United States Senate elections, 1844 and 1845

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United States Senate elections, 1844 and 1845
United States
1842 / 1843 ←
Various dates → 1846 / 1847

18 of the 54 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
27 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic Whig
Last election 23 seats 27 seats
Seats before 23 27
Seats won 8 8
Seats after 27 24
Seat change Increase 3 Decrease 3
Seats up 5 11

  Third party
 
Party Law and Order
Last election [new party]
Seats before 1
Seats won 0
Seats after 0
Seat change Decrease 1
Seats up 1

Majority Party before election

Whig

Elected Majority Party

Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1844 and 1845 were elections which, coinciding with James K. Polk's election, had the Democratic Party retake control of the United States Senate, gaining a net total of eleven seats from the Whigs.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 29th Congress (1845–1847)

  • Majority Party: Democratic (26–31)
  • Minority Party: Whig (24)
  • Other Parties: (0–1)
  • Vacant: (4–2)
  • Total Seats: 54–58

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20
Ran
D21
Ran
D22
Ran
D23
Ran
D24
Retired
LO1
Retired
W27
Retired
Majority →
W17
Ran
W18
Ran
W19
Ran
W20
Ran
W21
Unknown
W22
Unknown
W23
Retired
W24
Retired
W25
Retired
W26
Retired
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8 W7
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6

Result of the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8
D18 D19 D20
Re-elected
D21
Re-elected
D22
Re-elected
D23
Re-elected
D24
Gain
D25
Gain
D26
Gain
D27
Gain
Majority →
W18
Re-elected
W19
Re-elected
W20
Hold
W21
Hold
W22
Hold
W23
Gain
W24
Gain
V1
W Loss
V2
New seat
V3
New seat
W17
Re-elected
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8
D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 V4
D Loss
Majority ↑
W18 W19 W20 W21 W22 W23 W24 V1 V2 V3
W17 W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7

Beginning of the first session of the next Congress (December 1, 1845)[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8
D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24
Hold
D25
Hold
D26
Hold
D27
Gain
Majority → D28
Gain
W18 W19 W20 W21 W22 W23
Hold
W24
Hold
D30
Gain
D29
Gain
W17 W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7
Key:
D# Democratic
LO# Law and Order
W# Whig
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 28th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1844 or in 1845 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
William Sprague Whig 1842 (Special) Incumbent resigned January 17, 1844.
Winner elected January 25, 1844.
Law and Order gain.
John B. Francis (Law and Order)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Alexander Porter Whig 1833 (Special)
1837 (Resigned)
1843
Incumbent died January 13, 1844.
Winner elected February 12, 1844.
Whig hold.
Henry Johnson (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas
(Class 2)
William S. Fulton Democratic 1836 (Special)
1840
Incumbent died August 15, 1844.
Winner elected November 8, 1844.
Democratic hold.
Chester Ashley (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York
(Class 1)
Daniel S. Dickinson Democratic 1844 (Appointed) Appointee elected January 18, 1845.
Winner would later be elected to the next term, see below.
Daniel S. Dickinson (Democratic) 27
Millard Fillmore (Whig) 3
Jonathan Thompson (American Republican) 1
New York
(Class 3)
Henry A. Foster Democratic 1844 (Appointed) Unknown if appointee retired or lost election.
Winner elected January 18, 1845.
Democratic hold.
John Adams Dix (Democratic) 27
Willis Hall (Whig) 3
Harman B. Cropsey (American Republican) 1

Races leading to the 29th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1845; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut Jabez W. Huntington Whig 1840 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1844 or 1845. Jabez W. Huntington (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware Richard H. Bayard Whig 1836 (Special)
1838 or 1839
1839 (Resigned)
1841 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1845.
Whig hold.
John M. Clayton (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida New state Florida was admitted March 3, 1845, but its first Class 1 Senator was elected late, during the next Congress.
Vacant.
None.
Indiana Albert White Whig 1838 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1844.
Democratic gain.
Jesse D. Bright (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine John Fairfield Democratic 1843 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1844 or 1845. John Fairfield (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland William Merrick Whig 1838 (Special)
1839
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1844 or 1845.
Whig hold.
Reverdy Johnson (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts Rufus Choate Whig 1841 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1845.
Whig hold.
Daniel Webster (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan Augustus S. Porter Whig 1840 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1844 or 1845.
Democratic gain.
Lewis Cass (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi John Henderson Whig 1838 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
Winner elected in 1844.
Democratic gain.
Jesse Speight (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri Thomas H. Benton Democratic 1821
1827
1833
1839
Incumbent re-elected in 1845. Thomas H. Benton (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey William L. Dayton Whig 1842 (Appointed)
? (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1845. William L. Dayton (Whig)
New York Daniel S. Dickinson Democratic 1844 (Appointed)
1845 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected February 4, 1845. Daniel S. Dickinson (Democratic) 25
John C. Clark (Whig) 4
Ohio Benjamin Tappan Democratic 1838 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1844 or 1845
Whig gain.
Thomas Corwin (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania Daniel Sturgeon Democratic 1840 Incumbent re-elected January 14, 1845. Daniel Sturgeon (Democratic) 54.14%
James Cooper (Whig) 36.84%
John Ashmead (Know Nothing) 3.76%
E. W. Keyser (Know Nothing) 1.50%
Jacob Broom (Know Nothing) 0.75%
E. C. Reigert (Know Nothing) 0.75%
John Sergeant (Whig) 0.75%
Not voting 1.50%
Rhode Island John B. Francis Law and Order 1844 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1844 or 1845.
Whig gain.
Albert C. Greene (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Ephraim H. Foster Whig 1838 (Special)
1839 (Re-elected, but resigned)
1843 (Special)
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1844.
Democratic gain.
Hopkins L. Turney (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont Samuel S. Phelps Whig 1839 Incumbent re-elected in 1845. Samuel S. Phelps (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia William C. Rives Whig 1832 (Special)
1834 (Resigned)
1836 (Special)
1839 (Legislature failed to elect)
1841 (Special)
Legislature failed to elect.
Whig loss.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Special elections during the 29th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were elected in 1845 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
James Buchanan Democratic 1834 (Special)
1836
1843
Incumbent resigned March 5, 1845 to become U.S. Secretary of State.
Successor elected March 13, 1845.
Democratic hold.
Simon Cameron (Democratic) 50.38%
George W. Woodward (Democratic) 41.35%
J. R. Ingersoll (Whig) 1.50%
John Banks (Whig) 0.75%
Peter A. Brown (Know Nothing) 0.75%
Thomas S. Bell (Unknown) 0.75%
T. D. Cochran (Whig) 0.75%
Not voting 3.76%
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Isaac C. Bates Whig 1841 (Special)
1841
Incumbent died March 16, 1845.
Successor elected March 24, 1845.
Whig hold.
John Davis (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida
(Class 1)
New state Florida was admitted March 3, 1845.
Its first Senators were elected July 1, 1845.
Democratic gain.
David Levy Yulee (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida
(Class 3)
New state Florida was admitted March 3, 1845.
Its first Senators were elected July 1, 1845.
Democratic gain.
James Westcott (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia
(Class 2)
John M. Berrien Whig 1825
1829 (Resigned)
1840
Incumbent resigned in May 1845 to become judge of the Supreme Court of Georgia.
He did not remain on the court, however, and was re-elected November 13, 1845.
Whig hold.
John M. Berrien (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Vacant Incumbent Democrat Daniel E. Huger had resigned in the previous Congress.
Winner was elected November 26, 1845.
Democratic gain.
John C. Calhoun (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner elected late December 3, 1845.
Democratic gain.
Isaac S. Pennybacker (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races[edit]

New York[edit]

Two special elections were held on January 18, 1845 and one regular election was held on February 4, 1845.

Nathaniel P. Tallmadge had been re-elected in 1840 to the Class 1 seat (term 1839-1845), but resigned on June 17, 1844, to be appointed Governor of Wisconsin Territory by President John Tyler. On November 30, Governor William C. Bouck appointed Lieutenant Governor Daniel S. Dickinson to fill the vacancy temporarily, and Dickinson took his seat on December 9, 1844.

Silas Wright, Jr. had been re-elected in 1843 to the Class 3 seat (term 1843-1849), but resigned on November 26, 1844, after his election as Governor of New York. On November 30, Governor William C. Bouck appointed State Senator Henry A. Foster to fill the vacancy temporarily, and Foster took his seat on December 9, 1844.

The 68th New York State Legislature met from January 7 to May 14, 1845, and the majority Democrats were split between two factions: the "Hunkers" and the "Barnburners". At the Democratic caucus for Speaker Hunker Horatio Seymour received 35 votes against 30 for Barnburner William C. Crain. Both of the temporarily appointed U.S. Senators, Dickinson and Foster, were also Hunkers, but the Barnburners claimed one of the seats.

A Democratic caucus to nominate candidates for the U.S. Senate met in January[1] with 93 state legislators present. To fill the Class 3 vacancy caused by the resignation of Silas Wright, Barnburner John Adams Dix was nominated with 51 votes against Hunker Chief Justice Samuel Nelson with 41 votes. To fill the Class 1 vacancy caused by the resignation of Nathaniel P. Tallmadge, for the remainder of the term which would expire on March 3 next, the incumbent Hunker appointee, Daniel S. Dickinson, was re-nominated.

After these nominations were made, it was moved to adjourn, and to postpone the nomination of a candidate for the full term beginning on March 4, which was rejected by a vote of 55 to 37. Dickinson was then nominated to succeed himself for a full term (1845-1851). The vote was 54 for Dickinson, 13 votes for the Barnburner ex-Congressman Michael Hoffman, 3 votes for the Barnburner ex-Congressman Freeborn G. Jewett , 1 for Hunker Samuel Nelson, and 4 blanks. Many Barnburners refused to vote on this nomination, and then opposed the motion to make the nomination unanimous.

January 18, 1845 United States Senator special election, Class 3
House Democratic Whig American
Republican
State Senate (32 members) John Adams Dix 27 Willis Hall 3 Harman B. Cropsey 1
State Assembly (128 members) John Adams Dix
January 18, 1845 United States Senator special election, Class 1
House Democratic Whig American
Republican
State Senate (32 members) Daniel S. Dickinson 27 Millard Fillmore 3 Jonathan Thompson 1
State Assembly (128 members) Daniel S. Dickinson
February 4, 1845 United States Senator election, Class 1
House Democratic Whig
State Senate (32 members) Daniel S. Dickinson 25 John C. Clark 4
State Assembly (128 members) Daniel S. Dickinson

Dickinson re-took his seat under the new credentials on January 27, 1845, and re-elected, remained in office until March 3, 1851, when his term expired. Dix took his seat on January 27, 1845, and remained in office until March 3, 1849, when his term expired.

Pennsylvania[edit]

The general election was held on January 14, 1845. Incumbent Daniel Sturgeon was re-elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[2] The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on January 14, 1845, to elect a Senator to serve the term beginning on March 4, 1845. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[2][3]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Daniel Sturgeon (Inc.) 72 54.14
Whig James Cooper 49 36.84
Know Nothing John Ashmead 5 3.76
Know Nothing E. W. Keyser 2 1.50
Know Nothing Jacob Broom 1 0.75
Know Nothing E. C. Reigert 1 0.75
Whig John Sergeant 1 0.75
N/A Not voting 2 1.50
Totals 133 100.00%

A special election was held on March 13, 1845. Simon Cameron was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[4] Democrat and future President of the United States James Buchanan was elected to the United States Senate by the Pennsylvania General Assembly, in an 1834 special election and was re-elected in 1836 and 1843. Sen. Buchanan resigned on March 5, 1845, after being appointed U.S. Secretary of State by President James K. Polk.[5] Following the resignation of Sen. Buchanan, the Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on March 13, 1845, to elect a new Senator to fill the vacancy and serve the remainder of the term set to expire on March 4, 1849. Five ballots were recorded. The results of the fifth and final ballot of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Simon Cameron 67 50.38
Democratic George W. Woodward 55 41.35
Whig J. R. Ingersoll 2 1.50
Whig John Banks 1 0.75
Know Nothing Peter A. Brown 1 0.75
Unknown Thomas S. Bell 1 0.75
Whig T. D. Cochran 1 0.75
N/A Not voting 5 3.76
Totals 133 100.00%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The exact date is unclear. Hammond writes on February 24, which is an obvious mistake.[citation needed] Hammond also confuses the date of the special election and the regular election. Although the nominations for the special and the regular elections were made at the same caucus, the elections were held on different dates. The special election took place in January, the U.S. Senators were recorded in the congressional journals as taking their seats on January 27. The regular election took place on the regular election day, the first Tuesday in February, together with the election of the other State officers.
  2. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 14 January 1845" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2012. 
  3. ^ "PA US Senate". OurCampaigns. Retrieved December 22, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 13 March 1845" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  5. ^ "BUCHANAN, James, (1791 - 1868)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 

Sources and external links[edit]