz Cyril Wecht
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 2,136,418 1,412,965
Percentage 59.3% 39.2%

Pennsylvania Senatorial Election Results by County, 1982.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

H. John Heinz III
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

H. John Heinz III
Republican

Incumbent Republican H. John Heinz III successfully sought re-election to another term, defeating Democratic nominee Cyril Wecht, member of the Allegheny County Board of Commissioners.

John Heinz's Democratic opponent in the 1982 election was Allegheny County commissioner and former coroner Cyril Wecht, who lacked significant name recognition outside of Pittsburgh, his home town. Although the 1982 elections were a setback nationally for incumbent President Ronald Reagan and the Republican Party, neither Heinz nor incumbent Republican governor Dick Thornburgh, who was also up for re-election in 1982, were challenged by Democrats with statewide prominence. Wecht ran a low-budget campaign lacking the assets to boost his name recognition; the Philadelphia Inquirer ran a headline dubbing the race "The Race for Senator No One Seemed to Notice."[33] Despite this, Heinz ran a cautious campaign, running as a moderate due to Pennsylvania's unemployment, 11%, one of the highest in the nation at the time, as well as the declining health of Pennsylvania's coal mining, manufacturing and steel industries. In the end, Heinz won the election by a wide margin, winning 59.3% of the popular vote. Wecht won 39.2% of the popular vote.[33]

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican H. John Heinz III (Incumbent) 2,136,418 59.28% +6.89%
Democratic Cyril Wecht 1,412,965 39.20% -7.59%
Libertarian Barbara I. Karkutt 19,244 0.53% +0.53%
Socialist Workers William H. Thomas 18,951 0.53 +0.41%
Consumer Liane Norman 16,530 0.46% +0.46%
Majority 723,453 20.08% +14.48%
Totals 3,604,108 100.00% align="right"

Rhode Island[edit]

Rhode Island election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →

  U.S. Senator John Chafee.jpg No image.svg
Nominee John Chafee Julius C. Michaelson
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 175,495 167,283
Percentage 51% 49%

Rhode Island Senatorial Election Results by County, 1982.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

John Chafee
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

John Chafee
Republican

Incumbent Republican John Chafee successfully sought re-election to a second term, defeating Democrat Julius C. Michaelson, former Attorney General of Rhode Island.

Democratic primary results[34]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Julius C. Michaelson 56,800 82.37
Democratic Helen E. Flynn 12,159 17.63
Majority 44,641 64.74%
Total votes 68,959 100.00
General election results[35][1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican John Chafee 175,495 51.20
Democratic Julius C. Michaelson 167,283 48.80
Majority 8,212 2.40%
Total votes 342,778 100.00
Republican hold

Tennessee[edit]

Democrat Jim Sasser was re-elected with 61.9% over Republican Robin Beard, a member of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Texas[edit]

Utah[edit]

Vermont[edit]

Vermont election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 (1982-11-02) 1988 →

  Robert Theodore Stafford.jpg Consumer Reports - Jim Guest.tif
Nominee Robert Stafford James A. Guest
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 84,450 79,340
Percentage 50.3% 47.2%

U.S. Senator before election

Robert Stafford
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Robert Stafford
Republican

Incumbent Republican Robert Stafford successfully ran for re-election to another term in the United States Senate, defeating Democratic candidate James A. Guest.

Republican primary results[36]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Robert Stafford (Incumbent) 26,323 46.2
Republican Stewart M. Ledbetter 19,743 34.7
Republican John McClaughry 10,692 18.8
Republican Other 162 0.3
Total votes '65,920' '100'
Democratic primary results[36]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic James A. Guest 11,352 67.1
Democratic Thomas E. McGregor 3,749 22.2
Democratic Earl S. Gardner 1,281 7.6
Democratic Other 536 3.2
Total votes '16,918' '100'
United States Senate election in Vermont, 1982[37]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Robert Stafford (Incumbent) 84,450 50.3
Democratic James A. Guest 79,340 47.2
Independent Michael Edward Hackett 1,463 1.0
Independent Ion Laskaris 897 0.5
Libertarian Bo Adlerbert 892 0.5
N/A Other 961 0.6
Total votes '168,003' '100'

Virginia[edit]

Virginia election

← 1976 November 2, 1982 1988 →
Turnout 35.7% (voting eligible)[38]

  PaulSTrible.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Paul Trible Dick Davis
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 724,571 690,839
Percentage 51.2% 48.8%

1982 virginia senate election map.png
U.S. Senate election results map. Red denotes counties/districts won by Trible. Blue denotes those won by Davis.

U.S. Senator before election

Harry F. Byrd, Jr.
Independent

Elected U.S. Senator

Paul Trible
Republican

U.S. Representative from Virginia's 1st district, Paul Trible replaced Independent Senator Harry F. Byrd, Jr., who was stepping down after three terms. He beat Democratic Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, Richard Joseph Davis.

United States Senate election in Virginia, 1982[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Paul Trible 724,571 51.18% +51.18%
Democratic Dick Davis 690,839 48.80% +10.53%
Write-ins 212 0.01%
Majority 33,732 2.38% -16.55%
Turnout 1,415,622
Republican gain from Independent Swing

Washington[edit]

Washington (Special)[edit]

United States Senate special election in Washington election

← 1982 November 3, 1983 1988 →

  DanielJEvans.jpg MikeLowry.png
Nominee Dan Evans Mike Lowry
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 672,326 540,981
Percentage 55.41% 44.59%

1983 Washington senatorial election map.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Dan Evans
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Dan Evans
Republican

There was a special election to fill the seat which had been held by longtime Senator Henry Jackson. Daniel J. Evans, who had been appointed by Governor John Spellman, won the special election.

Washington United States Senate special election, November 3, 1983[39]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Daniel Evans 672,326 55.41
Democratic Mike Lowry 540,981 44.59

West Virginia[edit]

West Virginia election

← 1976 November 7, 1982 1988 →

  Robert C. Byrd – 1977.jpg Cleve Benedict.png
Nominee Robert Byrd Cleve Benedict
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 387,170 173,910
Percentage 68.5% 30.8%

U.S. Senator before election

Robert Byrd
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Robert Byrd
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Robert Byrd won re-election to a fifth term over Republican Cleve Benedict, a freshman congressman.

Benedict made great note of Byrd's record of high office in the Ku Klux Klan, his avoidance of service in World War II, and the fact that Byrd, then alone among members of Congress, owned no home in the state he represented. His campaign represented the last serious and well-funded effort to unseat Byrd, spending $1,098,218. Byrd was Minority Leader at the time.

General election results[40]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Robert Byrd (Incumbent) 387,170 68.5%
Republican Cleve Benedict 173,910 30.8%

Wisconsin[edit]

Wyoming[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Clerk of the United States House of Representatives (1983). "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 1982" (PDF). United States Government Printing Office. 
  2. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  3. ^ "CT US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2011. 
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2011. 
  6. ^ "HI US Senate Race - Nov 08, 1988". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  7. ^ "Eugene Register-Guard - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved December 20, 2017. 
  8. ^ "HI US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  9. ^ "Floyd Fithian, 76; Congressman, Farmer, Purdue Professor". latimes.com. July 4, 2003. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Floyd James Fithian Commander, United States Navy Member of Congress". arlingtoncemetery.net. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  11. ^ Associated Press (May 5, 1982). "Senate Candidates Chosen in Indiana". Toledo Blade. news.google.com. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  12. ^ Ray E. Boomhower (February 27, 2008). Robert F. Kennedy and the 1968 Indiana Primary. Indiana University Press. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Senate Candidates Chosen in Indiana". Toledo Blade. Associated Press. May 5, 1982. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  14. ^ "IN US Senate- D Primary". ourcampaigns.com. June 13, 2005. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  15. ^ Monica Davey (April 17, 2012). "Once Every 36 Years, Primary Fight for Indiana Senator". nytimes.com. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  16. ^ "IN US Senate". ourcampaigns.com. June 15, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  17. ^ http://www.fec.gov/pubrec/fe1982/federalelections82.pdf
  18. ^ "MN US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  19. ^ "Senators: Questions About Campaign Spending". TIME. 1982-09-27. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  20. ^ "Lodi News-Sentinel - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved December 20, 2017. 
  21. ^ "The Milwaukee Sentinel - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved December 20, 2017. 
  22. ^ "MS US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  23. ^ "Melcher Faces Difficult Test in Montana's Senate Primary". The New York Times. June 6, 1982. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Vets ask draft-protesting candidate to call it quits". The Spokesman-Review. May 31, 1982. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
  25. ^ a b "Report of the Official Canvass of the Vote Cast at the Primary Election Held in the State of Montana, June 1, 1976". Montana Secretary of State. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
  26. ^ "NV US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  27. ^ "Cresitello Quits Jersey Senate Race". The New York Times. May 28, 1982. Retrieved June 25, 2016. TRENTON, May 27— Former Mayor Donald Cresitello of Morristown withdrew today from the race for the Democratic nomination for United States Senator and endorsed former Representative Joseph A. LeFante of Bayonne. 
  28. ^ a b "Republican and Democratic Candidates for the Office of United States Senator" (PDF). Secretary of State of New Jersey. 1982. Retrieved June 25, 2016. 
  29. ^ a b c d Kornacki, Steve (January 14, 2013). "When Lautenberg's Age Met Booker's Ambition: An Elegy for the Swamp Dog". Capital New York. Retrieved June 5, 2013. 
  30. ^ Arnold, Laurence (June 3, 2013). "Frank Lautenberg, U.S. Senator From New Jersey, Dies at 89". Bloomberg News. Retrieved June 6, 2013. 
  31. ^ "Votes Cast for the Office of United States Senator" (PDF). Secretary of State of New Jersey. 1982. Retrieved June 25, 2016. 
  32. ^ "NY US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  33. ^ a b Sundquist, Renée M. Lamis ; with a foreword by James L. (2009). The realignment of Pennsylvania politics since 1960 : two-party competition in a battleground state. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 109. ISBN 027103419X. 
  34. ^ "RI US Senate - D Primary". OurCampaigns. Retrieved March 17, 2014. 
  35. ^ "RI US Senate". OurCampaigns. Retrieved March 17, 2014. 
  36. ^ a b "Primary Election Results" (PDF). Office of the Vermont Secretary of State. Retrieved June 15, 2015. 
  37. ^ "General Election Results - U.S. Senator - 1914-2014" (PDF). Office of the Vermont Secretary of State. Retrieved June 15, 2015. 
  38. ^ Dr. Michael McDonald (March 25, 2013). "Turnout 1980-2012". George Mason University. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2013. 
  39. ^ 40229Olympia, Contact Us Washington Secretary of StateElections Division520 Union Ave SEPO Box; Policy, WA 98504-0229902-4180 Privacy. "Election Search Results - Elections & Voting - WA Secretary of State". Retrieved December 20, 2017. 
  40. ^ "WV US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 8, 2013.