United States Senate elections, 1846 and 1847

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United States Senate elections, 1846 and 1847
United States
1844 / 1845 ←
Various dates → 1848 / 1849

19 of the 58 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
29 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic Whig
Last election 35 seats 24 seats
Seats before 33 23
Seats won 10 7
Seats after 35 19
Seat change Increase 3 Decrease 4
Seats up 8 10

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Liberty Independent Democratic
Last election [new party] 0
Seats before 1 0
Seats won 0 1
Seats after 0 1
Seat change Decrease 1 Increase 1
Seats up 1 0

Majority Party before election

Democratic

Elected Majority Party

Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1846 and 1847 were elections which had the Democratic Party gain four seats in the United States Senate.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results[edit]

Senate Party Division, 30th Congress (1847–1849)

  • Majority Party: Democratic (34–38)
  • Minority Party: Whig (20–21)
  • Other Parties: Independent Democratic (1)
  • Total Seats: 58–60

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the February 1846 elections in Texas.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
Ran
D27
Ran
D28
Ran
Majority → D29
Ran
W19
Ran
W20
Unknown
W21
Unknown
W22
Unknown
W23
Retired
D33
Retired
D32
Unknown
D31
Unknown
D30
Ran
W18
Ran
W17
Ran
W16
Ran
W15
Ran
W14
Ran
W13
Ran
W12 W11 W10 W9
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8

As a result of the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9
D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10
D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
Re-elected
D27
Re-elected
D28
Re-elected
D29
Re-elected
Majority → D30
Hold
V1
W Loss
V2
New state
V3
New state
ID1
Gain
D35
Gain
D34
Gain
D33
Gain
D32
Hold
D31
Hold
W19
Hold
W18
Hold
W17
Hold
W16
Re-elected
W15
Re-elected
W14
Re-elected
W13
Re-elected
W12 W11 W10
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9

At the beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9
D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10
D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29
Majority → D30
W20
Gain
V1 V2 V3 ID1 D34 D33 D32 D31
W19 W18 W17 W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9
Key:
D# Democratic
ID# Independent Democratic
W# Whig
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 29th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1846 or in 1847 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Joseph W. Chalmers Democratic 1845 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 10, 1846. Joseph W. Chalmers (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas
(Class 1)
New State Texas was admitted to the Union December 29, 1845.
Winner elected February 21, 1846.
Democratic gain.
Thomas Rusk (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas
(Class 2)
New State Texas was admitted to the Union December 29, 1845.
Winner elected February 21, 1846.
Democratic gain.
Sam Houston (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Benning W. Jenness Democratic 1845 (Appointed) Appointee lost election to finish the term.
Winner elected June 13, 1846.
Liberty gain.
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
Joseph Cilley (Liberty)
Benning W. Jenness (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina
(Class 3)
William H. Haywood, Jr. Democratic 1843 Incumbent resigned July 25, 1846 rather than disobey instructions from the N.C. General Assembly.
Winner elected November 25, 1846.
Whig gain.
James M. Mason (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Alexander Barrow Whig 1840 Incumbent died December 29, 1846.
Winner elected January 21, 1847.
Democratic gain.
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
Pierre Soulé (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 1)
Isaac S. Pennybacker Democratic 1845 (Special) Incumbent died January 12, 1847.
Winner elected January 21, 1847.
Democratic hold.
James M. Mason (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Iowa
(Class 2)
New State Iowa was admitted to the Union December 28, 1846.
Legislature failed to elect due to a three-way split that prevented any candidate from earning the required number of 30 legislators' votes.[1]
Seat vacant until December 7, 1848.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Iowa
(Class 3)
New State Iowa was admitted to the Union December 28, 1846.
Legislature failed to elect due to a three-way split that prevented any candidate from earning the required number of 30 legislators' votes.[1]
Seat vacant until December 7, 1848.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 30th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1847; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama Dixon Hall Lewis Democratic 1844 (Appointed) Incumbent elected to full term in 1847. Dixon Hall Lewis (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas Chester Ashley Democratic 1844 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1846. Chester Ashley (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware Thomas Clayton Whig 1837 (Special)
1841
Unknown in incumbent lost re-election or retired.
Winner elected in 1846 or 1847.
Whig hold.
Thomas Clayton (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia John M. Berrien Whig 1825
1829 (Resigned)
1840
1845 (Resigned)
1845 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1846. John M. Berrien (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois James Semple Democratic 1843 (Appointed)
? (Special)
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1846.
Democratic hold.
Stephen A. Douglas (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky James T. Morehead Whig 1841 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1846 or 1847.
Whig hold.
Joseph R. Underwood (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana Pierre Soulé Democratic 1847 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1847.
Democratic hold.
Solomon W. Downs (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine George Evans Whig 1840 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1846.[2]
Democratic gain.
James W. Bradbury (Democratic)
George Evans (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts John Davis Whig 1835
1841 (Resigned)
1845 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1847. John Davis (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan William Woodbridge Whig 1841 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in February 1847.
Democratic gain.
Alpheus Felch (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi Joseph W. Chalmers Democratic 1845 (Appointed)
? (Special)
Unknown if incumbent lost re-election or retired.
Winner elected in 1846 or 1847.
Democratic hold.
Henry S. Foote (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire Joseph Cilley Liberty 1846 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1846.
Independent Democratic gain.
John P. Hale (Independent Democratic)
Joseph Cilley (Liberty)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey Jacob W. Miller Whig 1840 Incumbent re-elected in 1846. Jacob W. Miller (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Willie Mangum Whig 1840 (Special)
1841
Incumbent re-elected in 1847. Willie Mangum (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island James F. Simmons Whig 1841 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1846 or 1847.
Whig hold.
John Hopkins Clarke (Whig)
James F. Simmons (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina John C. Calhoun Democratic 1832 (Special)
1834
1840
1843 (Resigned)
1845 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1846. John C. Calhoun (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Spencer Jarnagin Whig 1843 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Whig loss.
Spencer Jarnagin (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas Sam Houston Democratic 1846 Incumbent re-elected in 1847 Sam Houston (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia William S. Archer Whig 1846 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1846.
Democratic gain.
Robert M. T. Hunter (Democratic)
William S. Archer (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Special elections during the 30th Congress[edit]

In this special election, the winner was elected in 1847 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had earlier failed to elect.
Winner elected November 22, 1847.
Whig gain.
John Bell (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races[edit]

New Hampshire[edit]

John P. Hale was elected June 1846 as an Independent Democrat. He would later become a Free Soiler.

See also[edit]

References[edit]