United States Senate elections, 1820 and 1821

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United States Senate elections, 1820 and 1821
United States
← 1818 / 1819 Dates vary by state 1822 / 1823 →

15 of the 46 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
24 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 30 seats 9 seats
Seats before 33 9
Seats won 11 1
Seats after 39 4
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 4
Seats up 10 5

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1820 and 1821 were elections for the United States Senate that, corresponding with James Monroe's landslide re-election, had the Democratic-Republican Party gain seven seats, assuming almost complete control of the Senate.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 17th Congress (1821–1823)

  • Majority Party: Democratic-Republican (39–43)
  • Minority Party: Federalist (4)
  • Vacant: (3–1)
  • Total Seats: 46–48

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

Composition after the June 13 & 14, 1820 elections in Maine.

DR1 DR2 DR3
DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4
DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR19 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23
Majority → DR24
DR31
Ran
DR30
Ran
DR29
Ran
DR28
Ran
DR27
Ran
V1* V2* DR26 DR25
DR32
Ran
DR33
Unknown
DR34
Unknown
DR35
Retired
F9
Retired
F8
Retired
F7
Unknown
F6
Ran
F5
Ran
F4
F1 F2 F3
Notes:
  • V1 (Mississippi seat): Incumbent Democratic-Republican had resigned May 15, 1820. A Democratic-Republican successor would be elected August 30, 1820 to finish the term and would also be elected to the next term.
  • V2 (Kentucky class 3 seat): Democratic-Republican Senator had resigned May 28, 1820. A Democratic-Republican successor would be elected October 19, 1820.

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

DR1 DR2 DR3
DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4
DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR19 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23
Majority → DR24
DR33
Hold
DR32
Re-elected
DR31
Re-elected
DR30
Re-elected
DR29
Re-elected
DR28
Re-elected
DR27 DR26 DR25
DR34
Hold
DR35
Hold
DR36
Gain
DR37
Gain
DR38
Gain
DR39*
Gain
V1* V2* V3* F4
Re-elected
F1 F2 F3
Notes:
  • DR39 (Rhode Island class 2 seat): Federalist Senator died December 25, 1820, after the elections. A Democratic-Republican successor was elected January 9, 1821.
  • V1 (Delaware seat): Incumbent Federalist retired and a replacement wasn't elected until late in 1822.
  • V2 (Pennsylvania seat): Legislature failed to elect and a replacement wasn't elected until late in 1821.
  • V3 (Tennessee seat): Incumbent Democratic-Republican was re-elected, but not until September 1821. That was after the next Congress started, but before the Senate first convened.
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the preceding Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was elected during 1820 or before March 4, 1821; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
New York
Class 3
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect in 1818/1819.
Previous incumbent was elected January 8, 1820.
Federalist gain.
Rufus King (Federalist) Unanimous
Massachusetts
Class 1
Prentiss Mellen Federalist 1820 (Special) Incumbent resigned to become Chief Justice of Maine.
Winner elected June 12, 1820.
Winner was also elected to the next term.
Federalist hold.
Elijah H. Mills (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine
Class 1
New state Winner elected June 13, 1820.
Winner was also elected to the next term.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Holmes (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine
Class 2
New state Winner elected June 14, 1820.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Chandler (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi
Class 1
Walter Leake Democratic-
Republican
1817 Incumbent resigned May 15, 1820.
Winner elected August 30, 1820.
Winner was also elected to the next term.
Democratic-Republican hold.
David Holmes (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky
Class 3
William Logan Democratic-
Republican
1818 or 1819 Incumbent resigned May 28, 1820 to run for Governor of Kentucky.
Winner elected October 19, 1820.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Isham Talbot (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island
Class 2
James Burrill, Jr. Federalist 1816 or 1817 Incumbent died December 25, 1820.
Winner elected January 9, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Nehemiah R. Knight (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the next Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1821; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut Samuel Dana Federalist 1810 (Special)
1814
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected March 4, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Elijah Boardman (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware Outerbridge Horsey Federalist 1810 (Special)
1814
Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Federalist loss.
A Democratic-Republican was later elected in 1822.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana James Noble Democratic-
Republican
1816 Incumbent re-elected in 1821. James Noble (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine John Holmes Democratic-
Republican
1820 Incumbent re-elected in 1820. John Holmes (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland William Pinkney Democratic-
Republican
1819 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1820 or 1821. William Pinkney (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts Elijah H. Mills Federalist 1820 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1820 or 1821. Elijah H. Mills (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi David Holmes Democratic-
Republican
1820 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1820 or 1821. David Holmes (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey James J. Wilson Democratic-
Republican
1814 or 1815 Incumbent lost re-election, then resigned January 8, 1821.
New senator elected November 11, 1820.[1]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Samuel L. Southard (Democratic-Republican) 30[1]
James J. Wilson (Democratic-Republican) 24[1]
New York Nathan Sanford Democratic-
Republican
1809 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 6, 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Martin Van Buren (Democratic-Republican)
Nathan Sanford (Democratic-Republican)
Ohio Benjamin Ruggles Democratic-
Republican
1815 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Benjamin Ruggles (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania Jonathan Roberts Democratic-
Republican
1814 (Special)
1814
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic-Republican loss.
New senator would later be elected in 1821.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island William Hunter Federalist 1811 (Special)
1814
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1820 or 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James DeWolf (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee John H. Eaton Democratic-
Republican
1818 (Appointed)
1819 (Special)
Legislature failed to elect
Democratic-Republican loss.
New senator would later be elected September 27, 1821, see below.[2]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont Isaac Tichenor Federalist 1796
1796
1797 (Resigned)
1814 or 1815
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Horatio Seymour (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia James Barbour Democratic-
Republican
1815 (Special)
1815
Incumbent re-elected in 1821. James Barbour (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Special elections during the next Congress[edit]

In this special election, the winner was elected in 1821 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Missouri
Class 1
New state Winner elected August 10, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Thomas H. Benton (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri
Class 3
New state Winner elected August 10, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
David Barton (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee
Class 1
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner re-elected late September 27, 1821.[2]
Democratic-Republican gain.
John H. Eaton (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia
Class 1
Freeman Walker Democratic-
Republican
1819 (Special) Incumbent resigned August 6, 1821.
Winner elected November 10, 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Nicholas Ware (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania
Class 1
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner elected December 10, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
William Findlay (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "New Jersey 1820 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. November 11, 1820. Retrieved June 9, 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "EATON, John Henry, (1790 - 1856)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved June 9, 2015.