United States Senate elections, 1790 and 1791

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United States Senate elections, 1790 and 1791
United States
← 1788 / 1789 Dates vary by state 1792 / 1793 →

9 of the 26 seats in the United States Senate, plus special elections
14 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Pro-Administration Anti-Administration
Last election 19 seats 7 seats
Seats before 18 6
Seats won 8 2
Seats after 17 8
Seat change Increase 1 Steady
Seats up 7 2

Majority faction before election

Pro-Administration

Elected Majority faction

Pro-Administration

The United States Senate elections of 1790 and 1791 were the second series of elections of Senators in the United States. In these elections, terms were up for the nine Senators in Class 1. As of these elections, formal organized political parties had yet to form in the United States, but two political factions were present: The coalition of Senators who supported President George Washington's administration were known as the Pro-Administration Party, and the Senators against him as the Anti-Administration Party.

As these elections were prior to the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Note: There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.[1]

Before the elections[edit]

After the June 25, 1790 elections in Rhode Island.

A3 A2 A1
A4 A5 A6
Ran
A7
Ran
P19
Unknown
P18
Ran
P17
Ran
P16
Ran
P15
Ran
P14
Ran
Majority →
P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13
Ran
P3 P2 P1

Results of the elections[edit]

A3 A2 A1
A4 A5 A6
Re-elected
A7
Gain
V1
A Loss
P18
Hold
P17
Hold
P16
Re-elected
P15
Re-elected
P14
Re-elected
Majority →
P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13
Re-elected
P3 P2 P1

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

A3 A2 A1
A4 A5 A6 A7 A8
Gain
V1 P17 P16 P15 P14
Majority →
P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13
P3 P2 P1
Key:
A# Anti-Administration
P# Pro-Administration
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

General and special elections during the 1st Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1791; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
New seat Rhode Island ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790.
Winner elected June 7, 1790.
Pro-Administration gain.
Theodore Foster (Pro-Administration)
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
New seat Rhode Island ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790.
Winner elected June 7, 1790.
Anti-Administration gain.
Joseph Stanton, Jr. (Anti-Administration)
Virginia
(Special: Class 1)
John Walker Pro-Administration 1790 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when successor elected.
Winner elected November 9, 1790.
Anti-Administration gain.
James Monroe (Anti-Administration)
New Jersey
(Special: Class 2)
William Paterson Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent resigned November 13, 1790 to become Governor of New Jersey.
Winner elected November 13, 1790.
Pro-Administration hold.
Philemon Dickinson (Pro-Administration)

Races leading to the 2nd Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated March 4, 1791; ordered by state.

All of these elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut Oliver Ellsworth Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected on an unknown date. Oliver Ellsworth (Pro-Administration)
Delaware George Read Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected in 1791. George Read (Pro-Administration)
Maryland Charles Carroll Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected in 1791. Charles Carroll (Pro-Administration)
Massachusetts Tristram Dalton Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1790.
Pro-Administration hold.
George Cabot (Pro-Administration)
Tristram Dalton (Pro-Administration)
New Jersey Jonathan Elmer Pro-Administration 1788 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1790.
Pro-Administration hold.
John Rutherfurd (Pro-Administration)
New York Philip Schuyler Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected January 19, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain.
Aaron Burr (Anti-Administration)
Philip Schuyler (Pro-Administration)
Pennsylvania William Maclay Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect a successor, leaving the seat vacant.
Anti-Administration loss.
None.
Rhode Island Theodore Foster Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected in 1791. Theodore Foster (Pro-Administration)
Virginia James Monroe Anti-Administration 1790 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1791. James Monroe (Anti-Administration)

Special and general elections in 1791 during the 2nd Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winner was seated after March 4, 1791, the beginning of the next Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut
(Class 3)
William S. Johnson Pro-Administration 1788 Resigned March 4, 1791.
Winner elected June 13, 1791.
Pro-Administration hold.
Roger Sherman (Pro-Administration)
Vermont
(Class 1)
New seat Vermont was admitted to the Union March 4, 1791.
Winner elected October 17, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain.
Stephen R. Bradley (Anti-Administration)
Vermont
(Class 3)
New seat Vermont was admitted to the Union March 4, 1791.
Winner elected October 17, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain.
Moses Robinson (Anti-Administration)

Complete list of races[edit]

Vermont[edit]

Stephen R. Bradley and Moses Robinson were elected by the Vermont House of Representatives and Governor and Council in January 1791, anticipating Vermont's admission to the union.[2] Vermont was admitted as the 14th state on March 4, 1791.[3] The Senate had adjourned on March 3, at the completion of the 1st United States Congress; the 2nd United States Congress held a one-day session on March 4, and was not scheduled to convene again until October 24.[4]

As a result of this Congressional schedule Bradley and Robinson had not been seated when the Vermont House of Representatives convened in early October, 1791.[3] At this legislative session, some members suggested that the January election of Bradley and Robinson had been premature, since Vermont had not yet been admitted to the union.[3] Bradley and Robinson volunteered to resign the credentials of their January elections; on October 17, the Governor and Council voted again, and selected Bradley and Robinson.[3] The House of Representatives then voted a second time, and also selected Bradley and Robinson.[3] No vote totals were recorded.[3]

Bradley was selected for the "short term" (Class 1), which expired on March 3, 1795.[5] Robinson received the "long term" (Class 3), which expired on March 3, 1797.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. 
  2. ^ Walton, Eliakim Persons (1876). Records of the Governor and Council of the State of Vermont. IV. Montpelier, VT: J. and J. M. Poland. pp. 4–6. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Records of the Governor and Council of the State of Vermont.
  4. ^ De Puy, W. H. (1892). American Revisions and Additions to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. III. Chicago, IL: R. S. Peale Company. pp. 1547–1548. 
  5. ^ Dodge, Prentiss Cutler (1912). Encyclopedia of Vermont Biography. Burlington, VT: Ullery Publishing Company. pp. 28–29. 
  6. ^ Encyclopedia of Vermont Biography.

External links[edit]