United States Senate elections, 1800 and 1801

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United States Senate elections, 1800 and 1801
United States
1798 / 1799 ←
Dates vary by state → 1802 / 1803

10 of the 32 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
17 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Last election 23 seats (61.9%) 9 seats (28.1%)
Seats before 22 (68.8%) 10 (31.2%)
Seats won 17 (54.5%) 15 (45.5%)
Seat change Decrease 5 Increase 5
Seats up 7 3

Majority party before election

Federalist

Elected Majority party

Federalist

The United States Senate election of 1800 and 1801 were elections for the United States Senate that, coinciding with their takeover of the White House, led to the Democratic-Republican Party taking control of the United States Senate. Although the Federalists began the next (7th) Congress with a slim majority, they lost their majority shortly thereafter due to mid-year special elections.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the November 6, 1800 special election in New York.

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9
Ran
DR10
Unknown
DR11
Unknown
F21
Retired
F20
Unknown
F19
Unknown
F18
Ran
F17
Ran
Majority →
F16
Ran
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15
Ran
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Result of the elections[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9
Re-elected
DR10
Hold
DR11
Gain
DR12
Gain
DR13
Gain
DR14
Gain
V1
F loss
F17
Gain
Majority →
F16
Re-elected
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15
Re-elected
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the 7th Congress[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 F17
Majority →
F16
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Later in the 7th Congress (end of 1801)[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14
Hold
DR15
Hold
DR16
Gain
Majority →
DR17
Gain
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14
Hold
DR18
Gain
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the preceding Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1801; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history


New York
(Class 1)
James Watson Federalist 1798 (Special) Incumbent resigned March 19, 1800, to become Naval Officer of the Port of New York.
Winner elected April 3, 1800.
Federalist hold.
Gouverneur Morris (Federalist)
Peter Gansevoort (Democratic-Republican)
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Samuel Dexter Federalist 1799
1796
Incumbent resigned May 30, 1800 to become U.S. Secretary of War.
Winner elected June 6, 1800.
Federalist hold.
Dwight Foster (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York
(Class 3)
John Laurance Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned August 1800.
Winner elected November 6, 1800.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Armstrong (Democratic-Republican)
Peter Gansevoort (Democratic-Republican)
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
Benjamin Goodhue Federalist 1796 (Special)
1796
Incumbent resigned November 8, 1800.
Winner elected November 14, 1800.
Federalist hold.
Jonathan Mason (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland
(Class 3)
James Lloyd Federalist 1797 (Special) Incumbent resigned December 1, 1800.
Winner elected December 12, 1800.
Federalist hold.
William Hindman (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey
(Class 1)
James Schureman Federalist 1799 (Special) Incumbent resigned February 16, 1801.
Winner elected February 28, 1801.
Federalist hold.
Aaron Ogden (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the next Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1801; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut Uriah Tracy Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1801. Uriah Tracy (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia James Gunn Federalist 1789
1795
Unknown if incumbent ran or retired.
Winner elected in 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Jackson (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky Humphrey Marshall Federalist 1794 Incumbent lost re-election
Winner elected November 20, 1800.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Breckinridge (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland William Hindman Federalist 1797 (Special) Legislature failed to elect.
Incumbent was then appointed.
None
New Hampshire John Langdon Democratic-
Republican
1794 or 1795 Unknown if incumbent ran or retired.
Winner elected in 1801.
Federalist gain.
James Sheafe (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York John Armstrong Democratic-
Republican
1800 (Special) Incumbent re-elected April 8, 1801. John Armstrong (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Timothy Bloodworth Democratic-
Republican
1794 Unknown if incumbent ran or retired.
Winner elected November 27, 1800.
Democratic-Republican hold.
David Stone (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania William Bingham Federalist 1795 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected February 18, 1801.[1]
Democratic-Republican gain.
Peter Muhlenberg (Democratic-Republican) 50.0%
George Logan (Democratic-Republican) 48.9%
William Jones (Democratic-Republican) 1.0%
South Carolina Jacob Read Federalist 1795 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John E. Colhoun (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont Elijah Paine Federalist 1794 Incumbent re-elected in 1800. Elijah Paine (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Special elections during the next Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated after March 4, 1801; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
Ray Greene Federalist 1797 (Special)
1799
Incumbent resigned March 5, 1801.
Winner elected May 6, 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Christopher Ellery (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Samuel Livermore Federalist 1798 (Special) Incumbent resigned June 12, 1801.
Winner elected June 17, 1801.
Federalist hold.
Simeon Olcott (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont
(Class 3)
Elijah Paine Federalist 1794
1801
Incumbent resigned September 1, 1801.
Winner elected October 15, 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Stephen R. Bradley (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland
(Class 3)
William Hindman Federalist 1800 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee did not run to finish the term
Winner elected November 19, 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Robert Wright (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Charles Pinckney Democratic-
Republican
1798 (Special)
1798
Incumbent resigned June 6, 1801.
Winner elected December 15, 1801.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Thomas Sumter (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
Peter Muhlenberg Democratic-
Republican
1801 Incumbent resigned June 30, 1801.
Winner elected December 17, 1801.[2]
Democratic-Republican hold.
George Logan (Democratic-Republican) 63.6%
Joseph Hiester (Federalist) 28.0%
Other 8.4%

See also[edit]

References[edit]