United States Senate elections, 1994

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United States Senate elections, 1994

← 1992 November 8, 1994 1996 →

Class 1 (33 of the 100 seats)
(and 2 special elections)
51 seats needed for a majority

  Majority party Minority party
  Bob Dole, PCCWW photo portrait.JPG GeorgeJMitchellPortrait.jpg
Leader Bob Dole George Mitchell
(retired)
Party Republican Democratic
Leader since January 3, 1985 January 3, 1989
Leader's seat Kansas Maine
Seats before 43 57
Seats after 52 48
Seat change Increase 9 Decrease 9
Popular vote 28,613,349 25,234,942
Percentage 49.9% 44.0%
Swing Increase 5.5% Decrease 5.2%
Seats up 13 20
Races won 19 14

1994 Senate election map.svg
Results of the 1994 general & special elections
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold

Majority leader before election

George Mitchell
Democratic

Elected Majority leader

Bob Dole
Republican

The United States Senate elections, 1994 were elections held November 8, 1994, in which the Republican Party was able to take control of the Senate from the Democrats. In a midterm election, the opposition Republicans held the traditional advantage. Congressional Republicans campaigned against the early presidency of Bill Clinton, including his unsuccessful health care plan.[citation needed]

The Republicans successfully defended all of its seats and captured eight seats from the Democrats, including the seats of sitting Senators Harris Wofford (Pennsylvania) and Jim Sasser (Tennessee), as well as six open seats in Arizona, Maine, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Tennessee. Notably, since Sasser's defeat coincided with a Republican victory in the special election to replace Al Gore, Tennessee's Senate delegation switched from entirely Democratic to entirely Republican in a single election.

This election marked the first time Republicans controlled the Senate since January 1987, and coincided with the first change of control in the House of Representatives since January 1955 and a Republican net gain of ten governorships. Collectively, these Republican gains are known as the Republican Revolution. Minority leader Robert J. Dole became Majority Leader, while on the Democratic side, Tom Daschle became Minority Leader after the retirement of the previous Democratic leader, George J. Mitchell. This was also the first time since 1980 that Republicans made net gains in the Senate, but the last time the Republicans also made gains among class 1 senators.

Initially, the balance was 52–48 in favor of the Republicans, but after the power change, Democrats Richard Shelby and Ben Nighthorse Campbell switched parties, bringing the balance to 54–46. Democrat Ron Wyden won a 1996 special election to replace Republican Bob Packwood, leaving the balance at 53–47 before the next election cycle.

Results summary[edit]

48 52
Democratic Republican
Parties Total Seats Popular Vote
1992 1994 +/- Vote %
Republican Party 43 52 Increase 9 28,613,349 49.93%
Democratic Party 57 48 Decrease 9 25,234,942 44.04%
Libertarian Party 666,183 1.16%
Others 2,791,007 4.87%
Total 100 100 57,305,481 100.0%

Source: Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives (1995). "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1994". 

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Ran
D39
Ran
D38
Ran
D37
Ran
D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41
Ran
D42
Ran
D43
Ran
D44
Ran
D45
Ran
D46
Ran
D47
Ran
D48
Ran
D49
Ran
D50
Ran
Majority → D51
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Retired
R43
Retired
R44
Retired
D56
Retired
D55
Retired
D54
Retired
D53
Retired
D52
Ran
R40
Ran
R39
Ran
R38
Ran
R37
Ran
R36
Ran
R35
Ran
R34
Ran
R33
Ran
R32
Ran
R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the general elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Ran
D39
Ran
D38
Ran
D37
Ran
D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41
Re-elected
D42
Re-elected
D43
Re-elected
D44
Re-elected
D45
Re-elected
D46
Re-elected
D47
Re-elected
D48
Re-elected
D49
Re-elected
D50
Re-elected
No Majority
R41
Re-elected
R42
Hold
R43
Hold
R44
Hold
R45
Gain
R46
Gain
R47
Gain
R48
Gain
R49
Gain
R50
Gain
R40
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R38
Re-elected
R37
Re-elected
R36
Re-elected
R35
Re-elected
R34
Re-elected
R33
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the November 1994 special elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40 D39 D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48 R52
Gain
R51
Gain
Majority →
R41 R42 R43 R44 R45 R46 R47 R48 R49 R50
R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican

Race summary[edit]

Special elections during the 103rd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated between January 1, 1994 and January 2, 1995, sorted by election date, then state, then class.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Harlan Matthews Democratic 1993 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 8, 1994.
Republican gain.
Fred Thompson (Republican) 61%
Jim Cooper (Democratic) 39%
Oklahoma
(Class 2)
David L. Boren Democratic 1978
1984
1990
Incumbent resigned, effective with the election.
New senator elected November 8, 1994.
Republican gain.
James Inhofe (Republican) 55.2%
Dave McCurdy (Democratic) 40%
Danny Corn (Independent) 4.8%

Elections leading to the next Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1995; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Arizona Dennis DeConcini Democratic 1976
1982
1988
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Jon Kyl (Republican) 53.7%
Sam Coppersmith (Democratic) 39.5%
Scott Grainger (Libertarian) 6.8%
California Dianne Feinstein Democratic 1992 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Dianne Feinstein (Democratic) 46.7%
Michael Huffington (Republican) 44.8%
Elizabeth Barron (Peace and Freedom) 3%
Richard Boddie (Libertarian) 2.1%
Paul Meeuwenberg (AIP) 1.7%
Barbara Blong (Green) 1.7%
Connecticut Joe Lieberman Democratic 1988 Incumbent re-elected. Joe Lieberman (Democratic) 67%
Jerry Labriola (Republican) 31%
Gary R. Garneau (Constitution) 1.9%
Delaware William Roth Republican 1970
1971 (Appointed)
1976
1982
1988
Incumbent re-elected. William Roth (Republican) 55.8%
Charles Oberly (Democratic) 42.5%
John C. Dierick (Libertarian) 1.7%
Florida Connie Mack III Republican 1988 Incumbent re-elected. Connie Mack III (Republican) 70.5%
Hugh Rodham (Democratic) 30.5%
Hawaii Daniel Akaka Democratic 1990 (Appointed)
1990 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected. Daniel Akaka (Democratic) 71.8%
Maria Hustace (Republican) 24.2%
Richard Rowland (Libertarian) 4%
Indiana Richard Lugar Republican 1976
1982
1988
Incumbent re-elected. Richard Lugar (Republican) 67.4%
Jim Jontz (Democratic) 30.5%
Barbara Bourland (Libertarian) 1.1%
Mary Catherine Barton (NAP) 1%
Maine George J. Mitchell Democratic 1980 (Appointed)
1982
1988
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Olympia Snowe (Republican) 60.2%
Thomas Andrews (Democratic) 36.4%
Plato Truman (Independent) 3.4%
Maryland Paul Sarbanes Democratic 1976
1982
1988
Incumbent re-elected. Paul Sarbanes (Democratic) 59.1%
Bill Brock (Republican) 40.9%
Massachusetts Ted Kennedy Democratic 1962 (Special)
1964
1970
1976
1982
1988
Incumbent re-elected. Ted Kennedy (Democratic) 58.1%
Mitt Romney (Republican) 41%
Lauraleigh Dozier (Libertarian) 0.7%
William A. Ferguson, Jr. (LaRouche Was Right) 0.2%
Michigan Donald W. Riegle Jr. Democratic 1976
1976 (Appointed)
1982
1988
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Spencer Abraham (Republican) 51.9%
Bob Carr (Democratic) 42.7%
Jon Coon (Libertarian) 4.2%
William Roundtree (Workers World) 0.7%
Chris Wege (Natural Law) 0.5%
Minnesota David Durenberger Republican 1978 (Special)
1982
1988
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Rod Grams (Republican) 49.1%
Ann Wynia (DFL) 44.1%
Dean Barkley (Reform) 5.4%
Candice E. Sjostrom (Grassroots) 0.9%
Stephen Johnson (Natural Law) 0.3%
Chris Wege (Socialist Workers) 0.1%
Mississippi Trent Lott Republican 1988 Incumbent re-elected. Trent Lott (Republican) 68.8%
Ken Harper (Democratic) 31.2%
Missouri John Danforth Republican 1976
1976 (Appointed)
1982
1988
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
John Ashcroft (Republican) 59.8%
Alan Wheat (Democratic) 35.7%
Bill Johnson (Libertarian) 4.6%
Montana Conrad Burns Republican 1988 Incumbent re-elected. Conrad Burns (Republican) 62.4%
Jack Mudd (Democratic) 37.6%
Nebraska Bob Kerrey Democratic 1988 Incumbent re-elected. Bob Kerrey (Democratic) 55%
Jan Stoney (Republican) 45%
Nevada Richard Bryan Democratic 1988 Incumbent re-elected. Richard Bryan (Democratic) 50.9%
Hal Furman (Republican) 41%
Anna Nevenich (Independent) 1.8%
Bob Days (Libertarian) 1.6%
Neal A. Grasteit (Independent American) 1.4%
New Jersey Frank Lautenberg Democratic 1982
1982 (Appointed)
1988
Incumbent re-elected. Frank Lautenberg (Democratic) 50.4%
Chuck Haytaian (Republican) 47%
Michael P. Kelly (Keep America First) 0.7%
Ben Grindlinger (Libertarian) 0.7%
Richard J. Pezzullo (Conservative) 0.4%
Andrea Lippi (Jobs, Property Rights) 0.3%
George Patrick Predham (Damn Drug Dealers) 0.2%
Joanne Kuniansky (Socialist Workers Party) 0.2%
Arlene Gold (Natural Law Party) 0.2%
New Mexico Jeff Bingaman Democratic 1982
1988
Incumbent re-elected. Jeff Bingaman (Democratic) 54%
Colin McMillan (Republican) 46%
New York Daniel Patrick Moynihan Democratic 1976
1982
1988
Incumbent re-elected. Daniel Patrick Moynihan (Democratic) 55%
Bernadette Castro (Republican) 42.3%
Henry F. Hewes (Right-to-Life) 1.8%
Ismael Betancourt, Jr. (Independence (N.Y.)) 0.5%
Norma Segal (Libertarian) 0.3%
Naomi L. Craine (Socialist Workers) 0.3%
North Dakota Kent Conrad Democratic–NPL 1992 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Kent Conrad (Democratic) 58%
Ben Clayburgh (Republican) 42%
Ohio Howard Metzenbaum Democratic 1974 (Appointed)
1974 (Lost)
1974 (Resigned)
1976
1976 (Appointed)
1982
1988
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Mike DeWine (Republican) 53.4%
Joel Hyatt (Democratic) 39.2%
Joseph Slovenec (Independent) 7.3%
Pennsylvania Harris Wofford Democratic 1991 (Appointed)
1991 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Rick Santorum (Republican) 49.4%
Harris Wofford (Democratic) 46.9%
Diane Blough (Patriot) 2%
Donald C. Ernsberger (Libertarian) 1.7%
Rhode Island John Chafee Republican 1976
1976 (Appointed)
1988
Incumbent re-elected. John Chafee (Republican) 64%
Linda Kushner (Democratic) 36%
Tennessee Jim Sasser Democratic 1976
1982
1988
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Bill Frist (Republican) 56.4%
Jim Sasser (D) 42.1%
Texas Kay Bailey Hutchison Republican 1993 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Kay Bailey Hutchison (Republican) 60.8%
Richard W. Fisher (Democratic) 38.3%
Pierre Blondeau (Libertarian) 0.8%
Utah Orrin Hatch Republican 1976
1982
1988
Incumbent re-elected. Orrin Hatch (Republican) 68.8%
Patrick Shea (Democratic) 28.3%
Craig Oliver (Independent) 1.8%
Gary R. Van Horn (American) 0.5%
Nelson Gonzalez (Socialist Workers) 0.3%
Lawrence Rey Topham (Independent American) 0.3%
Vermont Jim Jeffords Republican 1988 Incumbent re-elected. Jim Jeffords (Republican) 50.3%
Jan Backus (Democratic) 40.6%
Gavin T. Mills (Independent) 5.9%
Matthew S. Mulligan (Independent) 1.4%
Bob Melamede (Grassroots) 0.7%
Jerry Levy (Liberty Union) 0.6%
Joseph Victor Pardo (Natural Law Party) 0.3%
Virginia Chuck Robb Democratic 1988 Incumbent re-elected. Chuck Robb (Democratic) 45.6%
Oliver North (Republican) 42.9%
J. Marshall Coleman (Independent) 11.4%
Washington Slade Gorton Republican 1980
1986 (Lost)
1988
Incumbent re-elected. Slade Gorton (Republican) 55.75%
Ron Sims (Democratic) 44.25%
West Virginia Robert Byrd Democratic 1958
1964
1970
1976
1982
1988
Incumbent re-elected. Robert Byrd (Democratic) 69%
Stanley L. Klos (Republican) 31%
Wisconsin Herb Kohl Democratic 1988 Incumbent re-elected. Herb Kohl (Democratic) 58%
Robert Welch (Republican) 40.7%
James Dean (Libertarian) 1%
Wyoming Malcolm Wallop Republican 1976
1982
1988
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Craig Thomas (Republican) 58.9%
Mike Sullivan (Democratic) 39.3%
Craig McCune (Libertarian) 1.8%

Special elections during the 104th Congress[edit]

There were no special elections in 1995 after January 3.

Arizona[edit]

Arizona election

← 1988
2000 →

  Jon Kyl, official 109th Congress photo.jpg Sam Coppersmith.jpg
Nominee Jon Kyl Sam Coppersmith
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 600,999 442,510
Percentage 53.7% 39.5%

 
Nominee Scott Grainger
Party Libertarian
Popular vote 75,493
Percentage 6.8%

1994 Arizona.png
U.S. Senate election results map.
Red denotes counties won by Kyl.
Blue denotes those won by Coppersmith.

U.S. Senator before election

Dennis DeConcini
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Jon Kyl
Republican

Three-term Democratic incumbent Dennis DeConcini retired after being a member of the Keating Five Scandal. Republican Congressman Jon Kyl defeated his Democratic opponent, fellow Congressman Sam Coppersmith by a comfortable margin.

Democratic primary results[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Sam Coppersmith 81,995 32.15%
Democratic Richard Mahoney 81,863 32.10%
Democratic Cindy Resnick 75,563 29.63%
Democratic David Moss 15,612 6.12%
Total votes 200,120 100.00%
Republican primary results[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jon Kyl 231,275 99.04%
Republican Write-ins 2,248 0.96%
Total votes 231,733 100.00%
Libertarian primary results[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Libertarian Scott Grainger 5,424 100.00%
Total votes 5,424 100.00%
General election results[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jon Kyl 600,999 53.71% +12.65%
Democratic Sam Coppersmith 442,510 39.54% -17.17%
Libertarian Scott Grainger 75,493 6.75% +4.96%
Write-ins 58 0.00%
Majority 158,489 14.16% -1.50%
Turnout 1,119,060
Republican gain from Democratic Swing

California[edit]

California election

← 1992
2000 →

  Dianne Feinstein congressional portrait.jpg Michael Huffington 1993 congressional photo.jpg
Nominee Dianne Feinstein Michael Huffington
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 3,979,152 3,817,025
Percentage 46.74% 44.83%

CA1994SenCounties.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Dianne Feinstein
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Dianne Feinstein
Democratic

Dianne Feinstein won a special election in 1992 to fill the seat of Governor Pete Wilson. She faced wealthy Republican Congressman Michael Huffington in her race for a full term. Feinstein emerged victorious by less than two points.

1994 United States Senate Democratic primary, California
Candidate Votes %
Dianne Feinstein (Incumbent) 1,635,837 74.20
Ted J. Andromedas 297,128 13.48
Daniel O'Dowd 271,615 12.32
Total votes 2,204,580 100.00
1994 United States Senate Republican primary, California
Candidate Votes %
Michael Huffington 1,072,358 53.79
William E. Dannemeyer 565,864 28.38
Kate Squires 202,950 10.18
James Peter Gough 58,853 2.95
Wolf G. Dalichau 58,307 2.92
John M. Brown 35,212 1.77
Total votes 1,993,544 100.00
1994 United States Senate Peace & Freedom primary, California
Candidate Votes %
Elizabeth Cervantes Barron 3,487 70.70
Larry D. Hampshire 1,445 29.30
Total votes 4,932 100.00
1994 United States Senate primary, California (Others)
Party Candidate Votes %
Libertarian (Calif.) Richard Benjamin Boddie 120,622 100.00%
American Independent Paul Meeuwenberg 13,596 100.00%
Green (Calif.) Barbara Blong N/A 100.00%

After one term in the House representing Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo counties, Huffington spent $8 million by the end of August and a total of $28 million during the entire campaign. He became wealthy off oil and gas. The race saw personal attacks on Huffington's wife, Arianna Huffington, who was very involved in the race (the media dubbed her the "Sir Edmund Hillary of social climbing," according to The Almanac of American Politics).

Huffington was called a hypocrite for supporting Proposition 187 and then breaking the law for employing illegal aliens, a story which came out in the race's final days.[3] A grand total of $44 million was spent in the election. At the time, it was the most expensive campaign in a non-presidential election in American history. Chris Cillizza of the Washington Post named the election one of the nastiest senate elections in modern history.[4]

On election day it was a very close race, but Feinstein won Los Angeles County, which may have pulled her ahead. Her sizable win in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area may also be credited to her slim statewide victory.

1994 United States Senate election in California
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Dianne Feinstein (Incumbent) 3,979,152 46.74%
Republican Michael Huffington 3,817,025 44.83%
Peace and Freedom Elizabeth Cervantes Barron 255,301 3.00%
Libertarian Richard Benjamin Boddie 179,100 2.10%
American Independent Paul Meeuwenberg 142,771 1.68%
Green Barbara Blong 140,567 1.65%
No party Write-ins 173 0.00%
Invalid or blank votes 386,547 4.48%
Total votes 8,636,900 100.00%
Turnout {{{votes}}} 46.98%
Democratic hold

Connecticut[edit]

Connecticut election

← 1988
2000 →

  Joe Lieberman official portrait.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Joe Lieberman Jerry Labriola
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 723,842 334,833
Percentage 67.0% 31.0%

Connecticut Election Results by County, all Democratic.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Joe Lieberman
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Joe Lieberman
Democratic

Freshman Democratic incumbent Joseph Lieberman easily won re-election over Republican physician Jerry Labriola.

General election results[5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Joe Lieberman (Incumbent) 723,842 † 67.0%
Republican Jerry Labriola 334,833 31.0%
Concerned Citizens Gary R. Garneau 20,988 1.9%
Write-in Write-in candidates (3) 103 0.01%
Total votes 1,079,766 100.0%
Democratic hold

† Includes 280,049 votes received on the line of A Connecticut Party, which cross-endorsed Lieberman.

Delaware[edit]

Delaware election

← 1988
2000 →

  Sen. William V. Roth (R-DE).jpg Charles Oberly US Attorney.JPG
Nominee William Roth Charles Oberly
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 111,074 84,540
Percentage 55.8% 42.5%

U.S. Senator before election

William Roth
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

William Roth
Republican

Veteran Republican incumbent William Roth, seeking his fifth term, fended off a challenge from Charles Oberly, the state's three-term Democratic attorney general, beating him by 13 points.

General election results[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican William Roth (Incumbent) 111,074 55.82% -6.25%
Democratic Charles Oberly 84,540 42.48% +4.54%
Libertarian John Dierickx 3,386 1.70%
Majority 26,534 13.33% -10.79%
Turnout 199,000
Republican hold Swing

Florida[edit]

Florida election

← 1988
2000 →

  Conniemackiii.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Connie Mack III Hugh Rodham
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 2,895,200 1,210,577
Percentage 70.5% 29.5%

United States Senate election in Florida, 1994.png

U.S. Senators before election

Connie Mack III
Republican

Elected U.S. Senators

Connie Mack III
Republican

Republican incumbent Connie Mack III won a second term by scoring an easy re-election over attorney Hugh Rodham, brother of First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Republican primary results
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Connie Mack Unopposed 100.0
Democratic primary results[7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Hugh Rodham 255,605 33.78
Democratic Mike Wiley 188,551 24.92
Democratic Ellis Rubin 161,386 21.33
Democratic A. Perez 151,121 19.97
Total votes 756,663 100
Democratic primary runoff results[8]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Hugh Rodham 221,424 58.09
Democratic Mike Wiley 159,776 41.91
Total votes 381,200 100

Rodham left the public defenders office to run for the United States Senate in Florida in 1994. He won the Democratic Party nomination by defeating Mike Wiley in a runoff election,[9][10] after earlier finishing first in a four-person primary field with 34 percent.[10] After the first primary, the third-place finisher, flamboyant Miami lawyer and perennial losing candidate Ellis Rubin,[11] joined forces with Rodham as a "senior executive consultant" and hatchet man.[12] In the presence of Rodham at a press conference, Rubin levelled the accusation that Wiley was hiding his Jewish faith by changing his name from his birth name, Michael Schreibman,[10][11] and that Wiley "changed his name before the campaign to deceive voters about his Jewish religion." Wiley accordingly refused to endorse Rodham after the runoff.[10] Rodham then lost by a 70%-30% margin to incumbent Senator Republican Connie Mack III in the general election.[13] Although Bill and Hillary Clinton both campaigned for him, his organization was unable to take advantage of their help,[14] he had few funds, almost no television commercials, and little support from the Florida Democratic party establishment in a year that saw Republican gains everywhere.[13][15] After the election, Rubin switched allegiance again and charged Rodham with election law violations in the first primary; the Federal Elections Commission eventually dismissed the allegations.[16]

General election results[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Connie Mack 2,895,200 70.50 +20.10
Democratic Hugh Rodham 1,210,577 29.48 -20.12
Write-ins 1,039 0.02
Majority 1,684,623 41.02 +40.22
Turnout 5,856,731
Republican hold Swing

Hawaii[edit]

Hawaii election

← 1990
2000 →

  Akakad.PNG No image.svg
Nominee Daniel Akaka Maria Hustace
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 256,189 86,320
Percentage 71.8% 24.2%

Hawaii Election Results by County, all Democratic.svg
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

Daniel Akaka
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Daniel Akaka
Democratic

Democratic incumbent Daniel Akaka was first appointed to this seat April 1990 after the death of Senator Spark Matsunaga. He won his first full term by defeating Republican cattle rancher Mary Hustace[18] in a landslide.

Hawaii United States Senate election, 1994[19]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Daniel Akaka (Incumbent) 256,189 71.8%
Republican Maria Hustace 86,320 24.2%
Libertarian Richard Rowland 14,393 4.0%
Majority
Turnout
Democratic hold

Indiana[edit]

Indiana election

← 1988
2000 →

  Dick Lugar official photo.jpg Jim Jontz.jpg
Nominee Richard Lugar Jim Jontz
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,039,625 470,799
Percentage 67.4% 30.5%

INSenCounties00.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Richard Lugar
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Richard Lugar
Republican

Three-term Republican incumbent Richard Lugar scored an overwhelming 37-point win against former Democratic Rep. Jim Jontz, who was attempting a comeback after losing re-election in 1992.

General election results[20]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Richard Lugar (Incumbent) 1,039,625 67.4%
Democratic Jim Jontz 470,799 30.5%
Libertarian Barbara Bourland 17,343 1.1%
New Alliance Mary Catherine Barton 15,801 1.0%
Majority 568,826
Turnout 1,543,568
Republican hold Swing

Lugar won 91 of Indiana's 92 counties, Jontz won only the Democratic stronghold of Lake County.[21]

Maine[edit]

Maine election

← 1988 November 7, 1994 2000 →

  Olympia Snowe, official photo 2.JPG Thomas Andrews 1991.jpeg
Nominee Olympia Snowe Tom Andrews
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 308,244 186,042
Percentage 60.24% 36.36%

06MaineSenateCounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

George J. Mitchell
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Olympia Snowe
Republican

One of the Republicans' biggest prizes was the seat of retiring Majority Leader George Mitchell. Longtime Congresswoman Olympia Snowe gained the seat in a landslide victory over Democratic Congressman Thomas Andrews, a stark contrast to retiring Senator Mitchell's landslide win six years prior.

Democratic primary results[22]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Tom Andrews 82,339 99.83
Democratic Write-ins 140 0.17
Total votes 82,479 100.00
Republican primary results[23]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Olympia Snowe 79,953 99.88
Republican Write-ins 93 0.12
Total votes 80,046 100.00
United States Senate election in Maine, 1994[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Olympia Snowe 308,244 60.24% +41.53%
Democratic Tom Andrews 186,042 36.36% -44.94%
Independent Plato Truman 17,205 3.36%
Write-ins 242 0.05%
Majority 122,202 23.88% -38.70%
Turnout 511,733
Republican gain from Democratic Swing

Maryland[edit]

Maryland election

← 1988 November 7, 1994 2000 →

  Paul Sarbanes, official color photo.jpg Bill brock.jpg
Nominee Paul Sarbanes Bill Brock
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 809,125 559,908
Percentage 59.1% 40.9%

U.S. Senator before election

Paul S. Sarbanes
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Paul S. Sarbanes
Democratic

Democratic incumbent Paul Sarbanes won a third term by soundly defeating Republican Bill Brock, a former U.S. Senator from Tennessee (1971–77), RNC chairman (1977-81), U.S. Trade Representative (1981–85) and U.S. Secretary of Labor (1985–87).

General election results[24]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Paul Sarbanes 809,125 59.1
Republican Bill Brock 559,908 40.9
Independent Terri Tilghman Deakyne (Write In) 71 0.0

Massachusetts[edit]

Massachusetts election

← 1988
2000 →

  TedKennedy(D-MA).jpg Romney 1994 No Watermark (cropped).jpg
Nominee Ted Kennedy Mitt Romney
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,265,997 894,000
Percentage 58.1% 41.0%

1994 MA Senate.png
Results by town. Red indicates towns carried by Mitt Romney, blue indicates towns carried by Ted Kennedy.

U.S. Senator before election

Ted Kennedy
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Ted Kennedy
Democratic

Ted Kennedy usually coasted to re-election, but in this election he faced an unusually tough challenge from Republican businessman Mitt Romney. Though the final result was a 17-point Kennedy victory, it marked the first time since his initial election in 1962 that Kennedy received less than 60% of the vote.

Romney defeated his closest competitor, John Lakian, to win the Republican primary with over 80% of the vote. He campaigned as a political moderate and Washington outsider, and posed the greatest challenge ever made against Kennedy for the Senate seat since he first took office in 1962. Democratic congressmen across the country were struggling to maintain their seats, and Kennedy in particular was damaged by character concerns and an ongoing divorce controversy. The contest became very close.

Kennedy launched ads criticizing Romney's tenure as the leader of the company known as Bain Capital, accusing him of treating workers unfairly and taking away jobs, while also criticizing what were widely considered to be Romney's shifting political views. Romney also performed inadequately in the debates between the two candidates, and made a number of poorly received statements that reduced his standing in the polls.

In the closest Senate election of his career since after 1962, Kennedy won by a reasonably comfortable margin, despite a series of losses for Democrats around the country.

Romney was initially behind businessman John Lakian in the battle to win the Massachusetts Republican Party's nomination for the U.S. Senate.[25] However, after using his personal wealth to advertise heavily on television, he gained overwhelming support at the state party convention.[25]

Romney then defeated Lakian easily in the September 1994 Republican Party primary with over 80 percent of the vote.[26][27]

Massachusetts United States Senate Republican primary, 1994[28]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Mitt Romney 188,280 82.04
Republican John Lakian 40,898 17.82
Others 318 0.14
Total votes 229,496 100

In the general election, Kennedy faced the first serious re-election challenger of his career in the younger, telegenic, and very well-funded Romney.[29] Romney ran as a successful entrepreneur and Washington outsider with a strong family image and moderate stands on social issues.[29] After two decades out of public view, his father George re-emerged during the campaign.[30][31] George Romney had urged Mitt to enter the race and moved into his son's house for its duration, serving as an unofficial advisor.[32][33]

Kennedy was more vulnerable than usual in 1994, in part because of the unpopularity of the Democratic Congress as a whole and also because this was Kennedy's first election since the William Kennedy Smith trial in Florida, in which Kennedy had taken some public relations hits regarding his character.[29] Kennedy was saddled not only with his recent past but the 25th anniversary of the Chappaquiddick incident and his first wife Joan Bennett Kennedy seeking a renegotiated divorce settlement.[29]

Some early polls showed Romney close to Kennedy. By mid-September 1994, polls showed the race to be even.[29][34] One Boston Herald/WCVB-TV poll taken after the September 20, 1994 primary showed Romney ahead 44 percent to 42 percent, within the poll's sampling margin of error.[35] In another September poll, Romney had a 43 to 42 percent lead.[36] President Bill Clinton traveled to Massachusetts to campaign for Kennedy.[37]

Religion became an issue for a while, after Kennedy's campaign said it was fair to ask Romney about his LDS Church's past policy of not allowing blacks into the priesthood.[27] Romney accused Kennedy of having violated Senator John F. Kennedy's famous September 1960 pledge not to allow his own Catholic doctrine to inform policy, made during his ultimately victorious presidential campaign.[27] George Romney forcefully interjected during his son's press conference, "I think it is absolutely wrong to keep hammering on the religious issues. And what Ted is trying to do is bring it into the picture."[27]

After Romney touted his business credentials and his record at creating jobs within his company, Kennedy ran campaign ads showing an Indiana company, Ampad, bought out by Romney's firm, Bain Capital. They showed interviews with its union workers who had been fired and who criticized Romney for the loss of their jobs, with one saying, "I don't think Romney is creating jobs because he took every one of them away."[38] Romney claimed that 10,000 jobs were created because of his work at Bain, but private detectives hired by Kennedy found a factory bought by Bain Capital that had suffered a 350-worker strike after Bain had cut worker pay and benefits.[39] Kennedy's charges were effective, as more voters decided that Romney was interested in profits more than people.[27]

Kennedy's attack ads also focused both on Romney's shifting political views;[29][40] although both Kennedy and Romney supported the abortion rights established under Roe v. Wade, Kennedy accused Romney of being "multiple choice" on the issue, rather than "pro choice."[41] Romney said his stance dated back to his mother, Lenore Romney, and her position during her 1970 U.S. Senate campaign: "My mother and my family have been committed to the belief that we can believe as we want, but we will not force our beliefs on others on that matter. And you will not see me wavering on that."[27] Nevertheless, women's groups and Democrats viewed Romney's position with suspicion.[27] (In subsequent years, Romney became pro-life and opposed Roe.[42])

Kennedy's campaign ran short on money, and belying his image as endlessly wealthy, he was forced to take out a second mortgage on his Virginia home.[43] Romney spent over $7 million of his own money, with Kennedy spending more than $10 million from his campaign fund, mostly in the last weeks of the campaign (this was the second-most expensive race of the 1994 election cycle, after the Dianne FeinsteinMichael Huffington Senate race in California).[44] Kennedy's new wife Vicki Reggie Kennedy proved to be a strong asset in campaigning.[34]

By early October, Kennedy was ahead by 49 to 44 percent in a Boston Globe poll.[27] In their first televised debate, held at Faneuil Hall on October 25, Kennedy came out charging with his aging but still booming voice; regarding the Ampad deal, he said to Romney, "I don't know why you wouldn't meet with the strikers with that flimflam deal of yours out there in Indiana."[27] Romney charged that Kennedy had benefited from a real-estate deal that had been done on a no-bid basis, but Kennedy responded with a rehearsed line: "Mr. Romney, the Kennedys are not in public service to make money. We have paid too high a price in our commitment to the public service of this country."[27] Each candidate was asked to discuss one of their own failings. In a dramatic moment, Kennedy indirectly referred to his personal problems and acknowledged that he was "painfully aware" that on such occasions he had let his supporters down. By contrast, Romney mentioned work for several local charities he was engaged with on a near daily basis. When the moderator reminded him of the question, Romney responded "I guess what I regret is that I'm not able to provide even more help for those less fortunate than myself.... I wish I could do even more." Kennedy won this key debate as he reconnected with his traditional bases of support:[29] two polls of voters conducted afterwards both showed Kennedy as the victor in the debate.[45] One post-debate October general election poll showed Kennedy leading 50 percent to 32,[39] and another by 56 to 36 percent.[27] A second debate, held two days later at Holyoke Community College, focused more on policy details and lacked the intensity of the first one; Romney failed to gain any traction from it.[45]

In the November general election, despite a very bad result for Democrats overall, Kennedy won re-election by a 58 percent to 41 percent margin,[46] the closest re-election race of his career; only his initial victory in the 1962 Senate special election in Massachusetts was closer.[47]

Massachusetts United States Senate election, 1994
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Edward M. Kennedy (Incumbent) 1,265,997 58.07 –6.90
Republican Mitt Romney 894,000 41.01 +7.08
Libertarian Lauraleigh Dozier 14,484 0.66 +0.15
LaRouche Was Right William A. Ferguson, Jr. 4,776 0.22 +0.22
Others 688 0.03 +.02
Total votes 2,179,945 71.54

Michigan[edit]

Michigan election

← 1988
2000 →

  Spencer Abraham.jpg Milton Robert Carr.jpeg
Nominee Spencer Abraham Bob Carr
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,578,770 1,300,960
Percentage 51.9% 42.8%

U.S. Senator before election

Don Riegle
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Spencer Abraham
Republican

Democratic Senator Donald W. Riegle, Jr. retired after three terms. Former Michigan Republican Party Chairman Spencer Abraham defeated Democratic Congressman Milton Robert Carr in the race to succeed Riegle.

Riegle, a three-term incumbent, was considered one of the most vulnerable Senate Democrats in the 1994 mid-term elections, due to the unpopularity of President Bill Clinton[48] and his being involved as a member of the Keating Five, a group of five United States Senators who were accused of corruption. After months of speculation, Riegle announced he would not seek a 4th term in a speech on the Senate floor.[49]

General election results[50]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Spencer Abraham 1,578,770 51.9
Democratic Bob Carr 1,300,960 42.8
Libertarian Jon Coon 128,393 4.2
Workers World William Roundtree 20,010 0.7
Natural Law Chris Wege 14,746 0.5

Minnesota[edit]

Minnesota election

← 1988
2000 →

  Rgrams.gif No image.svg
Nominee Rod Grams Ann Wynia
Party Independent-Republican DFL
Popular vote 869,653 781,860
Percentage 49.1% 44.1%

  Dean Barkley.jpg
Nominee Dean Barkley
Party Independence
Popular vote 95,400
Percentage 5.4%

U.S. Senator before election

David Durenberger
Independent-Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Rod Grams
Independent-Republican

Incumbent Republican David Durenberger decided to retire instead of seeking a third full term. Republican Rod Grams won the open seat. After surviving a messy Republican primary, former TV news anchor and one-term Rep. Rod Grams defeated his Democratic opponent, former state assembly minority leader Ann Wynia by five points for the seat being vacated by incumbent Republican Dave Durenberger.

General election results
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Rod Grams 869,653 49.1
Democratic Ann Wynia 781,860 44.1
Independence Dean Barkley 95,400 5.4
Independent Candice E. Sjostrom 15,920 0.9
Natural Law Party (United States) Stephen Johnson 5,054 0.3
Socialist Workers Marea Himelgrin 2,428 0.1

Mississippi[edit]

Mississippi election

← 1988 November 7, 1994 2000 →

  Trent Lott official portrait.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Trent Lott Ken Harper
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 418,333 189,752
Percentage 68.8% 31.2%

U.S. Senator before election

Trent Lott
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Trent Lott
Republican

Republican incumbent Trent Lott won a second term by easily defeating former Democratic state senator Ken Harper.[51]

General election results[52]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Trent Lott (Incumbent) 418,333 68.8
Democratic Ken Harper 189,752 31.2

Missouri[edit]

Missouri election

← 1988
2000 →

  Senator John Ashcroft1.jpg Rep. Alan Wheat.jpg
Nominee John Ashcroft Alan Wheat
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,060,149 633,697
Percentage 59.7% 35.7%

94MOSenateCounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

John Danforth
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

John Ashcroft
Republican

Republican Senator John Danforth retired after three terms. Former Republican Gov. John Ashcroft defeated his Democratic opponent, six-term Rep. Alan Wheat by more than twenty points.

Missouri United States Senate election, 1994
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican John Ashcroft 1,060,149 59.72
Democratic Alan Wheat 633,697 35.70
Libertarian Bill Johnson 81,264 4.58
Write-In Votes 6 0.0
Majority 426,452 24.02
Turnout 1,775,116

Montana[edit]

Montana election

← 1988
2000 →

  Conrad Burns official portrait.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Conrad Burns Jack Mudd
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 218,542 131,845
Percentage 62.4% 37.6%

U.S. Senator before election

Conrad Burns
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Conrad Burns
Republican

Democrat Jack Mudd, former dean of the University of Montana law school, defeated former U.S. Senator John Melcher in the Democratic primary and then went on to lose to Republican incumbent Conrad Burns, who was seeking a second term.

Democratic primary results[53]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Jack Mudd 58,371 47.20
Democratic John Melcher 39,607 32.03
Democratic Becky Shaw 25,688 20.77
Total votes 123,666 100.00
Republican Party primary results[53]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Conrad Burns (Incumbent) 82,827 100.00
Total votes 82,827 100.00
General election results[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Conrad Burns (Incumbent) 218,542 62.37% +10.50%
Democratic Jack Mudd 131,845 37.63% -10.50%
Majority 86,697 24.74% 21.01%
Turnout 350,387

Nebraska[edit]

Nebraska election

← 1988 November 3, 1994 2000 →

  Senator Bob Kerrey.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Bob Kerrey Jan Stoney
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 317,297 260,668
Percentage 55% 45%

U.S. Senator before election

Bob Kerrey
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Bob Kerrey
Democratic

Democrat Bob Kerrey won re-election over Republican Jan Stoney, Vice President of Personnel at Northwestern Bell, by ten points.[54]

1994 Nebraska U.S. Senate Election[17]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Bob Kerrey 317,297 54.78%
Republican Jan Stoney 260,668 45%
Independent Write Ins 1,240 0.21%
Majority
Turnout

Nevada[edit]

Nevada election

← 1988 November 3, 1994 2000 →

  Richard Bryan (colorized).jpg Hal Furman.jpg
Nominee Richard Bryan Hal Furman
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 193,804 156,020
Percentage 50.9% 41.0%

U.S. Senator before election

Richard Bryan
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Richard Bryan
Democratic

Democratic incumbent Richard H. Bryan scored a ten-point win over Republican Hal Furman,[55] a water policy advisor for the Interior Department.

General election results[56]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Richard Bryan (Incumbent) 193,804 50.9%
Republican Hal Furman 156,020 41.0%
Independent None of the Above 12,626 3.3%
Independent Anna Nevenic 6,666 1.8%
Libertarian Bob Days 5,964 1.6%
Independent Neal A. Grasteit 5,450 1.4%

New Jersey[edit]

New Jersey election

← 1988
2000 →

  Frank Lautenberg.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Frank Lautenberg Chuck Haytaian
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,033,487 966,244
Percentage 50.3% 47.0%

NJSenCounties98.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Frank Lautenberg
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Frank Lautenberg
Democratic

Two-term Democratic incumbent Frank Lautenberg narrowly defeated his Republican opponent, state assembly speaker Chuck Haytaian by three points.

General election results
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Frank Lautenberg 1,033,487 50.3%
Republican Chuck Haytaian 966,244 47.0%

New Mexico[edit]

New Mexico election

← 1988 November 3, 1994 2000 →

  Jeff-Bingaman.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Jeff Bingaman Colin McMillan
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 249,989 213,025
Percentage 54.0% 46.0%

New Mexico Senatorial Election Results by County, 1994.svg
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

Jeff Bingaman
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Jeff Bingaman
Democratic

Two-term Democratic incumbent Jeff Bingaman defeated his Republican opponent, former George H. W. Bush Assistant Secretary of Defense Colin McMillan by eight points.

Democratic primary results[58]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Jeff Bingaman (Incumbent) 165,148 100.00
Total votes 165,148 100.00
Republican primary results[58]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Colin R. McMillan 65,119 72.57
Republican Bill Turner 13,178 14.69
Republican Robin Dozier Otten 11,439 12.75
Total votes 89,736 100.00
General election results[59]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Jeff Bingaman (Incumbent) 249,989 53.97% -9.34%
Republican Colin R. McMillan 213,025 45.99% +9.31%
Write-ins 182 0.04%
Majority 36,964 7.98% -18.64%
Turnout 463,196
Democratic hold Swing

New York[edit]

New York election

← 1988
2000 →

  DanielPatrickMoynihan.jpg Bernadette Castro (cropped).jpg
Nominee Pat Moynihan Bernadette Castro
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 2,646,541 1,988,308
Percentage 55.3% 41.5%

NewYorkSenatorial1994.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Pat Moynihan
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Pat Moynihan
Democratic

Veteran Democratic incumbent Daniel Patrick Moynihan easily defeated his Republican opponent, businesswoman Bernadette Castro.

1994 was significant for the Republican Revolution, mostly as a referendum against President Bill Clinton and his health care plan, and was seen as a tough year for Democratic incumbents. Moynihan, however, was New York State's most popular politician at the time, and ran ahead of all other Democrats competing statewide.[60]

Republican Castro was running for office for the first time and had trouble raising funds due to being seen as unlikely to win; at times during the race she trailed by up to 30 percentage points.[60] She portrayed herself as a fiscally conservative, socially moderate Republican in the mold of Governor of New Jersey Christie Todd Whitman, and attempted to portray Moynihan as excessively liberal and prone to government spending.[60] But Moynihan repeated his past strong performance among upstate voters, in addition to the usual Democratic strongholds in New York City.[60]

General election results[61]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Daniel Patrick Moynihan (Incumbent) 2,646,541 55.3
Republican Bernadette Castro 1,988,308 41.5
Right to Life (N.Y.) Henrey Hewes 95,954 2.0
Independence Fusion Ismael Betancourt, Jr. 26,650 0.6
Libertarian Norma Segal 17,991 0.4
Socialist Workers Naomi Craine 14,892 0.3

North Dakota[edit]

North Dakota election

← 1992 November 7, 1994 2000 →

  Kent Conrad official portrait.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Kent Conrad Ben Clayburgh
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 137,157 99,390
Percentage 58.0% 42.0%

U.S. Senator before election

Kent Conrad
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Kent Conrad
Democratic

Incumbent Dem-NPL-er Kent Conrad won re-election to his first full term as Senior Senator, although technically his second term in the position, having served the end of Quentin Burdick's term after his death. Conrad also had served an additional term as senator, but as Junior Senator from 1986 to 1992.[17]

General election results
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Kent Conrad (Incumbent) 137,157 57.98
Republican Ben Clayburgh 99,390 42.02

Ohio[edit]

Ohio election

← 1988 November 7, 1994 2000 →

  Mike DeWine official photo.jpg Joel Hyatt (cropped).jpg
Nominee Mike DeWine Joel Hyatt
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,836,556 1,348,213
Percentage 53.4% 39.2%

 
Nominee Joseph Slovenec
Party Independent
Popular vote 252,031
Percentage 7.3%

Ohio US Senate Election Results by County, 1994.svg
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

Howard Metzenbaum
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Mike DeWine
Republican

Senator Howard Metzenbaum retired and his son-in-law Joel Hyatt received the Democratic nomination to succeed him. Hyatt would go on to be badly defeated by Lieutenant Governor Mike DeWine.

Ohio United States Senate Election, 1994[62]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Mike DeWine 1,836,556 53.4 +10.1%
Democratic Joel Hyatt 1,348,213 39.2 -17.2%
Independent Joe Slovenec 252,031 7.3 +0.00%
Majority 488,343
Turnout 3,436,800

Oklahoma (Special)[edit]

United States Senate special election in Oklahoma, 1994

← 1990
1996 →

  Jim Inhofe official photo (cropped).jpg Dave McCurdy.jpg
Nominee Jim Inhofe Dave McCurdy
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 542,390 392,488
Percentage 55.2% 40.0%

94OKSenateSpecialCounties.PNG
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

David L. Boren
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Jim Inhofe
Republican

Incumbent Democrat David L. Boren decided to resign his position to accept the position as President of the University of Oklahoma, which prompted a special election. Republican Congressman Jim Inhofe defeated the Democratic Congressman Dave McCurdy.

General election results[63]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jim Inhofe 542,390 55.21%
Democratic Dave McCurdy 392,488 39.95%
Independent Danny Corn 47,552 4.84%
Majority 149,902 15.26%
Turnout 982,430

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania election

← 1991
2000 →

  Congressman Rick Santorum 1991.jpg Harriswofford.jpg
Nominee Rick Santorum Harris Wofford
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,735,691 1,648,481
Percentage 49.4% 46.9%

Pennsylvania Senatorial Election Results by County, 1994.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Harris Wofford
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Rick Santorum
Republican

Democrat Harris Wofford was appointed to the Senate when three-term Republican Senator H. John Heinz III died in a 1991 plane crash. He won a special election to hold that seat later that year. In his tough re-election against Republican Congressman Rick Santorum, the pro-choice Wofford lost the endorsement of pro-life Democratic Governor Robert Casey. This contributed to his loss to Santorum by two percentage points.

Wofford's campaign was hurt from the outset by his strong connection with President Bill Clinton's failed healthcare reform proposals; Wofford had made working toward universal healthcare a crucial issue in his prior campaign and was one of the executive's strongest allies on the issue. After this failure, however, the senator ran a relatively passive campaign. He instead attempted to focus attention on his challenger, an arch-conservative who did not attempt to moderate his views after the primary election. The polarizing Santorum took strong positions against abortion, gay rights, and affirmative action, and he even clashed with some of the traditional fixtures of the state's moderate Republican establishment. Early in the campaign and with little statewide name recognition, Santorum made a critical error by attacking Social Security, and Wofford appeared to be in relatively safe position. However, Santorum ran an effective grassroots campaign and specifically targeted many union Democrats who had reservations about the liberal social values advocated by many of their party's leaders.[1]

In the closing weeks of the campaign, Santorum was greatly helped by strong Republican enthusiasm because of anger over Clinton's failed initiatives. He solidified his status by running a series of positive ads that attempted to define his character strengths and to contrast with Wofford's negative commercials. Santorum eventually received a close victory by performing well (and nearly winning) his home in the suburban Pittsburgh region and through particularly low turnout in Democratic strongholds, such as Philadelphia, Scranton, and Pittsburgh cities.[2]

General election results[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Rick Santorum 1,735,691 49.40% +4.41%
Democratic Harris Wofford (Incumbent) 1,648,481 46.92% -8.09%
Patriot Party Diane G. Blough 69,825 1.99% +1.99%
Libertarian Donald Ernsberger 59,115 1.68% +1.68%
N/A Write-In Votes 249 0.01% +0.01%
Majority 87,210 2.48% -7.53%
Totals 3,513,361 100.00% align=right

Rhode Island[edit]

Rhode Island election

← 1988
2000 →

  U.S. Senator John Chafee.jpg No image.svg
Nominee John Chafee Linda Kushner
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 222,856 122,532
Percentage 65% 35%

Rhode Island Election Results by County, all Republican.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

John Chafee
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

John Chafee
Republican

Moderate Republican incumbent John Chafee, seeking a fourth term, defeated Democratic state representative Linda Kushner by 28-points.

Republican primary results[64]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican John Chafee (Incumbent) 27,906 69.03
Republican Robert A. Post, Jr. 12,517 30.97
Total votes 40,423 100.00
General election results[65]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican John Chafee (Incumbent) 222,856 64.52% +9.93%
Democratic Linda Kushner 122,532 35.48% -9.93%
Majority 100,324 29.05% +19.86%
Turnout 345,388
Republican hold Swing

Tennessee[edit]

Tennessee election

← 1988
2000 →

  Bill Frist black and white photo.jpg Jim sasser.jpg
Nominee Bill Frist Jim Sasser
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 834,226 623,164
Percentage 56.4% 42.1%

94TNSenateCounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Jim Sasser
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Bill Frist
Republican

One of the biggest upsets of the night was the defeat of three-term incumbent Senator Jim Sasser. Sasser had been the influential Chairman of the Budget Committee and was among the leading candidates to replace Mitchell as Democratic Floor Leader. Sasser, however, would be defeated by prominent Nashville heart surgeon Bill Frist by 14 points.[66]

There were two unforeseen events that affected the campaign. One was the large scale of discontent that the American people seemed to have toward the first two years of the Clinton administration, especially the proposal for a national healthcare system largely put together and advocated by Clinton's wife, Hillary Clinton. The other was the somewhat unexpected nomination of Nashville heart transplant surgeon Bill Frist for the seat by the Republicans.

Frist, who had never voted until he was 36, was a political unknown and a total novice at campaigning, but was from one of Nashville's most prominent and wealthiest medical families, which gave him some name recognition, as well as adequate enough resources to match the campaign war chest built up by the three-term incumbent, a challenge most "insurgent" candidates find to be impossible. A further factor working to Frist's advantage was a simultaneous Republican campaign by actor and attorney Fred Thompson for the other Tennessee Senate seat, which was open due to Al Gore resigning to become Vice President of the United States. Another factor in Frist's favor was that Sasser was never seen as possessing much charisma of his own. During the campaign Nashville radio stations were derisive towards Sasser to the point of stating that he could only win "a Kermit The Frog lookalike contest." In one of the largest upsets in a night of political upsets in the November 1994 U.S. general elections, Frist defeated the incumbent Sasser by approximately 14 percentage points.

General election results
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Bill Frist 834,226 56.35
Democratic Jim Sasser (Incumbent) 623,164 42.10
Independent John Jay Hooker 13,244 0.90
Independent Charles F. Johnson 6,631 0.45
Independent Philip Kienlen 3,087 0.21
Write-In Candidates 39 0.00
Majority 211,062 14.26
Turnout 1,480,391

Tennessee (Special)[edit]

Tennessee special election

← 1990
1996 →

  Fred Thompson-cropped.jpg Jim Cooper biopic.jpg
Nominee Fred Thompson Jim Cooper
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 885,998 565,930
Percentage 60.4% 38.6%

94TNSenSpecialCounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Harlan Mathews
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Fred Thompson
Republican

Less surprising was the Republican victory in the other Tennessee Senate contest. Harlan Matthews had held the seat since Al Gore's resignation to assume the Vice Presidency in 1993, but chose not to seek the Democratic nomination in the special election. The Republican actor and attorney Fred Thompson, defeated six-term Democratic Congressman Jim Cooper in an overwhelming landslide.[67]

General election results[68]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Fred Thompson 885,998 60.44% +30.63%
Democratic Jim Cooper 565,930 38.61% -29.12%
Independent Charles N. Hancock 4,169 0.28%
Independent Charles Moore 2,219 0.15%
Independent Terry Lytle 1,934 0.13%
Independent Kerry Martin 1,719 0.12%
Independent Jon Walls 1,532 0.10%
Independent Hobart Lumpkin 1,184 0.08%
Independent Don Schneller 1,150 0.08%
Write-ins 27 0.00%
Majority 320,068 21.83% -16.08%
Turnout 1,465,862
Republican gain from Democratic

Texas[edit]

Texas election

← 1993
2000 →

  Kay Bailey Hutchison, official photo.jpg FRS DALLAS cent grp 121613 0573 02832 (14079998541) (cropped).jpg
Nominee Kay Bailey Hutchison Richard W. Fisher
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 2,604,218 1,649,615
Percentage 60.7% 38.5%

94TXSenateCounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Kay Bailey Hutchison
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Kay Bailey Hutchison
Republican

Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison, having just won a special election the previous June for the seat vacated by Democrat Lloyd Bentsen, easily defeated Democrat Richard W. Fisher, an investment banker.[69]

General election results[17]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison 2,604,218 60.71
Democratic Richard W. Fisher 1,649,615 38.45
Libertarian Pierre Blondeau 36,107 0.84
Majority 954,603 22.25
Turnout 4,289,940

Utah[edit]

Orrin Hatch (R) was re-elected.

Veteran Republican incumbent Orrin Hatch delivered a 40-point defeat to his Democratic opponent, attorney Patrick Shea.

Vermont[edit]

Vermont election

← 1988
2000 →

  JeffordsJim(I-VT).jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Jim Jeffords Jan Backus
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 106,505 85,868
Percentage 50.3% 40.6%

 
Nominee Gavin T. Mills
Party Independent
Popular vote 12,465
Percentage 5.9%

U.S. Senator before election

Jim Jeffords
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Jim Jeffords
Independent

Moderate Republican Jim Jeffords won a second term, defeating Democratic state senator Jan Backus and independent Gavin Mills. He won every county in the state.

Democratic Primary results[70]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Jan Backus 16,217 53.65
Democratic Doug Costle 13,139 43.46
Democratic Write-ins 873 2.89
Total votes 30,229 100.00
Republican primary results[70]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jim Jeffords (Incumbent) 24,795 91.56
Republican Write-ins 2,285 8.44
Total votes 27,080 100.00
Liberty Union primary results[70]
Party Candidate Votes %
Liberty Union Jerry Levy 289 90.03
Liberty Union Write-ins 32 9.97
Total votes 321 100.00
General election results[71]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jim Jeffords (Incumbent) 106,505 50.32% -17.65%
Democratic Jan Backus 85,868 40.57% +10.80%
Independent Gavin T. Mills 12,465 5.89%
Independent Matthew S. Mulligan 3,141 1.48%
Grassroots Bob Melamede 1,416 0.67%
Liberty Union Jerry Levy 1,376 0.65% -0.40%
Natural Law Joseph Victor Pardo 709 0.33%
Write-ins 192 0.09%
Majority 20,637 9.75% -28.45%
Turnout 211,672
Republican hold Swing

Virginia[edit]

Virginia election

← 1988
2000 →
Turnout 43.6% (voting eligible)[72]

  Charles robb.jpg Oliver North mugshot crop.png
Nominee Chuck Robb Oliver North
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 938,376 882,213
Percentage 45.6% 42.9%

  Marshall Coleman 1976.jpg
Nominee J. Marshall Coleman
Party Independent
Popular vote 235,324
Percentage 11.4%

1994 virginia senate election map.png
U.S. Senate election results map. Blue denotes counties/districts won by Robb. Red denotes those won by North.

U.S. Senator before election

Chuck Robb
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Chuck Robb
Democratic

Democrat Chuck Robb received over 70% of the vote when first elected in 1988, but struggled to win re-election. Furor over Robb's alleged affair with model Tai Collins provided plenty of momentum for the Republican Iran-Contra figure Oliver North. A factor to Robb's advantage was the independent candidacy of attorney J. Marshall Coleman. North likely lost votes to Coleman especially when Virginia's other Senator, Republican John Warner, endorsed Coleman over North. Robb received 46% of the vote to North's 43% with Coleman garnering 11%.

Oliver North was a very controversial figure as he was involved in the Iran-Contra Affair, a scandal during Ronald Reagan's presidency. Marshall Coleman attempted to seize the middle ground between Robb and North. Republican Senator John Warner of Virginia endorsed Marshall Coleman. On the eve of the election, former first lady Nancy Reagan told a reporter that North had lied to her husband when discussing Iran-Contra with the former president, effectively eviscerating him. North's candidacy was documented in the 1996 film A Perfect Candidate.[73]

In his failed bid to unseat Robb, North raised $20.3 million in a single year through nationwide direct mail solicitations, telemarketing, fundraising events, and contributions from major donors. About $16 million of that amount was from direct mail alone. This was the biggest accumulation of direct mail funds for a statewide campaign to that date, and it made North the top direct mail political fundraiser in the country in 1994.[74]

Douglas Wilder, the first black Governor of Virginia, who served from 1990-1994, originally entered the Senate race as an independent before dropping out.

United States Senate election in Virginia, 1994[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Chuck Robb (Incumbent) 938,376 45.61% -25.64%
Republican Oliver North 882,213 42.88% +14.18%
Independent J. Marshall Coleman 235,324 11.44%
Independent L. Douglas Wilder 113 0.01%
Write-ins 1,437 0.07% +0.01%
Majority 56,163 2.73% -39.83%
Turnout 2,057,463
Democratic hold Swing

Washington[edit]

Washington election

← 1988 November 7, 1994 2000 →

  Slade Gorton, official Senate photo portrait.jpg Ron Sims official portrait.jpg
Nominee Slade Gorton Ron Sims
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 947,821 752,352
Percentage 55.8% 44.3%

1994 Washington senatorial election map.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Slade Gorton
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Slade Gorton
Republican

Republican incumbent Slade Gorton, seeking his third non-consecutive term, defeated his Democratic opponent, King County Councilman Ron Sims.

General election results[75]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Slade Gorton (Incumbent) 947,821 55.8% +4.71%
Democratic Ron Sims 752,352 44.3% -4.61%
Majority 195,469 11.5% +155,293
Turnout 1,700,173 -148,369

West Virginia[edit]

West Virginia election

← 1988 November 7, 1994 2000 →

  Robert Byrd official portrait.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Robert Byrd Stanley L. Klos
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 290,495 130,441
Percentage 69.0% 31.0%

U.S. Senator before election

Robert Byrd
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Robert Byrd
Democratic

Democratic incumbent Robert Byrd, first elected in 1958, easily defeated his Republican opponent State Committee Finance Chairman Stanley L. Klos.[76]

Klos campaigned as a "sacrificial lamb" against Robert C. Byrd participating in the Republican U.S. Senatorial Committee's strategy to re-capture a majority in the United States Senate in 1994. Byrd spent $1,550,354 to Klos' $267,165.[77] Additionally the Democratic Party invested over $1 million in that State's U.S. Senatorial Campaign to the Republican Party's $15,000. The GOP captured a majority in the U.S. Senate. The highlights of the campaign included the hiring of an actor to play Robert C. Byrd who toured in staged Statewide Debates when the incumbent refused Klos's invitation for a series of formal Senatorial Debates. The campaign also organized successful demonstrations against the Bill and Hillary Clinton National Health Care Bus as it traveled through West Virginia in the summer of 1994. Senator Byrd, while the bill was being debated on the Senate floor rose suggesting the brakes be put on approving National Health Care measure while the bus was completing its tour in WV. To Klos's credit, the campaign did not implement the "Death by a Thousand Cuts" plan proposed by strategists which was later acknowledged in speeches given and letters written by U.S. Senator Byrd.[78]

General election results[79]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Robert Byrd (Incumbent) 290,495 69.0%
Republican Stan Klos 130,441 31.0%

Wisconsin[edit]

Wisconsin election

← 1988 November 3, 1994 2000 →

  Herbert Kohl, official photo.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Herb Kohl Bob Welch
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 912,662 636,989
Percentage 58.3% 40.7%

U.S. Senator before election

Herb Kohl
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Herb Kohl
Democratic

Democratic incumbent Herb Kohl had little trouble winning a second term over former Republican state assemblyman Robert Welch.

General election results[80]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Herb Kohl (Incumbent) 912,662 58.3%
Republican Robert T. Welch 636,989 40.7%
Libertarian James R. Dean 15,439 1.0%

Wyoming[edit]

Wyoming election

← 1988 November 3, 1994 2000 →

  Thomascraigportrait.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Craig L. Thomas Mike Sullivan
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 118,754 79,287
Percentage 58.87% 39.31%

94WYSenateCounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Malcolm Wallop
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Craig L. Thomas
Republican

Republican incumbent Malcolm Wallop retired after three terms. Republican Rep. Craig Thomas trounced Mike Sullivan, the state's two-term Democratic governor by twenty points.

General election results[81]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Craig L. Thomas 118,754 58.87
Democratic Mike Sullivan 79,287 39.31
Libertarian Craig Alan McClune 3,669 1.82
Majority 39,467 19.57
Turnout 201,710

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]