United States Senate elections, 1874 and 1875

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United States Senate elections, 1874 and 1875
United States
1872 / 1873 ←
Dates vary by state
(And other dates for special elections)
→ 1876 / 1877

25 of the 74 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
38 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Seats before 52 19
Seats won 10 14
Seats after 42 28
Seat change Decrease 10 Increase 9
Seats up 20 5

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Liberal Republican Anti-Monopoly
Seats before 2 0
Seats won 0 1
Seats after 2 1
Seat change Steady Increase 1
Seats up 0 0

Majority Party before election


Republican

Elected Majority Party


Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1874 and 1875 had the Democratic Party gain nine seats in the United States Senate from the Republican Party (the party of incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant). Republicans remained in the majority, however.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Colored shading indicates party with largest share of that row.

Parties Total
Democratic Republican Liberal
Republican
Anti-
Monopoly
Before these elections 19 52 2 0 73
Not up 14 32 2 48
Class 2 (1870/71) 9 15 1 25
Class 3 (1872/73) 5 17 1 31
Up 5 22 1 36
General: Class 1 5 20 25
Special: Class 1 0 1 1 2
Special: Class 2 0 1 1
Incumbent retired 2 11 13
Held by same party 1 4 5
Replaced by other party Decrease7 Republicans replaced by Increase7 Democrats
Decrease1 Democrat replaced by Increase1 Anti-Monopolist
IncreaseDecrease8
Result 8 4 1 13
Incumbent's intent unknown 1 4 5
Held by same party 1 2 3
Replaced by other party Decrease2 Republicans replaced by Increase2 Democrats IncreaseDecrease2
Result 3 2 5
Incumbent ran 2 5 7
Won re-election 2 2 4
Lost re-election Decrease1 Republican replaced by Increase1 Democrat 1
Lost renomination
but held by same party
2 2
Result 3 4 7
Total elected 14 10 1 25
Net change Increase9 Decrease10 Increase1 IncreaseDecrease9
Result 28 42 2 1 73

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the April 17, 1874 special election in Massachusetts.

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15
Ran
D16
Ran
D17
Unknown
R48
Retired
R49
Retired
R50
Retired
R51
Retired
R52
Retired
LR1 LR2 V1 D19
Retired
D18
Retired
R47
Retired
R46
Retired
R45
Retired
R44
Retired
R43
Retired
R42
Retired
R41
Unknown
R40
Unknown
R39
Unknown
R38
Unknown
Majority → R37
Ran
R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33
Ran
R34
Ran
R35
Ran
R36
Ran
R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18
R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17
R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

Result of the elections[edit]

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15
Re-elected
D16
Re-elected
D17
Hold
D27
Gain
D26
Gain
D25
Gain
D24
Gain
D23
Gain
D22
Gain
D21
Gain
D20
Gain
D19
Gain
D18
Hold
D28
Gain
AM1
Gain
V1 LR2 LR1 R42
Hold
R41
Hold
R40
Hold
R39
Hold
R38
Hold
Majority → R37
Hold
R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33
Re-elected
R34
Re-elected
R35
Hold
R36
Hold
R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18
R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17
R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17
D27 D26 D25 D24 D23 D22 D21 D20 D19 D18
D28 AM1 V1 R44
Change
R43
Change
R42 R41 R40 R39 R38
Majority → R37
R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36
R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18
R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17
R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1
Key:
AM# Anti-Monopoly Party
D# Democratic
LR# Liberal Republican
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Elections during the 43rd Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1874 or in 1875 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Kansas
(Class 2)
Robert Crozier Republican 1873 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired February 2, 1874.
Winner elected February 2, 1874.
Republican hold.
James M. Harvey (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi
(Class 1)
Adelbert Ames Republican 1870 Incumbent resigned March 17, 1873 to become Governor of Mississippi.
Winner elected February 3, 1874.
Republican hold.
Winner did not run for the next term, see below.
Henry R. Pease (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
Charles Sumner Liberal Republican 1851 (Special)
1857
1863
1869
Incumbent died March 12, 1874.
Winner elected April 17, 1874.
Republican gain.
Winner did not run for the next term, see below.
William B. Washburn (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 44th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1875; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California John S. Hager Democratic 1873 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1874.
Anti-Monopoly gain.
Newton Booth (Anti-Monopoly)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut William Alfred Buckingham Republican 1868 or 1869 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1874 or 1875.
Democratic gain.
Incumbent died February 5, 1875 and winner was then appointed to finish the term.
William W. Eaton (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware Thomas F. Bayard Democratic 1869 Incumbent re-elected in 1875. Thomas F. Bayard (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida Abijah Gilbert Republican 1868 or 1869 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1875.
Democratic gain.
Charles W. Jones (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana Daniel D. Pratt Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1874 or 1875.
Democratic gain.
Joseph E. McDonald (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine Hannibal Hamlin Republican 1857
1861 (Resigned)
1869
Incumbent re-elected in 1875. Hannibal Hamlin (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland William P. Whyte Democratic 1874 (Appointed) Incumbent retired to run for Maryland Governor.
Winner elected in 1874.
Democratic hold.
William P. Whyte (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts William B. Washburn Republican 1874 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1875.
Republican hold.
Henry L. Dawes (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan Zachariah Chandler Republican 1857
1863
1869
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1874.
Republican hold.
Isaac P. Christiancy (Republican)
Zachariah Chandler (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Minnesota Alexander Ramsey Republican 1863
1869
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1875.
Republican hold.
Samuel J. R. McMillan (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi Henry R. Pease Republican 1874 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in February 1874.
Republican hold.
Blanche Bruce (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri Carl Schurz Republican 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1874.
Democratic gain.
Francis Cockrell (Democratic)
Carl Schurz (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nebraska Thomas Tipton Republican 1867
1869
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1875.
Republican hold.
Algernon Paddock (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nevada William M. Stewart Republican 1865
1869
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 12, 1875.
Republican hold.
William Sharon (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey John P. Stockton Democratic 1864
1866 (Lost election dispute)
1869
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1875.
Democratic hold.
Theodore Fitz Randolph (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York Reuben E. Fenton Republican 1869 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 20, 1875.
Democratic gain.
Francis Kernan (Democratic) 87
Edwin D. Morgan (Republican) 68
John T. Hoffman (Democratic) 1
Ohio Allen G. Thurman Democratic 1868 Incumbent re-elected in 1874. Allen G. Thurman (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania John Scott Republican 1869 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 19, 1875.
Democratic gain.
William A. Wallace (Democratic) 49.8%
John Allison (Republican) 46.22%
Rhode Island William Sprague IV Republican 1862
1868
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1875.
Republican hold.
Ambrose Burnside (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee William G. Brownlow Republican 1867 (Early) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 26, 1875.
Democratic gain.
Andrew Johnson (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas James W. Flanagan Republican 1870 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or was re-elected.
Winner elected in January 1875.
Democratic gain.
Samuel B. Maxey (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont George F. Edmunds Republican 1866 (Appointed)
1866 (Special)
1868
Incumbent re-elected in 1874. George F. Edmunds (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia John F. Lewis Republican 1870 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winnner elected in 1875.
Democratic gain.
Robert E. Withers (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
West Virginia Arthur I. Boreman Republican 1868 or 1869 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1874 or 1875.
Democratic gain.
Allen T. Caperton (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Wisconsin Matthew H. Carpenter Republican 1868 or 1869 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected February 1875.
Republican hold.
Angus Cameron (Republican)
Matthew H. Carpenter (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 44th Congress[edit]

There were no special elections in 1875 to the 44th Congress.

Complete list of races[edit]

New York[edit]

The New York election was held on January 19 and 20, 1875, by the New York State Legislature.

Republican Reuben E. Fenton had been elected in January 1869 to this seat, and his term would expire on March 3, 1875.

At the state election in November 1873, a Republican majority was elected for a two-year term (1874-1875) in the State Senate. At the State election in November 1874, Democrat Samuel J. Tilden was elected Governor, 75 Democrats and 53 Republicans were elected for the session of 1875 to the Assembly, and Democrat Albert P. Laning was elected in the 31st District to fill a vacancy in the State Senate. The 98th New York State Legislature met from January 5 to May 19, 1875, at Albany, New York.

The caucus of Democratic State legislators met on January 15, State Senator Albert P. Laning, of Buffalo, presided. All but one of the legislators were present, only Assemblyman John M. Roscoe, of Schoharie County, was sick. The caucus nominated Francis Kernan for the U.S. Senate. Kernan had been the Democratic/Liberal Republican candidate for Governor in November 1872 but had been defeated by John Adams Dix. Now Kernan was the choice of Tammany boss John Kelly who had succeeded the corrupt William M. Tweed. Kelly was opposed by John C. Jacobs, who proposed Ex-State Senator Henry C. Murphy, Jacobs's predecessor from the 3rd District, and the Democratic candidate who had lost the U.S. Senate elections in 1867 and 1869 when the Democrats were the minority. Kelly stood firm in his intention to dominate the Democratic Party, and had the caucus nomination made by viva voce vote instead of the more traditional secret ballot. Jacobs and Murphy had expected to get votes from many legislators who would not dare to cross Kelly openly, but had to abandon their hopes when the secret ballot was voted down 74 to 13.

1875 Democratic caucus for United States Senator result
Candidate First ballot
Francis Kernan 77
Henry C. Murphy 9
John T. Hoffman 1

The caucus of the Republican State legislators nominated Ex-U.S. Senator from New York Edwin D. Morgan.

On January 19, the Democratic majority of the Assembly nominated Francis Kernan, and the Republican majority of the State Senate nominated Ex-U.S. Senator Edwin D. Morgan. On January 20, both Houses met in joint session to compare nominations, and finding that they disagreed, proceeded to a joint ballot. Francis Kernan was elected, the first Democratic U.S. Senator from New York since 1851 when Daniel S. Dickinson left office.

House Democrat Republican Democrat
State Senate
(32 members)
Francis Kernan 13 Edwin D. Morgan 16
State Assembly
(128 members)
Francis Kernan 74 Edwin D. Morgan 52 John T. Hoffman 1
Joint Ballot
(160 members)
Francis Kernan 87 Edwin D. Morgan 68 John T. Hoffman 1

Note: The vote for Ex-Governor of New York Hoffman was cast by Reuben E. Fenton's brother-in-law Samuel Scudder, a Democratic Assemblyman from Cattaraugus County.

Pennsylvania[edit]

The Pennsylvania election was held on January 19, 1875. The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, elected William A. Wallace.[1]

State Legislature Results[1][2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William A. Wallace 125 49.80
Republican John Allison 116 46.22
N/A Not voting 10 3.98
Totals 251 100.00%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 19 January 1875" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 23, 2012. 
  2. ^ "PA US Senate - 1875". OurCampaigns. Retrieved December 22, 2012.