United States Senate elections, 1842 and 1843

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United States Senate elections, 1842 and 1843
United States
1840 / 1841 ←
Various dates → 1844 / 1845

17 of the 52 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
27 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Whig Democratic
Last election 29 seats 22 seats
Seats before 30 20
Seats won 4 13
Seats after 27 23
Seat change Decrease 3 Increase 3
Seats up 7 10

Majority Party before election

Whig

Elected Majority Party

Whig

The United States Senate elections of 1842 and 1843 were elections which had the Whigs lose seats but maintain control of the United States Senate. Although they lost three seats in the general elections, they gained two of them back by the start of the first session in special elections.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 28th Congress (1843–1845)

  • Majority Party: Whig (27)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (22–23)
  • Other Parties: (0–1)
  • Total Seats: 52–54

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After July 1842 appointment in New Jersey.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16
Ran
D15
Ran
D14
Ran
D13
Ran
D12
Ran
D11
Ran
D10 D9 D8 D7
D17
Unknown
D18
Unknown
D19
Retired
D20
Retired
V2 V1 W30
Resigned
W29
Retired
W28
Unknown
W27
Unknown
Majority → W26
Ran
W17 W18 W19 W20 W21 W22 W23 W24
Ran
W25
Ran
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8 W7
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6

Result of the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16
Re-elected
D15
Re-elected
D14
Re-elected
D13
Re-elected
D12
Re-elected
D11
Re-elected
D10 D9 D8 D7
D17
Re-elected
D18
Hold
D19
Hold
D20
Hold
D21
Hold
D22
Gain
D23
Gain
V2 V1 W27
Hold
Majority → W26
Hold
W17 W18 W19 W20 W21 W22 W23 W24
Re-elected
W25
Re-elected
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8 W7
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 V3
D Loss
V2 V1 W27
Majority → W26
W17 W18 W19 W20 W21 W22 W23 W24 W25
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8 W7
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6

Beginning of the first session of the next Congress (December 4, 1843)[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20 D21
Hold
D22
Hold
D23
Gain
W29
Gain
W28
Gain
W27
Majority → W26
W17 W18 W19 W20 W21 W22 W23 W24 W25
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8 W7
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6
Key:
D# Democratic
W# Whig
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the 27th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were elected during 1842 or in 1843 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
Nathan F. Dixon Whig Elected in 1838 or 1839. Incumbent died January 29, 1842.
Winner elected February 18, 1842.
Whig hold.
William Sprague (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Leonard Wilcox Democratic 1842 (Appointed) Incumbent had been appointed March 1, 1842 to continue the term of Franklin Pierce (Democratic), who had resigned February 28, 1842 to oppose a bill distributing federal funds to the states — believing that the money should go to the military instead — and to challenge the Whigs to reveal the results of their investigation of the New York Customs House.
Incumbent appointee elected in June 1842.
Whig hold.
Leonard Wilcox (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont
(Class 3)
Samuel C. Crafts Whig 1842 (Appointed) Incumbent had been appointed April 23, 1842 to continue the term of Samuel Prentiss (Whig), who had resigned April 11, 1842 to become judge of the U.S. District Court of Vermont.
Incumbent appointee elected October 26, 1842.
Samuel C. Crafts (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina
(Class 3)
William C. Preston Whig 1833 (Special)
1837
Incumbent resigned November 29, 1842.
Winner elected December 23, 1842.
Democratic gain.
George McDuffie (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 28th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1843; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Arthur P. Bagby Democratic 1841 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1842. Arthur P. Bagby (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas Ambrose Sevier Democratic 1836
1837
Incumbent re-elected in 1843. Ambrose Sevier (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut Perry Smith Democratic 1837 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1842, but due to ill-health and a credentials challenge he was unable to serve until May 16, 1844; nevertheless, his term began March 4, 1843.
Democratic hold.
John M. Niles (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia Alfred Cuthbert Democratic 1835 (Special)
1837
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1843.
Democratic hold.
Walter T. Colquitt (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois Richard M. Young Democratic 1837 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1843.
Democratic hold.
Sidney Breese (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana Oliver H. Smith Whig 1836 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1842.
Democratic gain.
Edward A. Hannegan (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky John J. Crittenden Whig 1817
1819 (Resigned)
1835
1841 (Retired)
1842 (Appointed)
? (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in January 1843. John J. Crittenden (Whig)
Richard Mentor Johnson
Louisiana Charles M. Conrad Whig 1842 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee lost election.
Winner elected in 1843, although due to ill health did not take his seat.
Whig hold.
Alexander Porter (Whig)
Charles M. Conrad (Whig)
Maryland John L. Kerr Whig 1841 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1843.
Whig hold.
James Pearce (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri Lewis F. Linn Democratic 1833 (Appointed)
? (Special)
1836
Incumbent re-elected in 1842. Lewis F. Linn (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire Leonard Wilcox Democratic 1842 (Appointed)
1842 (Special)
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1843.
Democratic hold.
Charles G. Atherton (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York Silas Wright, Jr. Democratic 1833 (Special)
1837
Incumbent re-elected February 7, 1843. Silas Wright, Jr. (Democratic)
Millard Fillmore (Whig)
John A. Collier (Whig)
Willis Hall (Whig)
George W. Patterson (Whig)
George A. Simmons (Whig)
Luther Bradish (Whig)
Gulian C. Verplanck (Whig)
North Carolina William A. Graham Whig 1840 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1843.
Democratic gain.
William H. Haywood, Jr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Ohio William Allen Democratic 1836 Incumbent re-elected in 1842. William Allen (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania James Buchanan Democratic 1834 (Special)
1836
Incumbent re-elected in 1843. James Buchanan (Democratic) 56.06%
John Banks (Whig) 40.91%
Richard Brodhead (Democratic) 0.76%
John Gibons 0.76%
South Carolina George McDuffie Democratic 1842 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1842 or 1843. George McDuffie (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont Samuel C. Crafts Whig 1842 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1843.
Whig hold.
William Upham (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 28th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were elected in 1843 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
South Carolina
(Class 2)
John C. Calhoun Democratic 1832 (Special)
1834
1840
Incumbent resigned March 3, 1843.
Winner elected March 4, 1843.
Democratic hold.
Daniel Elliott Huger (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee
(Class 1)
Alfred O. P. Nicholson Democratic 1840 (Appointed) Incumbent resigned February 7, 1842.
Winner was elected October 17, 1843.
Whig gain.
Ephraim H. Foster (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Vacant since 1841 Legislature had failed to elect since the 27th Congress.
Winner was elected October 17, 1843.
Whig gain.
Spencer Jarnagin (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine
(Class 3)
Reuel Williams Democratic 1837 (Special) Incumbent resigned February 15, 1843.
Winner was elected December 4, 1843.
Democratic hold.
John Fairfield (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri
(Class 3)
David Rice Atchison Democratic 1843 (Appointed) Incumbent had been appointed October 14, 1843 when Lewis F. Linn (D) had died October 3, 1843.
Incumbent was subsequently elected sometime in 1843 after October 14.
Democratic hold.
David Rice Atchison (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races[edit]

New York[edit]

The election was held February 7, 1843, by the New York State Legislature. Silas Wright, Jr., had been elected in 1833 to this seat after the resignation of William L. Marcy, and had been re-elected in 1837. Wright's term would expire on March 3, 1843. At the State election in November 1842, Democrat William C. Bouck was elected Governor, 92 Democrats and 36 Whigs were elected to the Assembly, and 8 Democrats and 1 Whig were elected to the State Senate. The 66th New York State Legislature met from January 3 to April 18, 1843, at Albany, New York. The incumbent U.S. Senator Silas Wright, Jr. was re-nominated unanimously by a Democratic caucus on the eve of the election. Congressman Millard Fillmore was the candidate of the Whig Party. Silas Wright, Jr., was the choice of both the Assembly and the Senate, and was declared elected.

Candidate Party Senate
(32 members)
Assembly
(128 members)
Silas Wright, Jr. Democrat 17 77
Millard Fillmore Whig 6 16
John A. Collier Whig 1 6
Willis Hall Whig 4
George W. Patterson Whig 3
George A. Simmons Whig 2
Luther Bradish Whig 1
Gulian C. Verplanck Whig 1

Wright continued in the U.S. Senate, and remained in office until November 1844 when he resigned after his election as Governor of New York. Henry A. Foster was appointed to fill the vacancy temporarily, but the State Legislature elected John A. Dix for the remainder of Wright's term.

Pennsylvania[edit]

The election was held January 10, 1843. Future President of the United States James Buchanan was re-elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[1] The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on January 10, 1843, to elect a new Senator to fill the term beginning on March 4, 1843. Incumbent Democrat James Buchanan, who was elected in 1834 and re-elected in 1836, was a successful candidate for re-election to another term. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic James Buchanan (Inc.) 74 56.06
Whig John Banks 54 40.91
Democratic Richard Brodhead 1 0.76
Unknown John Gibons 1 0.76
N/A Not voting 2 1.52
Totals 132 100.00%

Tennessee[edit]

In 1841, Spencer Jarnagin was nominated for U.S. Senator by the Whig caucus in the Tennessee General Assembly. However, some of the Democrats in the legislature decided that no Senator would be preferable to a Whig. Known as the "Immortal Thirteen" by Tennessee Democrats, they refused to allow a quorum on the issue. By the time Jarnagin was eventually elected to the seat and sworn in, over two and half years, almost half of the term, had elapsed. Jarnagin finally assumed office on October 17, 1843.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 10 January 1843" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved 22 December 2013.