United States Senate elections, 1794 and 1795

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
United States Senate elections, 1794 and 1795
United States
1792 / 1793 ←
Dates vary by state → 1796 / 1797

10 of the 30 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections
16 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Last election 18 seats
(as Pro-Administration)
11 seats
(as Anti-Administration)
Seats before 17
(as Pro-Administration)
13
(as Anti-Administration)
Seats won 8 2
Seats after 20 10
Seat change Increase 4 Decrease 3
Seats up 4
(as Pro-Administration)
5
(as Anti-Administration)

Majority faction before election

Pro-Administration

Majority party

Federalist

The United States Senate elections of 1794 and 1795 were elections that had the formation of organized political parties in the United States, with the Federalist Party emerging from the Pro Administration coalition, and the Democratic-Republican Party emerging from the Anti-Administration coalition.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 4th Congress (1795–1797)

  • Majority Party: Federalist (20)
  • Minority Party: Democratic-Republican (10)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 30

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

Note: There were no political parties in the 3rd Congress. Members are informally grouped here into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.[1]

After the April 24, 1794 special election in Pennsylvania.

A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
A6 A7 A8 A9
Ran
A10
Ran
A11
Ran
A12
Unknown
A13
Unknown
V1 P16
Unknown
Majority →
P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13
Ran
P14
Ran
P15
Retired
P5 P4 P3 P2 P1

Results of the elections[edit]

A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
A6 A7 A8 DR1
Gain
DR2
Gain
V1 F8
Gain
F7
Gain
F6
Gain
F5
Gain
  F4
Gain
P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 F1
Gain
F2
Gain
F3
Gain
P5 P4 P3 P2 P1

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

DR5
Changed
DR4
Changed
DR3
Changed
DR2
Changed
DR1
Changed
DR6
Changed
DR7
Changed
DR8
Changed
DR9 DR10 F20
Gain
F19 F18 F17 F16
Majority →
F6
Changed
F7
Changed
F8
Changed
F9
Changed
F10
Changed
F10
Changed
F12 F13 F14 F15
F5
Changed
F4
Changed
F3
Changed
F2
Changed
F1
Changed
Key:
A# = Anti-Administration
DR# = Democratic-Republican
F# = Federalist
P# = Pro-Administration
V# = Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 3rd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1795; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Albert Gallatin Anti-Administration 1793 (Special) Incumbent disqualified February 28, 1794.
Winner elected March 31, 1794.
Pro-Administration gain.
Winner would become a Federalist in the next Congress.
James Ross (Federalist) 51.72%
Robert Coleman (Unknown) 40.23%
Samuel Sitgreaves (Federalist) 1.15%
Not voting 6.7%
Virginia
(Class 1)
James Monroe Anti-Administration 1790 (Special) Incumbent resigned May 11, 1794 to become U.S. Minister to France.
Winner elected November 18, 1794.
Anti-Administration gain.
Winner would become a Democratic-Republican in the next Congress.
Stevens Thomson Mason (Anti-Administration)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 2)
John Taylor Anti-Administration 1792 (Special) Incumbent resigned May 11, 1794.
Winner elected November 18, 1794.
Anti-Administration gain.
Winner would become a Democratic-Republican in the next Congress.
Henry Tazewell (Anti-Administration)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware
(Class 1)
Vacant George Read (P) had resigned September 18, 1793 to become Chief Justice of Delaware.
Winner was elected February 7, 1795.
Pro-Administration gain.
Winner would become a Federalist in the next Congress.
Henry Latimer (Pro-Administration)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 4th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1795; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut Stephen Mitchell Pro-Administration 1793 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee retired.
Winner's election date unknown.
Federalist gain.
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia James Gunn Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected in 1795 to a new party.
Federalist gain.
James Gunn (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky John Edwards Anti-Administration 1792 (New state) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1794.
Federalist gain.
Humphrey Marshall (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland John Henry Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected in 1795 to a new party.
Federalist gain.
John Henry (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire John Langdon Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-election date to a new party unknown.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Langdon (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York Rufus King Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected January 27, 1795 to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Rufus King (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Benjamin Hawkins Anti-Administration 1789 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1794.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Timothy Bloodworth (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania Robert Morris Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected February 26, 1795.
Federalist gain.
William Bingham (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina Ralph Izard Pro-Administration 1789 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner's election date unknown.
Federalist gain.
Jacob Read (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont Stephen R. Bradley Anti-Administration 1791 (New state) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1794.
Federalist gain.
Elijah Paine (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 4th Congress[edit]

There were no elections in 1795 after March 4.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.