United States Senate election in California, 2016

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United States Senate election in California, 2016

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  Senator Harris official senate portrait.jpg Loretta Sanchez official photo.jpg
Candidate Kamala Harris Loretta Sanchez
Party Democratic Democratic
Popular vote 7,542,753 4,701,417
Percentage 61.6% 38.4%

2016 CA US Senate.svg
County Results

Harris:      50–60%      60–70%      70–80%

Sanchez:      50–60%      60–70%

U.S. Senator before election

Barbara Boxer
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Kamala Harris
Democratic

The 2016 United States Senate election in California was held November 8, 2016, to elect a member of the United States Senate to represent the State of California, concurrently with the 2016 U.S. presidential election, as well as other elections to the United States Senate in other states and elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections.

Under California's nonpartisan blanket primary law, all candidates appear on the same ballot, regardless of party. In the primary, voters may vote for any candidate, regardless of their party affiliation. In the California system, the top two finishers — regardless of party — advance to the general election in November, even if a candidate manages to receive a majority of the votes cast in the primary election. Washington and Louisiana have similar "jungle primary" style processes for Senators.

Incumbent Democratic Senator Barbara Boxer decided to not run for re-election to a fifth term in office.[1] This was the first open seat Senate election in California in 24 years.[2] In the primary on June 7, 2016, California Attorney General Kamala Harris and U.S. Representative Loretta Sanchez, both Democrats, finished in first and second place, respectively, and contested the general election. For the first time since direct elections to the Senate began after the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, no Republican appeared on the general election ballot for U.S. Senate in California. The highest Republican finisher in the primary won only 7.8 percent of the vote, and the 10 Republicans only won 27.9 percent of the vote between them.[3]

In the general election, Harris defeated Sanchez in a landslide, carrying all but four counties (Glenn, Fresno, Madera, and Imperial), including Sanchez's home county Orange.

Background[edit]

Barbara Boxer was re-elected with 52.1% of the vote in 2010 against Republican Carly Fiorina. Towards the end of 2014, Boxer's low fundraising and cash-on-hand numbers led to speculation that she would retire.[4][5] On January 8, 2015, Boxer announced that she would not run for re-election.[1]

Candidates[edit]

Democratic Party[edit]

Declared[edit]

Withdrew[edit]

Declined[edit]

Republican Party[edit]

Declared[edit]

Withdrew[edit]

Declined[edit]

Green Party[edit]

Declared[edit]

  • Pamela Elizondo[6]

Libertarian Party[edit]

Declared[edit]

Peace and Freedom Party[edit]

Declared[edit]

  • John Thompson Parker[6]

Independent[edit]

Declared[edit]

Declined[edit]

Endorsements[edit]

Rocky Chávez
State politicians
Organizations
  • Deputy Sheriff’s Association of San Diego County[84]
Tom Del Beccaro
Kamala Harris
Federal politicians
State-level officials
Local-level officials
Organizations
Loretta Sánchez
Federal politicians
State-level officials
Local-level officials
Organizations
Duf Sundheim
Federal politicians
State politicians
Businesspeople
Organizations
  • California Small Business Association[164]

Primary election[edit]

Fundraising[edit]

The following are Federal Election Commission disclosures through the reporting period ending March 31, 2016.

Candidate (party) Receipts Disbursements Cash on hand Debt
Kamala Harris (D) $9,749,024 $4,759,048 $4,989,977 $78,900
Loretta Sánchez (D) $3,251,186 $921,291 $2,329,895 $209,217
Tom Del Beccaro (R) $316,560 $238,612 $77,946 $74,465
George 'Duf' Sundheim (R) $532,638 $475,415 $57,222 $181,640
Phillip Wyman (R) $48,900 $11,761 $30,737 $40,000
Clive Grey (NPP) $38,916 $21,554 $17,361 $25,000
Greg Conlon (R) $21,205 $13,396 $7,809 $9,575
Mike Beitiks (NPP) $6,305 $4,860 $1,444 $0
Steve Stokes (D) $4,864 $4,351 $762 $4,742
Emory Rodgers (D) $7,246 $6,988 $290 $0
Tom Palzer (R) $2,783 $2,442 $241 $0

Polling[edit]

Poll
source
Date(s)
administered
Sample
size
Margin of
error
Tom
Del Beccaro (R)
Kamala
Harris (D)
Loretta
Sánchez (D)
Duf
Sundheim (R)
Ron
Unz (R)
Other Undecided
The Field Poll April 23 – May 16, 2015 801 ± 3.5% 5% 19% 8% 1% 58%
Los Angeles Times August 29 – September 8, 2015 1,500 ± 2.8% 10% 26% 17% 35%
The Field Poll September 17 – October 4, 2015 694 ± 4.3% 6% 30% 17% 3% 1% 34%
The Field Poll December 15, 2015 – January 3, 2016 730 ± 3.6% 3% 27% 15% 3% 1% 44%
PPIC Statewide Survey March 6–15, 2016 1,710 ± 3.6% 9% 26% 17% 6% 11% 31%
Los Angeles Times March 16–23, 2016 691 10% 33% 15% 8% 34%
The Field Poll March 24 – April 4, 2016 1,400 ± 3.2% 4% 27% 14% 2% 5% 48%
SurveyUSA March 30 – April 3, 2016 1,269 ± 2.8% 8% 26% 22% 5% 7% 24%
SurveyUSA April 27–30, 2016 2,400 ± 2.6% 10% 29% 18% 7% 8% 6% 22%
Hoover Institution - Golden State Poll May 4–16, 2016 1,196 6% 26% 13% 6% 6% 43%
PPIC Statewide Survey May 13–22, 2016 996 ± 4.3% 8% 27% 19% 3% 6% 6% 31%
SurveyUSA May 19–22, 2016 1,416 ± 2.7% 9% 31% 22% 9% 7% 7% 15%
Public Policy Institute of California May 13–22, 2016 996 ± 4.3% 8% 27% 19% 3% 6% 22%
The Field Poll May 26–31, 2016 1,002 ± 3.1% 4% 30% 14% 3% 3% 19% 27%
NBC/WSJ/Marist May 29–31, 2016 2,485 ± 2.3% 8% 37% 19% 5% 5% 3% 24%

Results[edit]

Results of the primary election held June 7:
  Harris—>70%
  Harris—60–70%
  Harris—50–60%
  Harris—40–50%
  Harris—30–40%
  Harris—20–30%
  Harris—<20%
  Sanchez—<20%
  Sanchez—20–30%
  Sanchez—30–40%
Primary results[176]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Kamala Harris 3,000,689 39.9%
Democratic Loretta Sanchez 1,416,203 18.9%
Republican Duf Sundheim 584,251 7.8%
Republican Phil Wyman 352,821 4.7%
Republican Tom Del Beccaro 323,614 4.3%
Republican Greg Conlon 230,944 3.1%
Democratic Steve Stokes 168,805 2.2%
Republican George C. Yang 112,055 1.5%
Republican Karen Roseberry 110,557 1.5%
Libertarian Gail K. Lightfoot 99,761 1.3%
Democratic Massie Munroe 98,150 1.3%
Green Pamela Elizondo 95,677 1.3%
Republican Tom Palzer 93,263 1.2%
Republican Ron Unz 92,325 1.2%
Republican Don Krampe 69,635 0.9%
No party preference Eleanor García 65,084 0.9%
Republican Jarrell Williamson 64,120 0.9%
Republican Von Hougo 63,609 0.8%
Democratic President Cristina Grappo 63,330 0.8%
Republican Jerry J. Laws 53,023 0.7%
Libertarian Mark Matthew Herd 41,344 0.6%
Peace and Freedom John Thompson Parker 35,998 0.5%
No party preference Ling Ling Shi 35,196 0.5%
Democratic Herbert G. Peters 32,638 0.4%
Democratic Emory Peretz Rodgers 31,485 0.4%
No party preference Mike Beitiks 31,450 0.4%
No party preference Clive Grey 29,418 0.4%
No party preference Jason Hanania 27,715 0.4%
No party preference Paul Merritt 24,031 0.3%
No party preference Jason Kraus 19,318 0.3%
No party preference Don J. Grundmann 15,317 0.2%
No party preference Scott A. Vineberg 11,843 0.2%
No party preference Tim Gildersleeve 9,798 0.1%
No party preference Gar Myers 8,726 0.1%
Republican Billy Falling (write-in) 87 0.0%
No party preference Ric M. Llewellyn (write-in) 32 0.0%
Republican Alexis Stuart (write-in) 10 0.0%
Total votes 7,512,322 100.0%

General election[edit]

Fundraising[edit]

The following are Federal Election Commission disclosures through the reporting period ending March 31, 2016.

Candidate (party) Receipts Disbursements Cash on hand Debt
Kamala Harris (D) $9,749,024 $4,759,048 $4,989,977 $78,900
Loretta Sánchez (D) $3,251,186 $921,291 $2,329,895 $209,217

Debates[edit]

Dates Location Harris Sanchez
October 9, 2016 Cal State LA, Los Angeles, California Participant Participant

Predictions[edit]

Source Ranking As of
The Cook Political Report[177] Safe D (Harris) September 9, 2016
Sabato's Crystal Ball[178] Safe D (Harris) September 19, 2016
Rothenberg Political Report[179] Safe D (Harris) September 2, 2016
Daily Kos[180] Safe D (Harris) September 16, 2016
Real Clear Politics[181] Safe D (Harris) September 15, 2016

Polling[edit]

Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size
Margin of
error
Kamala
Harris (D)
Loretta
Sánchez (D)
Would
not vote
Undecided
Gravis Marketing April 7–10, 2016 2,088 ± 2.1% 29% 19% 52%
PPIC Statewide Survey May 13–22, 2016 996 ± 4.3% 34% 26% 24% 15%
The Field Poll May 26–31, 2016 1,002 ± 3.1% 40% 26% 14% 20%
SurveyMonkey USC/Los Angeles Times June 9–10, 2016 1,553 ± 3.5% 47% 22% 26% 5%
The Field Poll June 8 – July 2, 2016 956 ± 3.2% 39% 24% 15% 22%
PPIC Statewide Survey July 10–19, 2016 1,056 ± 3.5% 38% 20% 28% 14%
SmithJohnson Research August 17–19, 2016 500 ± 4.4% 41% 15% 8% 36%
Sacramento State/CA Counts August 15–24, 2016 915 ± 4.0% 51% 19% 6% 25%
SurveyMonkey USC/Los Angeles Times September 1–8, 2016 4,212 ± 2.0% 30% 16% 16% 38%
SurveyUSA September 8–11, 2016 712 ± 3.7% 44% 27% 29%
The Field Poll September 7–13, 2016 1,426 ± 3.2% 42% 20% 12% 26%
Insights West September 12–14, 2016 515 ± 4.3% 42% 28% 3% 28%
PPIC Statewide Survey September 9–18, 2016 1,702 ± 3.5% 32% 25% 24% 19%
SurveyUSA September 27–28, 2016 751 ± 3.6% 40% 29% 31%
Sacramento State/CA Counts October 7–13, 2016 622 ± 7.0% 49% 24% 7% 20%
Hoover Institution - Golden State Poll October 4–14, 2016 1,228 ± 3.3% 41% 22% 37%
SurveyUSA October 13–15, 2016 725 ± 3.7% 45% 24% 31%
PPIC Statewide Survey October 14–23, 2016 1,024 ± 4.3% 42% 20% 18% 20%
USC Dornsife/Los Angeles Times October 22–30, 2016 697 ± 3.7% 48% 31% 9% 12%
The Field Poll October 25–31, 2016 1,498 ± 3.2% 47% 23% 13% 17%
SurveyMonkey October 25–31, 2016 2,505 ± 4.6% 50% 30% 20%
SurveyUSA October 28–31, 2016 747 ± 3.7% 47% 27% 26%
SurveyMonkey Oct 26 – November 1, 2016 2,284 ± 4.6% 51% 30% 19%
SurveyMonkey Oct 27 – November 2, 2016 2,316 ± 4.6% 51% 31% 18%
SurveyMonkey Oct 28 – November 3, 2016 2,528 ± 4.6% 51% 31% 18%
SurveyMonkey Oct 31 – November 6, 2016 2,655 ± 4.6% 51% 32% 17%
Insights West November 4–6, 2016 401 ± 4.9% 50% 28% 22%
SurveyMonkey November 1–7, 2016 2,712 ± 4.6% 52% 31% 17%

Results[edit]

United States Senate election in California, 2016 [182]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Kamala Harris 7,542,753 61.6%
Democratic Loretta Sanchez 4,701,417 38.4%
Total votes 12,244,170 100.0%
Democratic hold

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  108. ^ Willon, Phil (October 6, 2016). "Kamala Harris wins endorsements from Barbara Boxer and Dianne Feinstein in U.S. Senate race". Retrieved October 8, 2016. 
  109. ^ Kirsten Gillibrand (January 16, 2015). "I need @KamalaHarris by my side in the US Senate. Pls join me in supporting Kamala's #CASen capaign". Twitter. Retrieved January 16, 2015. 
  110. ^ Mehta, Seema (March 30, 2015). "Rep. Karen Bass endorses @kamalaharris Senate bid". Twitter. Retrieved March 31, 2015. 
  111. ^ Josh Richman (February 4, 2015). "Today's endorser of @KamalaHarris for U.S. Senate in 2016 is @RepBera. #AnEndorsementADay". Twitter. Retrieved February 4, 2015. 
  112. ^ Josh Richman (February 3, 2015). "Today's endorsement". Twitter. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  113. ^ Josh Richman (January 22, 2015). "Mike Honda endorses Kamala Harris for Senate". IBA Buzz. Retrieved January 28, 2015. 
  114. ^ "Seven Los Angeles City Councilmembers endorse Kamala Harris for U.S. Senate". KamalaHarris.org. December 15, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2016. 
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  116. ^ [2]
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  118. ^ Press, MICHAEL R. BLOOD Associated. "Democrats tout endorsements for California US Senate seat". sandiegouniontribune.com. 
  119. ^ Christopher Cadelago (March 3, 2015). "AM Alert: John A. Pérez endorses Kamala Harris, joins campaign as co-chair". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved March 4, 2015. 
  120. ^ Press, MICHAEL R. BLOOD Associated. "Democrats tout endorsements for California US Senate seat". sandiegouniontribune.com. 
  121. ^ Josh Richman (February 6, 2015). "Today's endorsement of @KamalaHarris for U.S. Senate 2016: @AsmJoseMedina, D-Riverside (a SoCal Latino Dem... hmmm...) #AnEndorsementADay". Twitter. Retrieved February 6, 2015. 
  122. ^ Cadelago, Christopher (April 1, 2015). "Latest @KamalaHarris endorsement is from Controller @BettyYee2014. Mentions her work "implementing smart crime prevention policies."". Twitter. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  123. ^ Josh Richman (February 5, 2015). "Today's endorsement". Twitter. Retrieved February 6, 2015. 
  124. ^ Josh Richman (February 2, 2015). "Endorsement du jour for @KamalaHarris' 2016 U.S. Senate campaign: Board of Equalization member @FionaMa of San Francisco." Twitter. Retrieved February 4, 2015. 
  125. ^ Josh Richman (January 28, 2015). "Daily endorsement rollout continues". Twitter. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  126. ^ Josh Richman (January 29, 2014). "Today's entry on the @KamalaHarris for U.S. Senate endorsement hit parade: Oakland Mayor @LibbyForMayor Schaaf." Twitter. Retrieved February 4, 2015. 
  127. ^ a b c d e f g h Wisckol, Martin (May 13, 2015). "Kamala Harris lists her O.C. backers as Rep. Loretta Sanchez's announcement looms". Orange County Register. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  128. ^ Eric Bradley (January 30, 2015). "Long Beach mayor endorses Kamala Harris for U.S. Senate". Press-Telegram. Retrieved January 31, 2015. 
  129. ^ Seema Mehta (January 26, 2015). "Wesson backs Kamala Harris' bid for U.S. Senate". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 27, 2015. 
  130. ^ Press, MICHAEL R. BLOOD Associated. "Democrats tout endorsements for California US Senate seat". sandiegouniontribune.com. 
  131. ^ Josh Richman (February 9, 2015). "The @KamalaHarris for U.S. Senate 2016 #AnEndorsementADay cavalcade continues today with San Francisco City Attorney @DennisHerrera." Twitter. Retrieved February 9, 2015. 
  132. ^ Michael Finnegan (January 27, 2015). "Los Angeles County D.A. Lacey backs Kamala Harris for Senate". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 31, 2015. 
  133. ^ Josh Richman (February 19, 2015). "Alameda County DA @NancyOMalley endorses @KamalaHarris for Senate 2016 as "forward thinking strategist;" might she hope to be appointed AG?". Twitter. Retrieved February 19, 2015. 
  134. ^ Kamala Harris (February 23, 2015). "Thanks @TreasurerSF José Cisneros for the #CASen endorsement. I look fwd to continuing our fight for the middle class". Twitter. Retrieved February 24, 2015. 
  135. ^ Sovern, Doug (March 11, 2015). "I'm on special assignment so not tweeting much today, but another @KamalaHarris '16 endorsement in my inbox, this 1 from Ins Comm Dave Jones". Twitter. Retrieved March 12, 2015. 
  136. ^ Kamala Harris (February 26, 2015). "Thank you LA Assessor @JeffreyPrang for the #CASen endorsement & your dedication to our fight for education & the middle class. #TeamKamala". Twitter. Retrieved February 26, 2015. 
  137. ^ Seema Mehta (February 10, 2015). "Kamala Harris' Senate bid endorsed by ex-state party chief Art Torres". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 10, 2015. 
  138. ^ Michael Finnegan (March 5, 2015). "Rocky Chávez cites Marine background as key asset in U.S. Senate race". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 6, 2015. 
  139. ^ Seema Mehta (March 19, 2015). "Emily's List backs Kamala Harris' Senate bid". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 19, 2015. 
  140. ^ Michael Finnegan (February 11, 2015). "Harris endorsements help fortify her against possible Villaraigosa run". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 12, 2015. 
  141. ^ "CSLEA Endorses Attorney General Kamala Harris For U.S. Senate". California Statewide Law Enforcement Association. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  142. ^ "LORETTA SANCHEZ GARNERS SUPPORT FROM SILICON VALLEY AND THE CENTRAL COAST". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. 
  143. ^ a b c d e "Loretta Sanchez expands base in U.S. Senate race against Kamala Harris". Orange County Register. November 29, 2015. 
  144. ^ "CONGRESSMAN LUIS GUTIERREZ ENDORSES LORETTA SANCHEZ FOR U.S. SENATE". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. 
  145. ^ "TEXAS CONGRESSMAN FILEMON VELA ENDORSES LORETTA SANCHEZ FOR U.S. SENATE". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. 
  146. ^ "FORMER CONGRESSMAN PATRICK J. KENNEDY ENDORSES LORETTA SANCHEZ FOR U.S. SENATE". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. July 6, 2016. 
  147. ^ "Former Republican congressman backs Loretta Sanchez for Senate". Los Angeles Times. 
  148. ^ Wisckol, Martin (September 18, 2015). "Sanchez shows signs of progress in Senate race". Orange County Register. Retrieved September 29, 2015. 
  149. ^ a b c d e f g "LORETTA SANCHEZ LOCKS KEY ENDORSEMENTS FROM CA LATINO CAUCUS". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. 
  150. ^ a b c d "LOCAL ORANGE COUNTY LEADERS SWITCH ENDORSEMENTS FROM KAMALA HARRIS TO LORETTA SANCHEZ FOR U.S. SENATE". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. December 10, 2015. 
  151. ^ "IMPERIAL COUNTY LEADERS ENDORSE LORETTA SANCHEZ FOR U.S. SENATE". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. December 9, 2015. 
  152. ^ a b c d "CENTRAL VALLEY LEADERS ENDORSE LORETTA SANCHEZ FOR U.S. SENATE". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. 
  153. ^ a b c d "MAYORS AND CITY COUNCILMEMBERS FROM ACROSS LOS ANGELES COUNTY ENDORSE LORETTA SANCHEZ FOR U.S SENATE". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. February 24, 2016. 
  154. ^ a b c "L.A. CITY COUNCILMAN PAUL KORETZ ENDORSES LORETTA SANCHEZ FOR U.S. SENATE". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. April 26, 2016. 
  155. ^ Ellis, John (May 22, 2015). "Local Democrats staying neutral, for now, in U.S. Senate battle to replace Boxer". The Fresno Bee. Retrieved June 16, 2015. 
  156. ^ "Former L.A. Mayor Richard Riordan picks his candidate in California's U.S. Senate race". Los Angeles Times. 
  157. ^ "ADDITIONAL SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CITY OFFICIALS ENDORSE LORETTA SANCHEZ". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. April 15, 2016. 
  158. ^ a b c "LEADING MARITIME TRADE UNIONS ENDORSE SANCHEZ FOR U.S. SENATE". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. 
  159. ^ "ORANGE COUNTY EMPLOYEES ASSOCIATION ENDORSES LORETTA SANCHEZ". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. 
  160. ^ "NATIONAL WOMEN'S POLITICAL CAUCUS ENDORSES LORETTA SANCHEZ FOR THE U.S. SENATE". Loretta Sanchez for U.S. Senate. 
  161. ^ a b "Former state Republican Party chairman Duf Sundheim raises $241,000 for U.S. Senate bid". Los Angeles Times. October 14, 2015. 
  162. ^ "Sundheim For U.S. Senate Lands Key National Security Endorsement, Congressman Colonel Paul Cook". January 5, 2016. 
  163. ^ "McCarthy endorses Sundheim for Senate". Porterville Recorder. February 2, 2016. 
  164. ^ a b c d e f g h "Sundheim Announces Cascade Of Endorsements After Chavez Exits Race". February 9, 2016. 
  165. ^ "Congressman Darrell Issa Endorses Duf Sundheim For U.S. Senate". February 22, 2016. 
  166. ^ "Fresno Mayor Ashley Swearengin endorses in U.S. Senate race – and it's a Republican". The Sacramento Bee. January 27, 2016. 
  167. ^ "Rocky Chavez Endorses Sundheim In U.S. Senate Race". February 12, 2016. 
  168. ^ Half of the sample were offered former state Republican Party Chairman Tom Del Beccaro and the other half were offered former state Republican Party Chairman George Sundheim instead. Del Beccaro took 6% and Sundheim 5%.
  169. ^ a b c d e Poll conducted for the Los Angeles County Young Democrats
  170. ^ a b c d e Cameron Joseph (February 10, 2015). "Harris leads Villaraigosa for Calif. Senate". The Hill. Retrieved February 11, 2015. 
  171. ^ Poll for the California Latino Legislative Caucus, which supports Villaraigosa
  172. ^ Josh Richman (February 3, 2015). "Poll makes case for Latino U.S. Senate candidate". IBA Buzz. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  173. ^ Gene Maddaus (February 3, 2015). "Poll shows hard road for Antonio Villaraigosa in Senate race". IBA Buzz. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  174. ^ a b Internal poll for the Kamala Harris campaign
  175. ^ a b Poll for "allies of one of the potential candidates"
  176. ^ "CSV Files - Voter Nominated". California Secretary of State. July 16, 2016. 
  177. ^ "2016 Senate Race Ratings for September 9, 2016". The Cook Political Report. Retrieved September 9, 2016. 
  178. ^ "2016 Senate". Sabato's Crystal Ball. Retrieved September 19, 2016. 
  179. ^ "2016 Senate Ratings (September 2, 2016)". Senate Ratings. The Rothenberg Political Report. Retrieved September 3, 2016. 
  180. ^ "Election Outlook: 2016 Race Ratings". Daily Kos. Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  181. ^ "Battle for the Senate 2016". Real Clear Politics. Retrieved September 15, 2016. 
  182. ^ (PDF). California Secretary of State. November 13, 2016 http://elections.cdn.sos.ca.gov/sov/2016-general/sov/2016-complete-sov.pdf. Retrieved January 4, 2017.  Missing or empty |title= (help)

External links[edit]

Official campaign websites