United States Senate elections, 1886 and 1887

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United States Senate elections, 1886 and 1887
United States
← 1884 / 1885 Dates vary by state 1888 / 1889 →

25 of the 76 seats in the U.S. Senate
(as well as special elections)

39 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Seats before 40 34
Seats won 13 11
Seats after 38 36
Seat change Decrease 2 Increase 2
Seats up 15 9

  Third party
 
Party Readjuster
Seats before 2
Seats won 0
Seats after 1
Seat change Decrease 1
Seats up 1

Majority Party before election

Republican

Elected Majority Party

Republican[1]

The United States Senate elections of 1886 and 1887 were elections that had the Republican Party lose two seats in the United States Senate. At the beginning of the 50th Congress, therefore, Republicans had the slimmest possible majority due to a vacant Democratic seat: 38 out of 75 seats. Once that vacancy was filled, Republicans maintained control as the single Readjuster Senator caucused with them.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Colored shading indicates party with largest share of that row.

Parties Total
Democratic Readjuster Republican
Before these elections 34 2 40 78
Not up 25 1 25 51
Class 2 (1886/87 → 1892/93) 13 1 12 26
Class 3 (1884/851890/91) 11 13 24
Up 11 1 16 28
General: Class 1 9 1 15 25
Special: Class 1 1 1
Special: Class 2 1 1
Special: Class 3 1 1
General election only
Incumbent retired 1 2 3
Held by same party 1 1
Gained by other party Increase1 Decrease1 1
No elected successor 1 1
Result 1 1 2
Incumbent ran 6 1 12 19
Won re-election 4 7 11
Held by same party 1 3 4
Gained by other party Decrease1 Increase1 IncreaseDecrease4
Increase2 Decrease2
Increase1 Decrease1
No elected successor
Result 8 11 19
Incumbent's action unknown 2 1 3
Held by same party 2 1 3
No elected successor
Gained by other party
Result 2 1 3
Total elected 11 13 24
Net change Increase2 Decrease1 Decrease2 Decrease1
Result 36 1 38 75

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After August 4, 1886 special election in California.

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28
Ran
D27
Ran
D26
Ran
D25 D24 D23 D22 D21 D20 D19
D29
Ran
D30
Ran
D31
Ran
D32
Unknown
D33
Unknown
D34
Retired
RA2
Ran
RA1 R40
Retired
R39
Retired
Majority →
R29
Ran
R30
Ran
R31
Ran
R32
Ran
R33
Ran
R34
Ran
R35
Ran
R36
Ran
R37
Ran
R38
Unknown
R28
Ran
R27
Ran
R26
Ran
R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

After the elections[edit]

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28
Re-elected
D27
Re-elected
D26
Re-elected
D25 D24 D23 D22 D21 D20 D19
D29
Re-elected
D30
Hold
D31
Hold
D32
Hold
D33
Gain from RA
D34
Gain from R
D35
Gain from R
D36
Gain from R
V1
D Loss
RA1
Majority due to vacancy→ R38
Gain from D
R29
Re-elected
R30
Re-elected
R31
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R33
Hold
R34
Hold
R35
Hold
R36
Hold
R37
Hold
R28
Re-elected
R27
Re-elected
R26
Re-elected
R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

At the beginning of the first session, December 7, 1887[edit]

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28 D27 D26 D25 D24 D23 D22 D21 D20 D19
D29 D30 D31 D32 D33 D34 D35 D36 D37
Gain from V
RA1
Majority with Readjuster in caucus → R38
R29 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36 R37
R28 R27 R26 R25
Hold
R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1
Key:
D# Democratic
RA# Readjuster
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Elections during the 49th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1886 or in 1887 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Edward C. Walthall Democratic 1885 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 20, 1886.[2] Edward C. Walthall (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
California
(Class 1)
George Hearst Democratic 1886 (Appointed) Unknown if interim appointee retired or lost election to finish the term.
Winner elected August 4, 1886.
Republican gain.
Winner did not run for election to the next term, see below.
Abram P. Williams (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois
(Class 3)
John A. Logan Republican 1870 or 1871
1877 (Lost re-election)
1879
1885
Incumbent died December 26, 1886.
Winner elected January 19, 1887.
Republican hold.
Charles B. Farwell (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 50th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1887; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California Abram Williams Republican 1886 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1887.
Democratic gain.
George Hearst (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut Joseph Roswell Hawley Republican 1881 Incumbent re-elected in 1887. Joseph Roswell Hawley (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware George Gray Democratic 1885 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1887. George Gray (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida Charles W. Jones Democratic 1881 Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana Benjamin Harrison Republican 1880 or 1881 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1887.
Democratic gain.
David Turpie (Democratic)
Benjamin Harrison (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine Eugene Hale Republican 1881 Incumbent re-elected in 1887. Eugene Hale (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland Arthur P. Gorman Democratic 1880 Incumbent re-elected in 1886. Arthur P. Gorman (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts Henry L. Dawes Republican 1857
1881
Incumbent re-elected in 1887. Henry L. Dawes (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan Omar D. Conger Republican 1881 Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected in 1887.
Republican hold.
Francis B. Stockbridge (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Minnesota Samuel J. R. McMillan Republican 1881 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1886.
Republican hold.
Cushman Davis (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi James Z. George Democratic 1880 Incumbent re-elected in 1886. James Z. George (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri Francis Cockrell Democratic 1874
1881
Incumbent re-elected in 1887. Francis Cockrell (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nebraska Charles Van Wyck Republican 1880 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1886.
Republican hold.
Algernon Paddock (Republican)
Charles Van Wyck (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nevada James Graham Fair Democratic 1881 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1887.
Republican gain.
William Morris Stewart (Republican)
James Graham Fair (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey William Joyce Sewell Republican 1881 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1886.
Democratic gain.
Rufus Blodgett (Democratic)
William Joyce Sewell (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York Warner Miller Republican 1881 (Special) Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected January 20, 1887.
Republican hold.
Frank Hiscock (Republican)
Levi P. Morton (Republican)
Smith M. Weed (Democratic)
Francis Kernan (Democratic)
Ohio John Sherman Republican 1861 (Special)
1866
1872
1877 (Resigned)
1881
Incumbent re-elected in 1886. John Sherman (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania John I. Mitchell Republican 1881 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected January 18, 1887.
Republican hold.
Matthew Quay (Republican) 65.74%
Simon P. Wolverton (Democratic) 31.87%
Rhode Island Nelson W. Aldrich Republican 1881 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1886. Nelson W. Aldrich (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Washington C. Whitthorne Democratic 1886 (Appointed) Unknown if interim appointee retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1887.
Democratic hold.
William B. Bate (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas Samuel B. Maxey Democratic 1875
1881
Incumbent lost re-election
Winner elected in 1887.
Democratic hold.
John Henninger Reagan (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont George F. Edmunds Republican 1866 (Appointed)
1866 (Special)
1868
1874
1880
Incumbent re-elected in 1886. George F. Edmunds (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia William Mahone Readjuster 1881 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1887.
Democratic gain.
John W. Daniel (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
West Virginia Johnson N. Camden Democratic 1880 or 1881 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1887.
Democratic hold.
Charles J. Faulkner (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Wisconsin Philetus Sawyer Republican 1881 Incumbent re-elected in 1887. Philetus Sawyer (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 50th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1887 after March 4; ordered by date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Florida
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect, see above.
Winner elected late May 19, 1887.
Democratic gain.
Samuel Pasco (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Person C. Cheney Republican 1886 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when successor elected.
Winner elected June 14, 1887.
Republican hold.
William E. Chandler (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 2)
Harrison H. Riddleberger Readjuster 1881 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected December 20, 1887 for the term beginning in 1889.[3]
Democratic gain.
John S. Barbour Jr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races[edit]

New York[edit]

The election in New York was held from January 18 to 20, 1887. Republican Warner Miller had been elected to this seat in a special election in 1881 to succeed Thomas C. Platt who had resigned. Miller's term would expire on March 3, 1887. At the State election in November 1885, 20 Republicans and 12 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1886-1887) in the State Senate. At the State election in November 1886, 74 Republicans and 54 Democrats were elected for the session of 1887 to the Assembly. The 110th New York State Legislature met from January 4 to May 26, 1887, at Albany, New York.

The caucus of Republican State legislators met on January 17, President pro tempore of the State Senate Edmund L. Pitts presided. 20 State senators and 71 assemblymen attended. Ex-Speaker of the Assembly George Z. Erwin (a Morton man) moved that a majority of all Republican legislators should be necessary to nominate, not only a majority of those present, meaning that 48 votes were required instead of 46, which was carried by a vote of 52 to 39. The incumbent U.S. Senator Warner Miller (Half-Breed faction) failed to be nominated by only four votes. Levi P. Morton (Stalwart faction) was rejected by the caucus, like in 1885. A small faction voted for Congressman Frank Hiscock. After the second ballot, Erwin moved to adjourn, which was carried by 48 to 43. The caucus met again on the next day, no choice was made in another two ballots. The caucus met again on January 19 after the joint ballot of the State Legislature, and after twelve more ballots, Erwin withdrew Morton's name and urged the Morton men to vote for Hiscock. On the next ballot Hiscock received one vote more than Miller (47 to 46), but was one short of the previously established majority of 48. On the 18th and last ballot, Hiscock received 50 votes and was nominated. On the next day, Hiscock was elected on the second joint ballot of the State Legislature. Thus, by blocking Miller's re-election, the Republican boss Thomas C. Platt took his revenge for his defeat at the special election in 1881.

1887 Republican caucus for United States Senator
Ballot Date Warner Miller Levi P. Morton Frank Hiscock
1st January 17 44 35 12
2nd January 17 44 36 11
3rd January 18
4th January 18
5th January 19 46 36 11
6th January 19 46 36 11
7th January 19 46 36 11
8th January 19 46 36 11
9th January 19 46 36 11
10th January 19 46 36 11
11th January 19 46 36 11
12th January 19 46 36 11
13th January 19 46 36 11
14th January 19 46 36 11
15th January 19 46 36 11
16th January 19 46 36 11
17th January 19 46 Withdrew 47
18th January 19 43 50

The Democratic caucus nominated Smith Mead Weed (1834-1920), a lawyer and businessman of Plattsburgh, New York. Weed had been a member of the New York State Assembly from Clinton County, New York in 1865, 1866, 1867, 1871, 1873 and 1874; and a delegate to the 1876 and 1884 Democratic National Conventions.

1887 general election for United States Senator
House Democratic Republican Republican Republican
State Senate
(32 members)
January 18
Smith M. Weed 11 Warner Miller 10 Levi P. Morton 9 Frank Hiscock 1
State Assembly
(128 members)
January 18
Smith M. Weed 41 Warner Miller 32 Levi P. Morton 26 Frank Hiscock 10
Joint ballot
(160 members)
January 19
Smith M. Weed 61 Warner Miller 43 Levi P. Morton 33 Frank Hiscock 11
Second joint ballot
(160 members)
January 20
Smith M. Weed 62 Frank Hiscock 91

Pennsylvania[edit]

The election in Pennsylvania was held January 18, 1887. Matthew Quay was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[4] The General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and Senate voted as follows:

State Legislature Results[4][5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Matthew Quay 165 65.74
Democratic Simon P. Wolverton 80 31.87
N/A Not voting 6 2.39
Totals 251 100.00%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Readjusters caucused with the Republicans.
  2. ^ Byrd, p. 130.
  3. ^ John S. Barbour Jr. at Encyclopedia Virginia
  4. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 18 January 1887" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 23, 2012. 
  5. ^ "PA US Senate - 1887". OurCampaigns. Retrieved December 22, 2012.