United States Senate elections, 1804 and 1805

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United States Senate elections, 1804 and 1805
United States
1802 / 1803 ←
Dates vary by state → 1806 / 1807

11 of the 34 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
18 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 22 seats 9 seats
Seats before 25 9
Seats won 9 2
Seats after 27 7
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 2
Seats up 7 4

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1804 and 1805 were elections that expanded the Democratic-Republican Party's overwhelming control over the United States Senate. The Federalists went into the elections with such a small share of Senate seats (9 out of 34, or 27%) that even if they had won every election, they would have still remained a minority caucus.

As these elections were prior to the ratification of the seventeenth amendment, senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 9th Congress (1805–1807)

  • Majority Party: Democratic-Republican (27)
  • Minority Party: Federalist (7)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 34

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
F8
Unknown
F9
Unknown
DR25
Unknown
DR24
Ran
DR23
Ran
DR22
Ran
DR21
Ran
DR20
Ran
DR19
Ran
F7
Ran
F6
Ran
F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the 9th Congress[edit]

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
DR27
Gain
DR26
Gain
DR25
Hold
DR24
Hold
DR23
Hold
DR22
Hold
DR21
Re-elected
DR20
Re-elected
DR19
Re-elected
F7
Re-elected
F6
Re-elected
F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 8th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated during 1804 or before March 4, 1805; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New York
(Class 3)
John Armstrong, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1800 (Special)
1801
(Resigned 1802)
1803 (Appointed)
Interim appointee resigned December 3, 1804 to become U.S. Senator from Class 1 seat.
Winner elected February 23, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Smith (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed[1]
New York
(Class 1)
Theodorus Bailey Democratic-Republican 1803 Resigned January 16, 1804 to become Postmaster of New York City.
Winner elected February 25, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Armstrong, Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 92.2%
Jacob Radcliff (Federalist) 4.4%
Egbert Benson (Federalist) 3.3%[2]
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
Samuel J. Potter Democratic-Republican 1803 Died October 14, 1804.
Winner elected October 29, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Benjamin Howland (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware
(Class 2)
William H. Wells Federalist 1799 (Special)
1799
Resigned November 6, 1804.
Winner elected November 13, 1804.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Federalist hold.
James A. Bayard (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York
(Class 1)
John Armstrong, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1804 (Special) Resigned to become U.S. Minister to France.
Winner elected November 23, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Samuel Latham Mitchill (Democratic-Republican) 83.3%
Rufus King (Federalist) 15.6%
David Thomas (Democratic-Republican) 1.1%[3]
Virginia
(Class 1)
Andrew Moore Democratic-Republican 1804 (Appointed) Interim appointee resigned December 3, 1804 to become U.S. Senator from Class 1 seat.
Winner elected December 4, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William B. Giles (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 2)
William B. Giles Democratic-Republican 1804 (Appointed) Interim appointee resigned December 3, 1804 to become U.S. Senator from Class 2 seat.
Winner elected December 4, 1804.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Andrew Moore (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Pierce Butler Democratic-Republican 1802 (Special) Resigned November 21, 1804.
Winner elected December 6, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Gaillard (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 9th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1805; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Delaware James A. Bayard Federalist 1804 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1805. James A. Bayard (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia Abraham Baldwin Democratic-
Republican
1799 Incumbent re-elected in 1805. Abraham Baldwin (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky John Brown Democratic-
Republican
1792 (New seat)
1792
1799
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner's election date unknown.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Buckner Thruston (Democratic-Republican)
John Brown (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts Timothy Pickering Federalist 1803 (Special) Incumbent's re-election date unknown. Timothy Pickering (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire Simeon Olcott Federalist 1801 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1804.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Nicholas Gilman (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey Jonathan Dayton Federalist 1799 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner's election date unknown.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Aaron Kitchell (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Jesse Franklin Democratic-
Republican
1798 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
James Turner (Democratic-Republican)
Jesse Franklin (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island Christopher Ellery Democratic-
Republican
1801 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner's election date unknown.
Democratic-Republican hold.
James Fenner (Democratic-Republican)
Christopher Ellery (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina Thomas Sumter Democratic-
Republican
1801 Incumbent re-elected in 1805. Thomas Sumter (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee William Cocke Democratic-
Republican
1799 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner's election date unknown.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Daniel Smith (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia William B. Giles Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Appointed)
1804 (Resigned)
1804 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1804. William B. Giles (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Special elections during the 9th Congress[edit]

In this special election, the winner was seated in 1805 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Kentucky
(Class 3)
John Breckinridge Democratic-Republican 1801 Resigned August 7, 1805 to become U.S. Attorney General.
Winner elected November 8, 1805.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Adair (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2015. 
  2. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2015. 
  3. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2015.