United States Senate elections, 1822 and 1823

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United States Senate elections, 1822 and 1823
United States
1820 / 1821 ←
Dates vary by state → 1824 / 1825

16 of the 48 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
25 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 39 seats 4 seats
Seats before 44 4
Seats won 14 1
Seats after 44 3
Seat change Steady Decrease 1
Seats up 14 2

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate election of 1822 and 1823 were elections for the United States Senate that had the Democratic-Republican Party continue almost complete control of the Senate.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 18th Congress (1823–1825)

  • Majority Party: Democratic-Republican (32–33)
  • Minority Parties: National Republican & Federalist (4–5)
  • Total seats: 48

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

Composition after the January 24, 1822 election in Delaware.

DR1 DR2 DR3 DR4
DR14 DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5
DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR19 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23 DR24
Majority → DR25
DR34 DR33 DR32 DR31 DR30 DR29 DR28 DR27 DR26
DR35 DR36 DR37 DR38 DR39 DR40 DR41 DR42 DR43 DR44
F1 F2 F3 F4

Result of the elections[edit]

DR1 DR2 DR3 DR4
DR14 DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5
DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR119 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23 DR24
Majority → DR25
DR34
Hold
DR33
Hold
DR32
Hold
DR31
Hold
DR30 DR29 DR28 DR27 DR26
DR35
Re-elected
DR36
Re-elected
DR37
Re-elected
DR38
Re-elected
DR39
Re-elected
DR40
Re-elected
DR41
Re-elected
DR42
Re-elected
DR43
Re-elected
DR44
Re-elected
F1 F2 F3
Re-elected
V1
F Loss

Beginning of the next Congress, divided by factions[edit]

DRa1 DRa2 DRa3 DRa4
DRc14 DRc13 DRc12 DRa11 DRa10 DRa9 DRa8 DRa7 DRa6 DRa5
DRc15 DRc16 DRc17 DRc18 DRc19 DRc20 DRc21 DRc22 DRc23 DRc24
Plurality→ DRc25
DRj34 DRj33 DRj32 DRc31 DRc30 DRc29 DRc28 DRc27 DRc26
DRj35 DRj36 DRj37 DRj38 DRj39 DRj40 DRj41 DRj42 V3
F Loss
V2
F Loss
Fa1 Fa2 Fa3 V1
Key:
DR# = Democratic-Republican
DRa# = Democratic-Republican (Adams-Clay)
DRc# = Democratic-Republican (Crawford)
DRj# = Democratic-Republican (Jackson)
F# = Federalist
Fa# = Federalist (Adams-Clay)
V# = Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the preceding Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1822 or before March 4, 1823; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Delaware
(Class 1)
Vacant Outerbridge Horsey (F) had resigned March 3, 1821.
Winner elected January 24, 1822.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Caesar A. Rodney (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Ohio
(Class 3)
William A. Trimble Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent died December 13, 1821.
Winner elected January 29, 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Ethan Allen Brown (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Harrison Gray Otis Federalist 1817 Incumbent resigned May 30, 1822 to run for Mayor of Boston.
Winner elected June 5, 1822.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Federalist hold.
James Lloyd (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Alabama
(Class 3)
John W. Walker Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent resigned December 12, 1822 due to failing health.
Winner elected December 12, 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William Kelly (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland
(Class 1)
William Pinkney Democratic-Republican 1819 (Special)
1821
Incumbent died February 25, 1822.
Winner elected December 17, 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Samuel Smith (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 2)
James Pleasants Democratic-Republican 1819 (Special) Incumbent resigned December 15, 1822.
Winner elected December 18, 1822.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Taylor of Caroline (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the next Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1823; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama William R. King Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected as a Jackson Democratic-Republican in 1822. William R. King (Jackson Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware Nicholas Van Dyke Federalist 1817 Legislature failed to elect.
Incumbent would later be re-elected late in 1824.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia Nicholas Ware Democratic-Republican 1821 (Special) Incumbent re-elected as a Crawford Democratic-Republican in 1822 or 1823. Nicholas Ware (Crawford Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois Jesse B. Thomas Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected as a Crawford Democratic-Republican in 1823. Jesse B. Thomas (Crawford Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky Richard M. Johnson Democratic-Republican 1819 (Special) Incumbent re-elected as a Jackson Democratic-Republican in 1823. Richard M. Johnson (Jackson Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana Henry Johnson Democratic-Republican 1818 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee elected as an Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican to a full term in 1823. Henry Johnson (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine John Chandler Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected as a Crawford Democratic-Republican in 1823. John Chandler (Crawford Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts James Lloyd Federalist 1808 (Special)
1808
Resigned 1813
1822 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected as an Adams-Clay Federalist in 1822.
Winner was also elected to finish the previous term, see above.
James Lloyd (Adams-Clay Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi Thomas Hill Williams Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected as a Jackson Democratic-Republican in 1823. Thomas Hill Williams (Jackson Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire David L. Morril Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1823.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Samuel Bell (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey Mahlon Dickerson Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected as a Crawford Democratic-Republican in 1823. Mahlon Dickerson (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Montfort Stokes Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special)
1816
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Branch (Crawford Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island Nehemiah R. Knight Democratic-Republican 1821 (Special) Incumbent re-elected as a Crawford Democratic-Republican in 1823. Nehemiah R. Knight (Crawford Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina William Smith Democratic-Republican 1810 (Special)
1816
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Robert Y. Hayne (Jackson Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee John Williams Democratic-Republican 1815 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1822 or 1823.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Andrew Jackson (Jackson Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia Armistead T. Mason Democratic-Republican 1822 (Special) Incumbent re-elected as a Crawford Democratic-Republican in 1823.
Winner was also elected to finish the previous term, see above.
John Taylor of Caroline (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Special elections during the next Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were elected in 1823 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New Jersey
(Class 1)
Samuel L. Southard Democratic-Republican 1821 (Appointed)
1821
Incumbent resigned March 4, 1823 to become U.S. Secretary of the Navy.
Winner elected November 12, 1823.
Democratic Republican hold.
Joseph McIlvaine (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

See also[edit]

References[edit]