United States Senate elections, 1832 and 1833

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United States Senate elections, 1832 and 1833
United States
1830 / 1831 ←
Dates vary by state → 1834 / 1835

16 of the 48 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
25 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Anti-Jacksonian Jacksonian
Last election 20 seats 26 seats
Seats before 22 24
Seats won 8 6
Seats after 23 21
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 3
Seats up 7 9

  Third party
 
Party Nullifier
Last election 1 seats
Seats before 2
Seats won 0
Seats after 2
Seat change Steady
Seats up 0

Majority party before election

Jacksonian

Elected Majority party

Anti-Jacksonian

The United States Senate elections of 1832 and 1833 were elections that had the Anti-Jackson coalition assume control of the United States Senate from the Jacksonian coalition, despite Andrew Jackson's victory in the presidential election.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were elected by State legislatures.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the January 3, 1832 special election in Indiana.

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4
AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7 AJ6 AJ5
AJ15 AJ16
Ran
AJ17
Ran
AJ18
Ran
AJ19
Ran
AJ20
Unknown
AJ21
Retired
AJ22
Retired
N1 N2
Majority (with VP tie-breaking vote) → J24
Retired
J15 J16
Ran
J17
Ran
J18
Ran
J19
Ran
J20
Ran
J21
Unknown
J22
Unknown
J23
Retired
J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7 J6 J5
J1 J2 J3 J4

As a result of the elections[edit]

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4
AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7 AJ6 AJ5
AJ15 AJ16
Re-elected
AJ17
Re-elected
AJ18
Re-elected
AJ19
Hold
AJ20
Hold
AJ21
Gain
AJ22
Gain
AJ23*
Gain
N1
Plurality ↑ N2
J15 J16
Re-elected
J17
Re-elected
J18
Re-elected
J19
Hold
J20
Gain
J21
Gain
V1*
Loss
V2*
Loss
J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7 J6 J5
J1 J2 J3 J4
Notes:
  • AJ23 (Virginia class 1 seat): John Tyler (J) was re-elected as an Anti-Jacksonian.
  • V1 (Pennsylvania class 1 seat): Legislature failed to elect.
  • V2 (Mississippi class 1 seat): Legislature failed to elect.

At the beginning of the first session, December 2, 1833[edit]

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4
AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7 AJ6 AJ5
AJ15 AJ16 AJ17 AJ18 AJ19 AJ20 AJ21 AJ22 AJ23 AJ24*
Gain
Majority → AJ25*
Gain
J15 J16 J17 J18 J19 V1* N2*
Hold
N1 AJ26*
Gain
J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7 J6 J5
J1 J2 J3 J4
Notes:
  • AJ24 (Alabama class 3 seat): Gabriel Moore, who was not up for election this cycle, changed from Jacksoninan to Anti-Jacksonian.
  • AJ25 (North Carolina class 3 seat): Willie P. Mangum, who was not up for election this cycle, changed from Jacksoninan to Anti-Jacksonian.
  • AJ26 (Mississippi class 1 seat): Legislature had previously failed to elect, and the incumbent Jacksonian appointee was elected November 22, 1833 as an Anti-Jacksonian.
  • V1 (Pennsylvania class 1 seat): New Senator wasn't elected until 5 days after the session started.
  • N2 (South Carolina class 3 seat): Stephen D. Miller (N) resigned March 2, 1833, and William C. Preston (N) was elected November 26, 1833.
Key:
AJ# = Anti-Jacksonian
J# = Jacksonian
N# = Nullfier
V# = Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 22nd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1832 or before March 4, 1833; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Indiana
(Class 1)
Robert Hanna Anti-Jacksonian 1831 (Appointed) Appointee retired when elected successor qualified.
Successor elected January 3, 1832.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Jacksonian gain.
John Tipton (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 2)
Littleton Waller Tazewell Jacksonian 1824 (Special)
1829
Resigned July 16, 1832.
Successor elected December 10, 1832.
Jacksonian hold.
William C. Rives (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Robert Y. Hayne Nullifier 1822
1828
Resigned December 13, 1832 to become Governor of South Carolina.
Successor elected December 29, 1832.
Nullifier hold.
John C. Calhoun (Nullifier)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York
(Class 3)
William L. Marcy Jacksonian 1831 Resigned January 1, 1833 to become Governor of New York.
Successor elected January 4, 1833.
Jacksonian hold.
Silas Wright (Jacksonian)
John C. Spencer (Anti-Masonic)
James Burt
Gerrit Smith
James Kent
Albert Gallatin
Gideon Hawley
John Birdsall (Anti-Masonic)
Myron Holley
William Thompson
Albert H. Tracy (Anti-Masonic)
Samuel A. Foot

Races leading to the 23rd Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1833; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut Samuel A. Foot Anti-Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent lost re-election, and was then elected to the U.S. House of Representatives instead.
Winner elected in 1832.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Nathan Smith (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware Arnold Naudain Anti-Jacksonian 1830 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1832. Arnold Naudain (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana John Tipton Jacksonian 1832 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1832. John Tipton (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine John Holmes Anti-Jacksonian 1820 (short term)
1820 (long term)
1826 (Retired or lost)
1829 (Special)
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1832 or 1833.
Jacksonian gain
Ether Shepley (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland Samuel Smith Jacksonian 1802
1809
1815 (Lost)
1822 (Special)
1827
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1833.
Anti-Jacksonian gain
Joseph Kent (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts Daniel Webster Anti-Jacksonian 1827 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1833. Daniel Webster (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi John Black Jacksonian 1832 (Appointed) Legislature failed to elect.
Jacksonian loss.
Incumbent would later be elected as an Anti-Jacksonian, see below.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri Thomas H. Benton Jacksonian 1821
1827
Incumbent re-elected in 1833. Thomas H. Benton (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey Mahlon Dickerson Jacksonian 1817 (class 2)
1823 (class 2)
1829 (Resigned, class 2)
1829 (Special)
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1833.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Samuel L. Southard (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York Charles E. Dudley Jacksonian 1829 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1833.
Jacksonian hold.
Nathaniel P. Tallmadge (Jacksonian)
Francis Granger (Anti-Masonic & Anti-Jacksonian)
Benjamin Butler (Jacksonian)
Ohio Benjamin Ruggles Anti-Jacksonian 1815
1821
1827
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1833.
Jacksonian gain.
Thomas Morris (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania George M. Dallas Jacksonian 1831 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Jacksonian loss.
Samuel McKean (Jacksonian)
William Clark (Anti-Masonic)
Thomas H. Crawford (Jacksonian)
James Buchanan (Jacksonian)
Garrick Mallery (Anti-Jacksonian)
Adam King (Jacksonian)
Rhode Island Asher Robbins Anti-Jacksonian 1825 (Special)
1827
Incumbent re-elected in 1833. Asher Robbins (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Felix Grundy Jacksonian 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1833. Felix Grundy (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont Horatio Seymour Anti-Jacksonian 1821
1827
Incumbent retired to run for Vermont Governor.
Winner elected in 1833.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Benjamin Swift (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia John Tyler Jacksonian 1827 Incumbent re-elected as an Anti-Jacksonian in 1833.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
John Tyler (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Special elections during the 23rd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated in 1833 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Georgia
(Class 3)
George Troup Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent resigned November 8, 1833.
Successor elected November 21, 1833.
Jacksonian hold.
John Pendleton King (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi
(Class 1)
John Black Nullifier 1832 (Appointed) Legislature had failed to elect and the seat was vacant from March 4, 1833.
Incumbent appointee was then elected November 22, 1833.
John Black (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Stephen D. Miller Nullifier 1830 Incumbent resigned March 2, 1833 due to ill health.
Successor elected November 26, 1833.
Nullifier hold.
William C. Preston (Nullifer)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia
(Class 3)
George Troup Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent resigned November 8, 1833.
Successor elected November 21, 1833.
Jacksonian hold.
John Pendleton King (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had previously failed to elect.
Successor elected December 7, 1833.
Jacksonian gain.
Samuel McKean (Jacksonian) 55.64 %
William Clark (Anti-Masonic) 21.05 %
Thomas H. Crawford (Jacksonian) 14.29 %
James Buchanan (Jacksonian) 3.76 %
Garrick Mallery (Anti-Jacksonian) 2.26 %
Adam King (Jacksonian) 0.75 %
Not voting 2.26%

Complete list of races[edit]

New York[edit]

Class 1[edit]

For the general election, Nathaniel P. Tallmadge received majorities in both the Assembly and the Senate, and was declared elected. Due to the controversy about his eligibility, he received only very small majorities - one more than necessary in the Senate, and four more than necessary in the Assembly - although his party had large majorities in both houses of the Legislature.

1833 United States Senator election result
Office House Jacksonian Democrat Anti-Mason/National Republican Jacksonian Democrat
U.S. Senator State Senate (32 members) Nathaniel P. Tallmadge 18 Francis Granger 6 Benjamin F. Butler 2
State Assembly (128 members) Nathaniel P. Tallmadge 69 Francis Granger 25 Benjamin F. Butler 12

Class 3 (Special)[edit]

William L. Marcy had been elected in 1831 to the other seat. In November 1832, Marcy was elected Governor, and upon taking office resigned his Senate seat on January 1, 1833. Silas Wright, Jr., was the choice of both the Assembly and the Senate, and was declared elected.

1833 United States Senate special election result
Office Candidate Party Senate
(32 members)
Assembly
(128 members)
U.S. Senator Silas Wright, Jr. Jacksonian 24 99
John C. Spencer Anti-Mason 3 8
James Burt 1 2
Gerrit Smith 1 1
James Kent 4
Albert Gallatin 3
Gideon Hawley 3
John Birdsall Anti-Mason 1
Myron Holley 1
William Thompson 1
Albert H. Tracy Anti-Mason 1
Samuel A. Foot 1

Pennsylvania[edit]

The election was held on eleven separate dates from December 1832 to December 1833. On December 7, 1833, Samuel McKean was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[1][2]

The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on December 11, 1832, for the regularly scheduled Senate election for the term beginning on March 4, 1833. A total of thirty-six ballots were recorded. Ballots 1-17 were recorded on four separate dates (11th, 12th, 13th, 15th) in December 1832. Ballots 18-21 were recorded on two separate dates (9th and 10th) in January 1833. Ballots 22-29 were recorded on two separate dates (19th and 20th) in February 1833. The thirtieth ballot was recorded on March 12, 1833, followed by three additional ballots on April 2. Following the thirty-third ballot on April 2, the election convention adjourned sine die without electing a Senator.[1]

Upon the expiration of incumbent George M. Dallas's term on March 4, 1833, the seat was vacated. It was vacant until the election convention of the General Assembly re-convened on December 7, 1833, and elected Jacksonian Samuel McKean to the seat after three additional ballots.[2] The results of the third and final ballot (thirty-sixth ballot in total) of both houses combined during the December 7 session are as follows:

State Legislature Results[2][3]
Party Candidate Votes %
Jacksonian Samuel McKean 74 55.64
Anti-Masonic William Clark 28 21.05
Jacksonian Thomas H. Crawford 19 14.29
Jacksonian James Buchanan 5 3.76
Anti-Jacksonian Garrick Mallery 3 2.26
Jacksonian Adam King 1 0.75
N/A Not voting 3 2.26
Totals 133 100.00%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 1832-33" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c "U.S. Senate Election - 7 December 1833" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2012. 
  3. ^ "PA US Senate". OurCampaigns. Retrieved December 22, 2012.