United States Senate elections, 1860 and 1861

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United States Senate elections, 1860 and 1861
United States
1858 / 1859 ←
Various dates → 1862 / 1863

22 of the 66 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
34 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic Republican
Last election 38 seats 25 seats
Seats before 38 26
Seats won 30 29
Seat change Decrease 8 Increase 3
Seats up 14 7

  Third party
 
Party Know Nothing
Last election 2 seats
Seats before 2
Seats won 1
Seat change Decrease 1
Seats up 1

Majority Party before election

Democratic Party

Elected Majority Party

Democratic Party

The United States Senate elections of 1860 and 1861 were elections corresponding with Abraham Lincoln's election to the presidency. The nascent Republican Party increased their Senate seats in the general elections, and after southern Democrats withdrew to join the Confederacy, Republicans gained control of the United States Senate. To establish a quorum with fewer members, a lower total seat number was taken into account.

As this election was prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 37th Congress (1861–1863)

  • Majority Party: Republican (29), later rose to 30
  • Minority Party: Democratic (30), later dropped to 14
  • Other Parties: Unionist (1), later rose to 4
  • Vacant: (8), later rose to 20
  • Total Seats: 68

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the October 2, 1860 special election in Oregon.

D3 D2 D1
D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13
D23 D22 D21 D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14
D24 D25
Ran
D26
Ran
D27
Ran
D28
Unknown
D29
Unknown
D30
Retired
D31
Retired
D32
Retired
D33
Retired
Majority → D34
Resigned
R24
Ran
R25
Unknown
R26
Retired
KN1 KN2
Ran
D38
Withdrew
D37
Withdrew
D36
Withdrew
D35
Withdrew
R23
Ran
R22
Ran
R21
Ran
R20
Ran
R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14
R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13
R3 R2 R1

As a result of the elections[edit]

V3
D Loss
V2
D Loss
V1
D Loss
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D23 D22 D24 D25
Re-elected
D26
Re-elected
D27
Hold
D28
Hold
D29
Hold
D30
Gain
Plurality ↑ KN1
R21
Re-elected
R22
Re-elected
R23
Re-elected
R24
Re-elected
R25
Hold
R26
Hold
R27
Gain
R28
Gain
R29
Gain
R20
Re-elected
R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
V4
D Loss
V5
D Loss
V6
D Loss

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

V4
D Loss
V3
D Loss
V2
D Loss
V1
D Loss
V5
D Loss
V6
D Loss
V7
D Loss
V8
D Loss
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 U1
Changed
R29
Hold
R28 R27
Majority → R26
R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7
V12 V11 V10 V9 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
V13 V14 V15
New state
V16
New state

End of 1861[edit]

V4 V3 V2 V1
V5 V6 V7 V8 V9
D Loss
V10
D Loss
D1 D2 D3 D4
D14
Gain
D13
Gain
D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5
U4
Gain
U3
Gain
U2
Gain
U1 R30
Gain
R29
Hold
R28
Hold
R27
Hold
R26 R25
Majority → R24
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
V16 V15 V14 V13 V12
R Loss
V11
R Loss
R1
Gain
R2
Gain
R3 R4
V17 V18
D Loss
V19
D Loss
V20
D Loss
Key:
D# Democratic
KN# Know Nothing
R# Republican
U# Unionist
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 36th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1860 or in 1861 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California
(Class 1)
Henry P. Haun Democratic 1859 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
Winner elected March 5, 1860.
Democratic hold.
Milton Latham (Democratic)
Henry P. Haun (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Oregon
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect in 1858/1859.
Winner elected October 2, 1860.
Republican gain.
Edward D. Baker (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine
(Class 1)
Hannibal Hamlin Republican 1848 (Special)
1851
1857 (Resigned)
1857
Incumbent resigned to become U.S. Vice President.
Winner elected January 17, 1861.
Republican hold.
Lot M. Morrill (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 37th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1861; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Benjamin Fitzpatrick Democratic 1848 (Appointed)
1849 (Retired)
1853 (Appointed)
1853 (Special)
1855
Incumbent withdrew January 21, 1861.
No replacement was elected.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1868.
None.
Arkansas Robert W. Johnson Democratic 1853 (Appointed)
1854 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
Successor elected in 1860 or 1861.
Democratic hold.
Charles B. Mitchel (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
California William M. Gwin Democratic 1850
1855 (Failure to elect)
1857 (Special)
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1860.
Democratic hold.
James A. McDougall (Democratic)
Connecticut Lafayette S. Foster Republican 1854 Incumbent re-elected in 1860. Lafayette S. Foster (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida David Levy Yulee Democratic 1855 Incumbent withdrew January 21, 1861.
No replacement was elected.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1868.
None.
Georgia Alfred Iverson, Sr. Democratic 1854 or 1855 Incumbent withdrew January 28, 1861.
No replacement was elected.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1871.
None.
Illinois Lyman Trumbull Republican 1854 or 1855 Incumbent re-elected in 1861. Lyman Trumbull (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Iowa James Harlan Republican 1855
1857 (Election invalidated)
1857 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1860. James Harlan (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana Graham N. Fitch Democratic 1857 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1860.
Republican gain.
Henry Lane (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kansas Vacant Kansas had become a state January 29, 1861 but did not elect its Senators until the next Congress, see below. None.
Kentucky John J. Crittenden Know Nothing 1817
1819 (Resigned)
1835
1841 (Retired)
1842 (Appointed)
1842 or 1843 (Special)
1843
1848 (Resigned)
1853 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected December 12, 1859, far in advance of the term.
Democratic gain.
Winner was subsequently expelled, see below.
John C. Breckinridge (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana John Slidell Democratic 1853 (Special)
1854 or 1855
Incumbent resigned February 4, 1861.
No replacement was elected.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1868.
None.
Maryland James Pearce Democratic 1843
1849
1855
Incumbent re-elected in 1861. James Pearce (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri James S. Green Democratic 1857 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until March 17, 1861, see below.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire Daniel Clark Republican 1857 Incumbent re-elected in 1861. Daniel Clark (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York William H. Seward Republican 1849
1855
Incumbent retired, expecting appointment to the Lincoln Administration.
Winner elected February 5, 1861.
Republican hold.
Ira Harris (Republican)
Horatio Seymour (Democratic)
North Carolina Thomas Clingman Democratic 1858 (Appointed)
1858 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1861. Asa Biggs (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Ohio George E. Pugh Democratic 1854 or 1855 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1860.
Republican gain.
Salmon P. Chase (Republican)
George E. Pugh (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Oregon Joseph Lane Democratic 1859 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1860 or 1861.
Democratic hold.
James Nesmith (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania William Bigler Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 8, 1861.
Republican gain.
Edgar Cowan (Republican) 73.68%
Henry Foster (Democratic) 26.32%
South Carolina James Henry Hammond Democratic 1857 Incumbent withdrew November 11, 1860.
No replacement was elected.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1868.
None.
Vermont Jacob Collamer Republican 1855 Incumbent re-elected in 1861. Jacob Collamer (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Wisconsin Charles Durkee Republican 1854 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1861.
Republican hold.
Timothy O. Howe (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 37th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1861 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Vacant Incumbent had resigned in the previous Congress.
Winner was elected March 14, 1861.
Republican gain.
David Wilmot (Republican) 72.18%
William H. Welsh (Democratic) 25.56%
Winthrop W. Ketcham (Republican) 0.75%
William Wilkins (Democratic) 0.75%
Missouri
(Class 3)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner was elected March 17, 1861.
Democratic gain.
Waldo P. Johnson (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Ohio
(Class 3)
Salmon P. Chase Republican 1849
1855 (Retired)
1860
Incumbent resigned December 4, 1861 to become U.S. Secretary of the Treasury.
Winner was elected March 21, 1861.
Republican hold.
John Sherman (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kansas
(Class 2)
New state Kansas became a state January 29, 1861.
Winner was elected late April 4, 1861.
Republican gain.
James H. Lane (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kansas
(Class 3)
New state Kansas became a state January 29, 1861.
Winner was elected late April 4, 1861.
Republican gain.
Samuel C. Pomeroy (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 1)
James M. Mason Democratic 1847 (Special)
1850
1856
Incumbent expelled July 11, 1861 for supporting the Confederacy.
Winner was elected July 13, 1861.
Unionist gain.
Waitman T. Willey (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 2)
Robert M. T. Hunter Democratic 1846
1852
1858
Incumbent expelled July 11, 1861 for supporting the Confederacy.
Winner was elected July 13, 1861.
Unionist gain.
John S. Carlile (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky
(Class 3)
John C. Breckinridge Democratic 1859 Incumbent expelled December 4, 1861 for supporting the Confederacy.
Winner was elected December 10, 1861.
Unionist gain.
Garrett Davis (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races[edit]

New York[edit]

The New York election was held February 5, 1861.

Whig William H. Seward had been re-elected in February 1855 to this seat, had become a Republican upon the foundation of that party in September 1855, and his term would expire on March 3, 1861. Seward did not seek re-election, instead being certain to be appointed to an office in the incoming Lincoln administration.

At the State election in November 1859, 23 Republicans and 9 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1860-1861) in the State Senate. At the State election in November 1860, 93 Republicans and 35 Democrats were elected to the Assembly for the session of 1861. The 84th New York State Legislature met from January 1 to April 16, 1861, at Albany, New York.

Ira Harris was the candidate of the Republican Party. Harris had been a Whig assemblyman in 1845 and 1846, and a justice of the New York Supreme Court from 1847 to 1859.

Ex-Governor Horatio Seymour (in office 1853-1854) was the candidate of the Democratic Party.

Both in the Assembly and the Senate a strict party vote confirmed the caucus selections.

In the Assembly 119 votes were given. Republicans Smith Anthony (Cayuga Co.), Martin Finch (Essex Co.), Henry A. Prendergast (Chautauqua Co.), Victor M. Rice (Erie Co.) and Perez H. Field (Ontario Co.); and Democrats Luke F. Cozans (NYC), Benjamin H. Long (Erie Co.), N. Holmes Odell (Westchester Co.) and Christian B. Woodruff (NYC); did not vote.

In the State Senate, 31 votes were given. William H. Ferry (Rep., 19th D.) was absent.

Ira Harris was the choice of both the Assembly and the Senate, and was declared elected.

House Republican Democratic
State Senate (32 members) Ira Harris 22 Horatio Seymour 9
State Assembly (128 members) Ira Harris 88 Horatio Seymour 31

Pennsylvania[edit]

General class 3: January 8, 1861[edit]

The general election in Pennsylvania was held January 8, 1861. Edgar Cowan was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[1]

Incumbent Democrat William Bigler, who was elected in 1856, was not a candidate for re-election to another term. The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on January 8, 1861, to elect a new Senator to fill the term beginning on March 4, 1861. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

General Election Results[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Edgar Cowan 98 73.68
Democratic Henry Foster 35 26.32
Totals 133 100.00%

Special class 1: March 14, 1861[edit]

A special election was held in Pennsylvania on March 14, 1861. David Wilmot was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[2]

The Republican Simon Cameron was elected to the United States Senate by the General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, in January 1857. Sen. Cameron resigned on March 4, 1861, to become United States Secretary of War in the Abraham Lincoln administration, vacating the seat.[3]

Following the resignation of Sen. Simon Cameron, the Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on March 14, 1861, to elect a new Senator to fill the vacancy. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

Special Election Results[2][4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican David Wilmot 96 72.18
Democratic William H. Welsh 34 25.56
Republican Winthrop W. Ketcham 1 0.75
Democratic William Wilkins 1 0.75
N/A Not voting 1 0.75
Totals 133 100.00%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 8 January 1861" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 14 March 1861" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 23, 2012. 
  3. ^ "CAMERON, Simon, (1799 - 1889)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 23, 2012. 
  4. ^ "PA US Senate - Special Election". OurCampaigns. Retrieved December 22, 2012.