United States Senate elections, 1866 and 1867

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United States Senate elections, 1866 and 1867
United States
1864 / 1865 ←
Dates vary by state
(And other dates for special elections)
→ 1868 / 1869

25 of the 72 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
27 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 33 seats 9 seats
Seats before 37 10
Seats won 15 2
Seats after 39 10
Seat change Increase 2 Steady
Seats up 13 2

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Unionist Unconditional Unionist
Last election 2 seats 4 seats
Seats before 3 2
Seats won 0 0
Seats after 2 1
Seat change Decrease 1 Decrease 1
Seats up 1 1

Majority Party before election

Republican Party

Elected Majority Party

Republican Party

The United States Senate elections of 1866 and 1867 were elections that saw the Republican Party gain eighteen seats in the United States Senate as several of the Southern States were readmitted during Reconstruction, enlarging their already overwhelming majority. This was the single largest gain by any party in the history of the U.S. Senate.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 40th Congress (1867–1869)

  • Majority Party: Republican (57)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (9)
  • Other Parties: (0)
  • Vacant: (6)
  • Total Seats: 72

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After August 31, 1866 appointment in New Hampshire.

V6
Seceded
V5
Seceded
V4
Seceded
V3
Seceded
V2 V1
V7
Seceded
V8
Seceded
V9
Seceded
V10
Seceded
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
R37
Retired
UU1 UU2
Unknown
U1 U2 U3
Ran
D10
Retired
D9
Ran
D8 D7
R36
Retired
R35
Retired
R34
Unknown
R33
Ran
R32
Ran
R31
Ran
R30
Ran
R29
Ran
R28
Ran
R27
Ran
Majority →
R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
Ran
R26
Ran
R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7
V14 V13 V12 V11 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
V15 V16 V17 V18 V19 V20

As a result of the elections[edit]

V6
Seceded
V5
Seceded
V4
Seceded
V3
Seceded
V2 V1
V7
Seceded
V8
Seceded
V9
Seceded
V10
Seceded
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
R37
Hold
R38
Gain
R39
Gain
UU1 U1 U2 D10
Gain
D9
Gain
D8 D7
R36
Hold
R35
Hold
R34
Hold
R33
Hold
R32
Hold
R31
Hold
R30
Hold
R29
Re-elected
R28
Re-elected
R17
Re-elected
Majority →
R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
Re-elected
R26
Re-elected
R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7
V14 V13 V12 V11 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
V15 V16 V17 V18 V19 V20

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

V7 V6 V5 V4 V3 V2 V1
V8 V9 V10 V11
Not seated
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
R38 R39 R40
Changed
R41
Changed
R42
New seat
R43
New seat
R44
Gain
R45
Gain
D8
Changed
D7
R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28
Majority → R27
R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26
R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8
V14 V13 V12 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7
V15 V16 V17 V18 V19 V20 V21
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican
UU# Unconditional Unionist
U# Unionist
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 39th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1866 or in 1867 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Maine
(Class 2)
Nathan A. Farwell Republican 1864 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 11, 1865 to finish the term.
Winner did not run for re-election to the next term, see below.
Nathan A. Farwell (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Iowa
(Class 3)
James Harlan Republican 1855
(1857 Election invalidated)
1857 (Special)
1860
Incumbent resigned May 15, 1865 to become U.S. Secretary of the Interior.
Winner elected January 13, 1866.
Republican Hold.
Winner did not run for re-election to the next term, see below.
Samuel J. Kirkwood (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee
(Class 1)
Vacant since March 4, 1862 when Andrew Johnson (D) resigned to become Military Governor of Tennessee. State re-admitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 24, 1866.
Unionist gain.
Joseph S. Fowler (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Vacant since March 3, 1861 when Alfred O. P. Nicholson (D) withdrew in anticipation of secession. State re-admitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 24, 1866.
Unionist gain.
David T. Patterson (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey
(Class 2)
John P. Stockton Democratic 1864 Incumbent's election disputed and seat declared vacant.
Winner elected September 19, 1866.
Republican gain.
Alexander G. Cattell (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont
(Class 1)
George F. Edmunds Republican 1866 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected October 24, 1866 to finish the term.[1] George F. Edmunds (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont
(Class 3)
Luke P. Poland Republican 1865 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected October 24, 1866 to finish the term.[1]
Winner lost re-election to the next term, see below.
Luke P. Poland (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kansas
(Class 2)
Edmund G. Ross Republican 1866 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 23, 1867 to finish the term.[2] Edmund G. Ross (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey
(Class 1)
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen Republican 1866 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 23, 1867 to finish the term.[3] Frederick T. Frelinghuysen (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nebraska
(Class 1)
New State Nebraska admitted to the Union March 1, 1867.
Winner elected March 1, 1867.
Republican gain.
Thomas Tipton (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nebraska
(Class 2)
New State Nebraska admitted to the Union March 1, 1867.
Winner elected March 1, 1867.
Republican gain.
John M. Thayer (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 40th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1867; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Benjamin Fitzpatrick (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1868.
None.
Arkansas Vacant since July 11, 1861 when Charles B. Mitchel (D) was expelled. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1868.
None.
California James A. McDougall Democratic 1860 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1866 or 1867.
Republican gain.
Cornelius Cole (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut Lafayette S. Foster Republican 1860 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1866.
Republican hold.
Orris S. Ferry (Republican)
Lafayette S. Foster (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida Vacant since January 21, 1861 when David Levy Yulee (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1868.
None.
Georgia Vacant since January 28, 1861 when Alfred Iverson, Sr. (D) withdrew. Winner elected in 1867.
Senate refused to seat the winner.
Seat remained vacant until 1871 when Georgia was readmitted.
Joshua Hill (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois Lyman Trumbull Republican 1854 or 1855
1861
Incumbent re-elected in 1867. Lyman Trumbull (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Iowa Samuel J. Kirkwood Republican 1865 (Special) Incumbent lost nomination.
Winner elected January 13, 1866.[4]
Republican hold.
James Harlan (Republican) 118 votes
H. H. Trimble (Democratic) 20 votes
Indiana Henry Lane Republican 1860 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1867.
Republican hold.
Oliver P. Morton (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kansas Samuel C. Pomeroy Republican 1861 Incumbent re-elected in 1867. Samuel C. Pomeroy (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky Garrett Davis Unionist 1861 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1867 as a Democrat.
Democratic gain.
Garrett Davis (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana Vacant since February 4, 1861 when John Slidell (D) resigned. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1868.
None.
Maryland John Creswell Unconditional Unionist 1865 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1866 or in 1867.
Democratic gain.
Senate refused to seat him as a person "who had given aid and comfort" to the Confederate cause.
Seat remained vacant until 1868.
Philip Francis Thomas (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri B. Gratz Brown Republican 1863 (Special) Incumbent retired due to ill health.
Winner elected in 1866 or 1867.
Republican hold.
Charles D. Drake (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nevada James W. Nye Republican 1865 Incumbent re-elected in 1867. James W. Nye (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire George G. Fogg Republican 1866 (Appointed) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1866 or 1867.
Republican hold.
James W. Patterson (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York Ira Harris Republican 1861 Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected January 15, 1867.
Republican hold.
Roscoe Conkling (Republican)
Henry C. Murphy (Democratic)
George F. Comstock (Democratic)
North Carolina Vacant since March 11, 1861 when Thomas Clingman (D) resigned. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1868.
None.
Ohio John Sherman Republican 1861 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1866. John Sherman (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Oregon James Nesmith Democratic 1860 or 1861 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1866 or 1867.
Republican gain.
Henry W. Corbett (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania Edgar Cowan Republican 1861 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected January 15, 1867.
Republican hold.
Simon Cameron (Republican) 61.65%
Edgar Cowan (Republican) 36.84%
South Carolina Vacant since November 11, 1860 when James Henry Hammond (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1868.
None.
Vermont Luke P. Poland Republican 1865 (Appointed)
1866
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1866.
Republican hold.
Justin S. Morrill (Republican)
Luke P. Poland (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Wisconsin Charles Durkee Republican 1861 Incumbent re-elected in 1866. Timothy O. Howe (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 40th Congress[edit]

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Tennessee David T. Patterson Democratic 1866 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected early in October 22, 1867 for the term beginning March 4, 1869.
William G. Brownlow (Republican) 63
William B. Stokes (Republican) 39[5]

Complete list of races[edit]

New York[edit]

The New York election was held on January 15, 1867, by the New York State Legislature. Republican Ira Harris had been elected in February 1861 to this seat, and his term would expire on March 3, 1867.

At the State election in November 1865, 27 Republicans and 5 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1866-1867) in the State Senate. At the State election in November 1866, 82 Republicans and 46 Democrats were elected for the session of 1867 to the Assembly. The 90th State Legislature met from January 1 to April 20, 1867, at Albany, New York.

The caucus of Republican State legislators met on January 10, State Senator Charles J. Folger presided. State Senator Thomas Parsons (28th D.) was absent, but had his vote cast by proxy. They nominated Congressman Roscoe Conkling for the U.S. Senate. The incumbent Senator Ira Harris was voted down.

Candidate Informal
ballot
First
ballot
Second
ballot
Third
ballot
Fourth
ballot
Fifth
ballot
Roscoe Conkling 33 39 45 53 59
Noah Davis 30 41 44 50 49
Ira Harris 32 24 18 6
Ransom Balcom[6] 7 4 2 wd
Horace Greeley 6 wd
Charles J. Folger 1 1 1

Notes:

  • On the fourth ballot, 110 votes were cast, one too many, and it was annulled.
  • "wd" = name withdrawn

The caucus of the Democratic State legislators met also on January 10. State Senator Henry C. Murphy was nominated on the first ballot with 25 votes against 21 for Ex-D.A. of New York A. Oakey Hall. Roscoe Conkling was the choice of both the Assembly and the State Senate, and was declared elected.

1867 United States Senator election result
House Republican Democratic Democratic
State Senate
(32 members)
Roscoe Conkling 24 Henry C. Murphy 2 George F. Comstock 1
State Assembly
(128 members)
Roscoe Conkling 78 Henry C. Murphy 42

Notes:

  • The vote for Ex-Chief Judge Comstock was cast by Henry C. Murphy.
  • The votes were cast on January 15, but both Houses met in a joint session on January 16 to compare nominations, and declare the result.

Conkling was re-elected in 1873 and 1879, and remained in office until May 17, 1881, when he resigned in protest against the distribution of federal patronage in New York by President James A. Garfield without being consulted. The crisis between the Stalwart and the Half-Breed factions of the Republican party arose when the leader of the New Yorker Half-Breeds William H. Robertson was appointed Collector of the Port of New York, a position Conkling wanted to give to one of his Stalwart friends.

Pennsylvania[edit]

The Pennsylvania election was held on January 15, 1867. Simon Cameron was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[7]

Incumbent Republican Edgar Cowan, who was elected in 1861, was a candidate for re-election to another term, but was defeated by former Democratic Senator and former United States Secretary of War Simon Cameron, who had previously switched to the Republican Party.[8] The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on January 15, 1867, to elect a Senator to fill the term beginning on March 4, 1867. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Simon Cameron 82 61.65
Republican Edgar Cowan (Inc.) 49 36.84
N/A Not voting 2 1.50
Totals 133 100.00%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Byrd and Wolff, p. 176
  2. ^ Byrd and Wolff, p. 108
  3. ^ Byrd and Wolff, p. 142
  4. ^ Clark, p. 141
  5. ^ Coulter, E. Merton. "William G. Brownlow: Fighting Parson of the Southern Highlands". p. 347. 
  6. ^ Ransom Balcom (1818-1879), of Binghamton, justice of the New York Supreme Court (6th D.) 1856-77
  7. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 15 January 1867" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  8. ^ "CAMERON, Simon, (1799 - 1889)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 22, 2013.