United States Senate elections, 1934

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United States Senate elections, 1934
United States
← 1932 / 1933 November 6, 1934[1] 1936 →

36 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Joseph t robinson.jpg Charles mcnary.jpg
Leader Joseph Robinson Charles McNary
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Arkansas Oregon
Last election 59 seats 36 seats
Seats before 60 35
Seats won 69 25
Seat change Increase 9 Decrease 10

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Farmer–Labor Progressive
Last election 1 seat 0 seats
Seats before 1 0
Seats won 1 1
Seat change Steady Increase 1

US 1934 senate election map.svg
  Republican hold
  Democratic holds
  Democratic gain
  Farmer–Labor hold
  Progressive gain

Majority Leader before election

Joseph Robinson
Democratic

Elected Majority Leader

Joseph Robinson
Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1934 occurred in the middle of Democratic President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's first term. In the middle of the Great Depression, voters strongly backed Roosevelt's New Deal and his allies in the Senate. The Democrats picked up a net of nine seats, giving them a supermajority (which required 64 seats, two-thirds of the total 96 seats in 1934).[2] This marked the first time since the Civil War where an incumbent president's party gained Senate seats during a midterm election, later being followed by John F. Kennedy in 1962, Richard Nixon in 1970, and George W. Bush in 2002.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
D58 D57 D56 D55 D54 D53 D52 D51 D50
D59 D60 FL1 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
D58 O D57 O D56 D55 D54 D53 D52 D51 D50
D59 O D60 O D61 + D62 + D63 + D64 + D65 + D66 + D67 + D68 +
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 P1 + FL1 D69 +
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key:
D# Democratic
FL# Farmer–Labor
P# Progressive
R# Republican
 
Incumbent re-elected or appointee elected to finish term
O Party hold: New senator elected from same party
+ Party gain: New senator elected from different party
@ Party gain: Incumbent senator re-elected from different party

Gains and losses[edit]

The Democrats took nine Republican seats, including an open seat in Maryland and the seats of eight incumbents.

Losing incumbents[edit]

  1. Connecticut: Frederic C. Walcott (R) lost to Francis T. Maloney (D)
  2. Indiana: Arthur Raymond Robinson (R) lost to Sherman Minton (D)
  3. Missouri: Roscoe C. Patterson (R) lost to Harry S. Truman (D)
  4. New Jersey: Hamilton F. Kean (R) lost to A. Harry Moore (D)
  5. Ohio: Simeon D. Fess (R) lost to Vic Donahey (D)
  6. Pennsylvania: David A. Reed (R) lost to Joseph F. Guffey (D)
  7. Rhode Island: Felix Hebert (R) lost to Peter G. Gerry (D)
  8. West Virginia: Henry D. Hatfield (R) lost to Rush D. Holt (D)

Retirement[edit]

  1. Maryland: George L. P. Radcliffe (D) picked up the seat when Phillips Lee Goldsborough (R) retired.

Party change[edit]

  1. Republicans suffered an additional loss when Robert M. La Follette, Jr. (WI) left the Republican Party to join the Progressive Party.

Race summaries[edit]

Elections during the 73rd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1934 or before January 3, 1935; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Vermont
(Class 3)
Ernest W. Gibson Republican 1933 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 16, 1934. Ernest W. Gibson (Republican), 58.2%
Harry W. Witters (Democratic), 41.8%
Montana
(Class 2)
John E. Erickson Democratic 1933 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost nomination.
New senator elected November 6, 1934.
Democratic hold.
James E. Murray (Democratic) 59.6%
Scott Leavitt (Republican) 39.5%
Nebraska
(Class 1)
William H. Thompson Democratic 1933 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 6, 1934.
Democratic hold.
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
Richard C. Hunter (Democratic) 56.45%
J.H. Kemp (Republican) 43.55%
New Mexico
(Class 2)
Carl A. Hatch Democratic 1933 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 6, 1934. Carl A. Hatch (Democratic) 54.5%
Richard C. Dillon (Republican) 45.0%
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Nathan L. Bachman Democratic 1933 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 6, 1934. Nathan L. Bachman (Democratic) 80.1%
John R. Neal (Independent) 19.9%

Elections leading to the 74th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1935; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Arizona Henry F. Ashurst Democratic  ? Incumbent re-elected. Henry F. Ashurst (Democratic) 72.0%
J. E. Thompson (Republican) 25.6%
California Hiram W. Johnson Republican  ? Incumbent re-elected. Hiram W. Johnson (Republican) 94.5%
George R. Kirkpatrick (Socialist) 5.3%
Connecticut Frederic C. Walcott Republican  ? Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Francis T. Maloney (Democratic) 51.8%
Frederic C. Walcott (Republican) 48.3%
Delaware John G. Townsend, Jr. Republican  ? Incumbent re-elected. John G. Townsend, Jr. (Republican) 53.3%
Wilbur L. Adams (Democratic) 46.2%
Florida Park Trammell Democratic  ? Incumbent re-elected. Park Trammell (Democratic) unopposed
Indiana Arthur Raymond Robinson Republican  ? Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Sherman Minton (Democratic) 51.5%
Arthur Raymond Robinson (Republican) 47.5%
Maine Frederick Hale Republican 1916
1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Frederick Hale (Republican) 50.1%
Frederick Harold Dubord (Democratic) 49.7%
Maryland Phillips Lee Goldsborough Republican 1928 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
George L. P. Radcliffe (Democratic) 56.1%
Joseph I. France (Republican) 42.0%
Massachusetts David I. Walsh Democratic 1926 (Special)
1928
Incumbent re-elected. David I. Walsh (Democratic) 59.4%
Robert M. Washburn (Republican) 37.4%
Michigan Arthur H. Vandenberg Republican 1928 (Appointed)
1928 (Special)
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Arthur H. Vandenberg (Republican) 51.3%
Frank A. Picard (Democratic) 47.0%
John Monarch (Socialist)[3] 1.7%
Minnesota Henrik Shipstead Farmer–Labor 1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Henrik Shipstead (Farmer–Labor) 49.9%
Einar Hoidale (Democratic) 29.2%
N. J. Holmberg (Republican) 19.8%
Mississippi Hubert D. Stephens Democratic 1922
1928
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Theodore G. Bilbo (Democratic) unopposed
Missouri Roscoe C. Patterson Republican 1928 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Harry S. Truman (Democratic) 59.5%
Roscoe C. Patterson (Republican) 39.7%
W. C. Meyer (Socialist) 0.7%
Montana Burton K. Wheeler Democratic 1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Burton K. Wheeler (Democratic) 70.1%
George M. Bourquin (Republican) 28.7%
Nebraska William H. Thompson Democratic 1933 (Appointed) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Winner was not elected to finish the current term, see above.
Edward R. Burke (Democratic) 55.3%
Robert G. Simmons (Republican) 42.9%
Nevada Key Pittman Democratic 1913 (Special)
1916
1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Key Pittman (Democratic) 64.5%
George W. Malone (Republican) 33.4%
New Jersey Hamilton F. Kean Republican 1928 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
A. Harry Moore (Democratic) 57.9%
Hamilton F. Kean (Republican) 40.9%
New Mexico Bronson M. Cutting Republican 1927 (Appointed)
1928 (Retired)
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Bronson M. Cutting (Republican) 50.2%
Dennis Chavez (Democratic) 49.4%
New York Royal S. Copeland Democratic 1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Royal S. Copeland (Democratic) 55.3%
E. Harold Cluett (Republican) 36.9%
Norman Thomas (Socialist) 5.3%
North Dakota Lynn J. Frazier Republican 1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Lynn J. Frazier (Republican) 58.2%
Henry Holt (Democratic) 40.2%
Ohio Simeon D. Fess Republican 1922
1928
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Vic Donahey (Democratic) 60.0%
Simeon D. Fess (Republican) 39.4%
Pennsylvania David A. Reed Republican 1922 (Appointed)
1922 (Special)
1922
1928
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Joseph F. Guffey (Democratic) 50.8%
David A. Reed (Republican) 46.5%
Rhode Island Felix Hebert Republican 1928 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Peter G. Gerry (Democratic) 57.1%
Felix Hebert (Republican) 42.9%
Tennessee Kenneth D. McKellar Democratic 1916
1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Kenneth D. McKellar (Democratic) 63.4%
Ben W. Hooper (Republican) 35.8%
Texas Tom Connally Democratic  ? Incumbent re-elected. Tom Connally (Democratic) 96.7%
Utah William H. King Democratic  ? Incumbent re-elected. William H. King (Democratic) 53.1%
Don B. Colton (Republican) 45.4%
Vermont Warren R. Austin Republican  ? Incumbent re-elected. Warren R. Austin (Republican) 51.0%
Fred C. Martin (Democratic) 48.4%
Virginia Harry F. Byrd Democratic  ? Incumbent re-elected. Harry F. Byrd (Democratic) 76.0%
Lawrence C. Page (Republican) 20.9%
Washington Clarence C. Dill Democratic  ? Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Lewis B. Schwellenbach (Democratic) 60.9%
Reno Odlin (Republican) 34.0%
West Virginia Henry D. Hatfield Republican  ? Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Rush D. Holt (Democratic) 55.1%
Henry D. Hatfield (Republican) 44.4%
Wisconsin Robert M. La Follette, Jr. Republican  ? Incumbent re-elected in new party
Progressive gain.
Robert M. La Follette, Jr. (Progressive) 47.8%
John M. Callahan (Democratic) 24.2%
John B. Chapple (Republican) 22.8%
Wyoming Joseph C. O'Mahoney Democratic  ? Incumbent re-elected. Joseph C. O'Mahoney (Democratic) 56.6%
Vincent Carter (Republican) 43.0%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ September 10, 1934 in Maine
  2. ^ Arthur Krock (November 7, 1934). "Tide Sweeps Nation". New York Times. Retrieved March 16, 2014. 
  3. ^ http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/monaco-monro.html#monarch