United States Senate elections, 1790 and 1791

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United States Senate elections, 1790 and 1791
United States
1788 / 1789 ←
Dates vary by state legislatures → 1792 / 1793

9 of the 26 seats in the United States Senate, plus special elections
14 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Pro-Administration Anti-Administration
Last election 19 (73.1%) 7 (26.9%)
Seats before 18 (75.0%) 6 (25.0%)
Seats won 17 (68.0%) 8 (32.0%)
Seat change Decrease 2 Increase 1
Seats up 7 2
This is a summary. See the complete results below.

Majority faction before election

Pro-Administration

Elected Majority faction

Pro-Administration

The United States Senate elections of 1790 and 1791 was the second election of Senators in the United States. In this election, terms were up for the nine Senators in Class 1. As of this election, formal organized political parties had yet to form in the United States, but two political factions were present: The coalition of Senators who supported President George Washington's administration were known as the Pro-Administration Party, and the Senators against him as the Anti-Administration Party.

As this election was prior to the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Note: There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.[1]

Before the elections[edit]

A5 A6
A4 A3 A2 A1 P18 P17 P16 P15 P14 P13
Majority →
P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12
P2 P1

Results of the elections[edit]

A7 A8 A9
A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 V1 P16 P15 P14
Majority →
P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13
P3 P2 P1

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

A6 A7 A8
A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 V1 P17 P16 P15 P14
Majority →
P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13
P3 P2 P1
Key:
A# Anti-Administration
P# Pro-Administration
V# Vacant
Party hold: Incumbent re-elected
O Party hold: New senator elected from same party
+ Party gain: New senator elected from different party
No tag Seat not up for election this year

Complete list of races[edit]

Special elections during the 1st Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1791; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
New seat Rhode Island ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790.
Winner elected June 7, 1790 to the term ending March 3, 1791.
Pro-Administration gain
Theodore Foster (Pro-Administration)
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
New seat Rhode Island ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790.
Winner elected June 7, 1790 to the term ending March 3, 1793.
Anti-Administration gain
Joseph Stanton, Jr. (Anti-Administration)
Virginia
(Special: Class 1)
John Walker Pro-Administration 1790 (Appointed) William Grayson (A) had died March 12, 1790.
Interim appointee served from March 31, 1790, but retired when successor elected.
Winner elected November 9, 1790 to the term ending March 3, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain
James Monroe (Anti-Administration)
New Jersey
(Special: Class 2)
William Paterson Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent resigned November 13, 1790 to become Governor of New Jersey.
Winner elected November 13, 1790 to finish the term ending March 3, 1793.
Pro-Administration hold
Philemon Dickinson (Pro-Administration)

Races leading to the 2nd Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated March 4, 1791; ordered by state.

All of these elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut Oliver Ellsworth Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Oliver Ellsworth (Pro-Administration)
Delaware George Read Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected in 1791. George Read (Pro-Administration)
Maryland Charles Carroll Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected in 1791. Charles Carroll (Pro-Administration)
Massachusetts Tristram Dalton Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
Pro-Administration hold
George Cabot (Pro-Administration)
Tristram Dalton (Pro-Administration)
New Jersey Jonathan Elmer Pro-Administration 1788 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pro-Administration hold
John Rutherfurd (Pro-Administration)
New York Philip Schuyler Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election January 19, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain
Aaron Burr (Anti-Administration)
Philip Schuyler (Pro-Administration)
Pennsylvania William Maclay Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect a successor, leaving the seat vacant.
Anti-Administration loss
None.
Rhode Island Theodore Foster Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected in 1791. Theodore Foster (Pro-Administration)
Virginia James Monroe Anti-Administration 1790 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1791. James Monroe (Anti-Administration)

Special elections in 1791 during the 2nd Congress[edit]

In this special election, the winner was seated after March 4, 1791, the beginning of the next Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut
(Class 3)
William S. Johnson Pro-Administration 1788 Resigned March 4, 1791.
Winner elected June 13, 1791.
Pro-Administration hold.
Roger Sherman (Pro-Administration)
Vermont
(Class 1)
New seat Vermont was admitted to the Union March 4, 1791.
Winner elected November 4, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain
Stephen R. Bradley (Anti-Administration)
Vermont
(Class 3)
New seat Vermont was admitted to the Union March 4, 1791.
Winner elected November 4, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain
Moses Robinson (Anti-Administration)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. 

External links[edit]