United States Senate elections, 1834 and 1835

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United States Senate elections, 1834 and 1835
United States
1832 / 1833 ←
Dates vary by state → 1836 / 1837

16 of the 48 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
25 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Anti-Jacksonian Jacksonian
Last election 23 (48.9%) 22 (46.8%)
Seats before 26 (54.2%) 20 (41.7%)
Seats won 24 (51.1%) 22 (46.8%)
Seat change Decrease 2 Increase 1
Seats up 8 7

  Third party
 
Party Nullifier
Last election 2 (4.2%)
Seats before 2 (4.2%)
Seats won 2 (4.2%)
Seat change Steady
Seats up 1

Majority party before election

Anti-Jacksonian

Elected Majority party

Anti-Jacksonian

The United States Senate elections of 1834 and 1835 were elections that had the Anti-Jackson coalition maintain control of the United States Senate. However, during the 24th Congress, the Jacksonian coalition gained control of the Senate.

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results[edit]

24th Congress (1835–1837)

  • Majority Party: Jacksonian (26)
  • Minority Party: Anti-Jackson (24)
  • Other Parties: Nullifier (2)
  • Total Seats: 52

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the January 20, 1835 special election in Maine.

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4
AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7 AJ6 AJ5
AJ15 AJ16 AJ17 AJ18 AJ19
Ran
AJ20
Ran
AJ21
Ran
AJ22
Ran
AJ23
Unknown
AJ24
Unknown
Majority → AJ25
Retired
J15
Ran
J16
Ran
J17*
Ran
J18
Ran
J19
Ran
J20
Unknown
N1 N2
Ran
AJ26
Retired
J14
Ran
J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7 J6 J5
J1 J2 J3 J4
Notes:
  • J17 (Maine class 2 seat): Anti-Jacksonian incumbent resigned January 1, 1835, presumably before the election for the next term. A Jacksonian successor was elected January 20, 1835 to finish the term and for the next term. The seat is therefore labelled as Jacksonian "before the election" in this table.

As a result of the elections[edit]

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4
AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7 AJ6 AJ5
AJ15 AJ16 AJ17 AJ18 AJ19
Re-elected
AJ20
Re-elected
AJ21
Re-elected
AJ22
Hold
AJ23
Gain
AJ24*
Gain
Plurality →
J15
Re-elected
J16
Re-elected
J17*
Re-elected
J18
Re-elected
J19
Gain
J20
Gain
J21
Gain
N1 N2
Re-elected
V1*
Loss
J14
Re-elected
J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7 J6 J5
J1 J2 J3 J4
Notes:
  • AJ24 (Virginia class 1 seat): John Tyler (J) was re-elected as an Anti-Jacksonian.
  • V1 (Louisiana class 2 seat): Winner was elected but resigned without having been seated.
  • J17 (Maine class 2 seat): Anti-Jacksonian incumbent resigned January 1, 1835, presumably before the election for the next term. A Jacksonian successor was elected January 20, 1835 to finish the term and for the next term. The seat is therefore labelled as a Jacksonian "re-election" in this table.
Key:
AJ# = Anti-Jacksonian
J# = Jacksonian
N# = Nullfier
V# = Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 23rd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1834 or before March 4, 1835; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Virginia
(Class 2)
William Rives Jacksonian 1832 (Special) Incumbent resigned February 22, 1834.
Successor elected February 26, 1834.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Benjamin W. Leigh (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
William Wilkins Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent resigned June 30, 1834 to become U.S. Minister to Russia.
Winner elected December 6, 1834.
Jacksonian hold.
James Buchanan (Jacksonian) 66 (49.62%)[1]
Amos Ellmaker (Anti-Jacksonian) 31 (23.31%)
James Clarke (Jacksonian) 26 (19.55%)
Joseph Lawrence (Anti-Jacksonian) 6 (4.51%)
Joel Sutherland (Jacksonian) 1 (0.75%)
Not voting 3 (2.26%)
Georgia
(Class 3)
John Forsyth Jacksonian 1829 (Special)
1831
Incumbent resigned June 27, 1834 to become U.S. Minister to Spain.
Winner elected January 12, 1835.
Jacksonian hold.
Alfred Cuthbert (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland
(Class 3)
Ezekiel F. Chambers Anti-Jacksonian 1826 (Special)
1831
Incumbent resigned December 20, 1834 to become judge of the Maryland Court of Appeals.
Winner elected January 13, 1835.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Robert Henry Goldsborough (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine
(Class 2)
Peleg Sprague Anti-Jacksonian 1826 (Special)
1831
Incumbent resigned December 20, 1834 to become judge of the Maryland Court of Appeals.
Winner elected January 20, 1835.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Jacksonian gain.
John Ruggles (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 24th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1835; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama William R. King Jacksonian 1819
1822
1828
Incumbent re-elected in 1834. William R. King (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware John M. Clayton Anti-Jacksonian 1827 (Special)
1829
Incumbent re-elected in 1835. John M. Clayton (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia John Pendleton King Jacksonian 1833 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1834. John Pendleton King (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois John M. Robinson Jacksonian 1830 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1835. John M. Robinson (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana George A. Waggaman Anti-Jacksonian 1831 (Special) Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Winner elected in 1835, but due to ill-health, resigned without having been seated.
Anti-Jacksonian loss.
Charles Gayarré (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky George M. Bibb Jacksonian 1829 Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Winner elected in 1835.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
John J. Crittenden (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine John Ruggles Jacksonian 1835 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1835 John Ruggles (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts Nathaniel Silsbee Anti-Jacksonian 1826 (Special)
1828
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1835.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
John Davis (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi George Poindexter Anti-Jacksonian 1830 (Appointed)
? (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1835.
Jacksonian gain.
Robert J. Walker (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire Samuel Bell Anti-Jacksonian 1823 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1835.
Jacksonian gain.
Henry Hubbard (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey Theodore Frelinghuysen Anti-Jacksonian 1828 Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Winner elected in 1835.
Jacksonian gain.
Garret D. Wall (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Bedford Brown Jacksonian 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1835. Bedford Brown (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island Nehemiah R. Knight Anti-Jacksonian 1821 (Special)
1823
1829
Incumbent re-elected in 1835. Nehemiah R. Knight (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina John C. Calhoun Nullifier 1832 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1834. John C. Calhoun (Nullifier)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Hugh Lawson White Jacksonian 1825 (Special)
1829
Incumbent re-elected in 1835 as Anti-Jacksonian.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Hugh Lawson White (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia Benjamin W. Leigh Anti-Jacksonian 1834 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1835. Benjamin W. Leigh (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Special elections during the 24th Congress[edit]

In this special election, the winner was seated in 1835 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut
(Class 1)
Nathan Smith Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent died December 6, 1835.
Successor elected December 21, 1835.
Jacksonian gain.
John M. Niles (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "U.S. Senate Election - 6 December 1834" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved 22 December 2013.