United States Senate elections, 1882 and 1883

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United States Senate elections, 1882 and 1883
United States
1880 / 81 ←
Dates vary by state
(And other dates for special elections)
→ 1884

26 of the 76 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
39 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Seats before 37 37
Seats won 11 13
Seats after 37 36
Seat change Steady Decrease 1
Seats up 11 14

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Readjuster Independent
Seats before 1 1
Seats won 1 0
Seats after 2 0
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 1
Seats up 0 1

Majority Party before election

Republican[1]

Elected Majority Party

Republican[1]

The United States Senate election of 1880 and 1881 were elections that conicided with the presidential election of 1880, and had the Democratic Party lose five seats in the United States Senate. The Republicans had the slightest majority — 39 (and later 40) out of 76 — with the Readjusters in their caucus.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Colored shading indicates party with largest share of that row.

Parties Total
Democratic Independent Readjuster Republican
Before these elections 37 1 1 37 76
Not up 23 0 1 26 50
Class 1 (1880/811886/87) 9 0 1 15 25
Class 3 (1878/791884/85) 14 0 0 11 25
Up 15 1 0 13 29
General: Class 2 14 1 0 11 26
Special: Class 1 0 0 0 0 0
Special: Class 2 1 0 0 2 3
Special: Class 3 0 0 0 0 0
General election
Incumbent retired 3 1 0 3 7
Held by same party 2 0 2 4
Replaced by other party Decrease1 Independent replaced by Increase1 Republican
Decrease1 Republican replaced by Increase1 Democrat
Decrease1 Democrat replaced by Increase1 Republican
IncreaseDecrease3
Result 3 0 0 4 7
Incumbent's intent unknown 0 0 0 0 0
Held by same party 0 0 0 0 Steady
Replaced by other party 0 0 0 0 Steady
Result 0 0 0 0 Steady
Incumbent ran 11 0 0 8 19
Won re-election 10 0 0 4 14
Lost re-election and gained by other party Decrease1 Democrat replaced by Increase1 Readjuster IncreaseDecrease1
Lost re-election without an elected successor Decrease1 Republican lost and legislature failed to elect Decrease1
Lost renomination but held by same party 0 0 0 3 3
Result 10 0 1 7 18
Total elected 13 0 1 11 25
Net change Decrease1 Decrease1 Increase1 Steady IncreaseDecrease3
Result 36 0 2 37 75

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the November 15, 1882 special election in Georgia.

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28
Ran
D27
Ran
D26
Ran
D25
Ran
D24
Ran
D23 D22 D21 D20 D19
D29
Ran
D30
Ran
D31
Ran
D32
Ran
D33
Ran
D34
Ran
D35
Retired
D36
Retired
D37
Retired
I1
Retired
Plurality, with Readjuster in caucus and VP tie-breaking vote ↓ RA1
R29
Ran
R30
Ran
R31
Ran
R32
Ran
R33
Ran
R34
Ran
R35
Retired
R36
Retired
R37
Retired
R28
Ran
R27
Ran
R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

After the elections[edit]

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28
Re-elected
D27
Re-elected
D26
Re-elected
D25
Re-elected
D24
Re-elected
D23 D22 D21 D20 D19
D29
Re-elected
D30
Re-elected
D31
Re-elected
D32
Re-elected
D33
Re-elected
D34
Hold
D35
Hold
D36
Gain
V1
R Loss
RA2
Gain
Majority, with Readjusters in caucus ↓ RA1
R29
Re-elected
R30
Re-elected
R31
Hold
R32
Hold
R33
Hold
R34
Hold
R35
Hold
R36
Gain
R37
Gain
R28
Re-elected
R27
Re-elected
R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1
Key:
D# Democratic
I# Independent
RA# Readjuster
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 47th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1882 or in 1883 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Iowa
(Class 2)
James W. McDill Republican 1881 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 25, 1882.
Winner did not run for re-election, see below.
James W. McDill (Republican)
M. M. Ham
Daniel Campbell[2]
Georgia
(Class 2)
Benjamin H. Hill Democratic 1877 Incumbent died August 16, 1882.
Winner elected November 15, 1882.
Democratic hold.
Winner did not run for re-election, see below.
Middleton P. Barrow (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Colorado
(Class 2)
George M. Chilcott Republican 1882 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
Winner elected January 27, 1883.
Republican hold.
Winner did not run for re-election, see below.
Horace Tabor (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 48th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1883; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama John Tyler Morgan Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected in 1882. John Tyler Morgan (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas Augustus Garland Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected in 1883 Augustus Garland (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Colorado Horace Tabor Republican 1883 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner's election date unknown.
Republican hold.
Thomas M. Bowen (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware Eli M. Saulsbury Democratic 1870
1876
Incumbent re-elected in 1883. Eli M. Saulsbury (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia Middleton P. Barrow Democratic 1882 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1883.
Democratic hold.
Alfred H. Colquitt (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois David Davis Independent 1876 or 1877 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1882.
Republican gain.
Shelby Moore Cullom (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Iowa James W. McDill Republican 1881 (Appointed)
1882 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 25, 1882.
Republican hold.
James F. Wilson (Republican)
L. G. Kinne
D. P. Subbs[2]
Kansas Preston B. Plumb Republican 1877 Incumbent re-elected in 1883. Preston B. Plumb (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky James B. Beck Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected in 1882. James B. Beck (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana Joseph R. West Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1882.
Democratic gain.
Randall L. Gibson (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine William P. Frye Republican 1881 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1883. William P. Frye (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts George Frisbie Hoar Republican 1877 Incumbent re-elected in 1883. George Frisbie Hoar (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan Thomas W. Ferry Republican 1871
1877
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1882 or 1883.
Republican hold.
Thomas W. Palmer (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Minnesota William Windom Republican 1870 (Appointed)
1871
1877
1881 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1883.
Republican hold.
Dwight M. Sabin (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi Lucius Q.C. Lamar II Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected in 1883. Lucius Q.C. Lamar II (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nebraska Alvin Saunders Republican 1877 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1883.
Republican hold.
Alvin Saunders (Republican)
Phineas Hitchcock (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire Edward H. Rollins Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
None.
New Jersey John R. McPherson Democratic 1877 Incumbent re-elected in 1883. John R. McPherson (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Matt W. Ransom Democratic 1872 (Special)
1876
Incumbent re-elected in 1883. Matt W. Ransom (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Oregon La Fayette Grover Democratic 1882 or 1883 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1882.
Republican gain.
Joseph N. Dolph (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island Henry B. Anthony Republican 1858
1864
1870
1876
Incumbent re-elected in 1882. Henry B. Anthony (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina Matthew Butler Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected in 1882. Matthew Butler (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Isham G. Harris Democratic 1877 Incumbent re-elected in 1883. Isham G. Harris (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas Richard Coke Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected in 1882. Richard Coke (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia John W. Johnston Democratic 1871
1877
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected early December 21, 1881.[3]
Readjuster gain.
Winner caucused with the Republicans.[3]
Harrison H. Riddleberger (Readjuster)
John W. Johnston (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
West Virginia Henry G. Davis Democratic 1871
1877
Incumbent retired.
Winner's election date unknown.
Democratic hold.
John E. Kenna (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 48th Congress[edit]

In this election, the winner was elected in 1883 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New Hampshire Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner elected August 2, 1883.[4]
Republican gain.
Austin F. Pike (Republican) 181
Harry Bingham 112
Gilman Marston (Republican) 19
Edward H. Rollins (Republican) 1
William S. Ladd (Republican) 1
Aaron F. Stevens (Republican) 1

Complete list of races[edit]

Iowa[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Readjusters caucused with the Republicans.
  2. ^ a b c d Clark, p. 199
  3. ^ a b Jones Salmon, Emily. "Harrison H. Riddleberger (1843–1890)". Encyclopedia Virginia/Dictionary of Virginia Biography. Retrieved March 4, 2015. 
  4. ^ "A Long Dead-Lock Broken: Austin F. Pike Elected Senator from New-Hampshire". New York Times. August 3, 1883. p. 1. Retrieved July 26, 2016.