United States Senate elections, 1794 and 1795

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United States Senate elections, 1794 and 1795
United States
1792 / 1793 ←
Dates vary by state → 1796 / 1797

10 of the 30 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections
16 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Last election 18 seats (as Pro-Administration) (62.1%) 11 seats (as Anti-Administration) (37.9%)
Seats before 15 (as Pro-Administration) (51.7%) 14 (as Anti-Administration) (48.3%)
Seats won 20 (66.7%) 10 (33.3%)
Seat change Increase 5 Decrease 4
Seats up 5 (as Pro-Administration) 5 (as Anti-Administration)

Majority faction before election

Pro-Administration

Majority party

Federalist

The United States Senate elections of 1794 was the election which had the formation of organized political parties in the United States, with the Federalist Party emerging from the Pro Administration coalition, and the Democratic-Republican Party emerging from the Anti-Administration coalition.

As this election was prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results[edit]

4th Congress (1795–1797)

  • Majority Party: Federalist (20)
  • Minority Party: Democratic-Republican (10)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 30

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

Note: There were no political parties in the 3rd Congress. Members are informally grouped here into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.[1]

A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 V1
Majority → P15
P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14
P5 P4 P3 P2 P1

Results of the elections[edit]

A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
A6 A7O A8O DR1+ DR2+ F9+ F8+ F7+ F6+ F5+
Majority →
P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11O F1+ F2+ F3+ F4+
P5 P4 P3 P2 P1

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR6 DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 F20 F19 F18 F17 F16
Majority →
F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15+
F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
A# = Anti-Administration
DR# = Democratic-Republican
F# = Federalist
P# = Pro-Administration
V# = Vacant
√ = Party hold: Incumbent re-elected
O = Party hold: New senator elected from same party
+ = Party gain: New senator elected from different party
No tag = Seat not up for election this time

Complete list of races[edit]

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the 3rd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1795; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Pennsylvania
(Special: Class 1)
Albert Gallatin Anti-Administration 1793 (Special) Incumbent had been elected December 2, 1793 to finish a vacant term, but the Senate rejected his qualifications and he was removed February 28, 1794.
Winner elected as Pro-Administration March 31, 1794 to finish the term ending March 4, 1797, and became a Federalist in the 4th Congress.
Federalist gain
James Ross (Federalist) 51.72%
Robert Coleman (Unknown) 40.23%
Samuel Sitgreaves (Federalist) 1.15%
Not voting 6.7%
Virginia
(Special: Class 1)
James Monroe Anti-Administration 1790 (special) Incumbent resigned May 11, 1794 to become U.S. Minister to France.
Winner elected as Anti-Administration November 18, 1794 to finish term ending March 3, 1797, and became a Democratic-Republican in the 4th Congress.
Democratic-Republican gain
Stevens Thomson Mason (Anti-Administration, later Democratic-Republican)
Virginia
(Special: Class 2)
John Taylor Anti-Administration 1792 (Special) Incumbent resigned May 11, 1794.
Winner elected as Anti-Administration November 18, 1794 to finish term ending March 3, 1799, and became a Democratic-Republican in the next Congress.
Democratic-Republican gain
Henry Tazewell (Anti-Administration, later Democratic-Republican)
Delaware
(Special: Class 1)
Vacant George Read (P) resigned September 18, 1793 to become Chief Justice of Delaware.
Winner was elected as Pro-Administration February 7, 1795 to finish the term ending March 4, 1797, and became a Federalist in the 4th Congress.
Federalist gain
Henry Latimer (Pro-Administration, later Federalist)

Races leading to the 4th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1795; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut Stephen Mitchell Pro-Administration 1793 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee did not seek election to the full term.
Federalist gain
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (Federalist)
Georgia James Gunn Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain
James Gunn (Federalist)
Kentucky John Edwards Anti-Administration 1792 (New state) [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Federalist gain
Humphrey Marshall (Federalist)
Maryland John Henry Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain
John Henry (Federalist)
New Hampshire John Langdon Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain
John Langdon (Democratic-Republican)
New York Rufus King Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected January 27, 1795 to a new party.
Federalist gain
Rufus King (Federalist)
North Carolina Benjamin Hawkins Anti-Administration 1789 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Democratic-Republican gain
Timothy Bloodworth (Democratic-Republican)
Pennsylvania Robert Morris Pro-Administration 1788 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Federalist gain
William Bingham (Federalist)
South Carolina Ralph Izard Pro-Administration 1789 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Federalist gain
Jacob Read (Federalist)
Vermont Stephen R. Bradley Anti-Administration 1791 (New state) [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Federalist gain
Elijah Paine (Federalist)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.