United States Senate elections, 1898 and 1899

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United States Senate elections, 1898 and 1899
United States
← 1896 / 1897 Dates vary by state 1900 / 1901 →

30 of the 90 seats in the U.S. Senate
(as well as special elections)

46 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Seats before 44 34
Seats won 17 6
Seats after 50 25
Seat change Increase 6 Decrease 9
Seats up 11 15

  Third party Fourth party Fifth party
 
Party Populist Silver Republican Silver
Seats before 5 5 2
Seats won 0 1 0
Seats after 4 3 2
Seat change Decrease 1 Decrease 2 Steady
Seats up 1 3 0

Majority Party before election

Republican

Elected Majority Party

Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1898 and 1899 were landslide elections which had the Republican Party gain six seats in the United States Senate.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 56th Congress (1899–1901)

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the October 7, 1898 special election in Oregon.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5
D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6
D16 D17 D18 D19 D20
Ran
D21
Ran
D22
Ran
D23
Ran
D24
Ran
D25
Ran
P5
Ran
D34
Retired
D33
Retired
D32
Retired
D31
Retired
D30
Ran
D29
Ran
D28
Ran
D27
Ran
D26
Ran
P4 P3 P2 P1 S2 S1 SR1 SR2 SR3
Ran
SR4
Ran
Plurality ↓ SR5
Ran
R36
Ran
R37
Ran
R38
Ran
R39
Ran
R40
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R43
Ran
R44
Ran
R35
Ran
R34
Ran
R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26
R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

Result of the general elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5
D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6
D16 D17 D18 D19 D20
Re-elected
D21
Re-elected
D22
Re-elected
D23
Re-elected
D24
Hold
D25
Gain
from SR
R50
Gain
from D
SR3
Re-elected
SR2 SR1 S1 S2 P1 P2 P3 P4
R49
Gain
from D
R48
Gain
from D
R47
Gain
from D
R46
Gain
from D
R45
Gain
from D
R44
Gain
from D
R43
Hold
V1
D Loss
V2
D Loss
V3
D Loss
Majority →
R42
Re-elected
V6
R Loss
V5
SR Loss
V4
P Loss
R36
Re-elected
R37
Re-elected
R38
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R40
Re-elected
R41
Re-elected
R35
Re-elected
R34
Re-elected
R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26
R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5
D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6
D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25
SR3 SR2 SR1 S1 S2 P1 P2 P3 P4 D26
Appointed
R50 R49 R48 R47 R46 R45 R44 V1 V2 V3
Majority → R43
V5 V4
R36 R37 R38 R39 R40 R41 R42
R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26
R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5
Key:
D# Democratic
P# Populist
R# Republican
S# Silver
SR# Silver Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Elections during the 55th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1898 or in 1899 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Ohio
(Class 1)
Mark Hanna Republican 1897 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 12, 1898.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Mark Hanna (Republican) 73 votes
Robert McKisson (Republican) 70 votes
John J. Lentz (Democratic) 1 vote
Oregon
(Class 3)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
New senator elected October 7, 1898.
Republican gain.
Joseph Simon (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 56th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1899; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California Stephen M. White Democratic 1893 Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.[1]
Democratic loss.
Seat remained vacant until February 7, 1900.
Ulysses S. Grant Jr. (Republican)
Daniel M. Burns
W.H.L. Barnes
Robert N. Bulla[1]
Connecticut Joseph Hawley Republican 1881
1887
1893
Incumbent re-elected January 17, 1899.[2] Joseph Roswell Hawley (Republican)
Daniel N. Morgan (Democratic)
Delaware George Gray Democratic 1885 (Special)
1887
1893
Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.[3]
Democratic loss.
Seat remained vacant until 1903.
George Gray (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida Samuel Pasco Democratic 1887
1893 (Failure to elect)
1893 (Appointed)
1893 (Special)
Legislature failed to elect.[4]
Democratic loss.
Incumbent appointed to begin the term.[4]
Incumbent lost election to finish the term, see below.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana David Turpie Democratic 1863 (Special)
1863 (Retired)
1887
1893
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected January 17, 1899.
Republican gain.
Albert J. Beveridge (Republican)
David Turpie (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine Eugene Hale Republican 1881
1887
1893
Incumbent re-elected in 1899. Eugene Hale (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland Arthur P. Gorman Democratic 1880
1886
1892
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 25, 1898.[5]
Republican gain.
Louis E. McComas (Republican) 63 votes
Arthur P. Gorman (Democratic) 47 votes
Shaw (Republican) 4 votes.[5]
Massachusetts Henry Cabot Lodge Republican 1893 Incumbent re-elected in 1899. Henry Cabot Lodge (Republican)
Bruce (Democratic)
P. Porter Winfield (Social Democratic)[6]
Michigan Julius C. Burrows Republican 1895 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1899. Julius C. Burrows (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Minnesota Cushman Davis Republican 1886
1892
Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1899.[7] Cushman Davis (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi Hernando Money Democratic 1897 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected in 1899. Hernando Money (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri Francis Cockrell Democratic 1874
1881
1887
1893
Incumbent re-elected January 19, 1899.[8] Francis Cockrell (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Montana Lee Mantle Silver Republican 1895 (Special) Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected in 1899.
Democratic gain.
William A. Clark (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nebraska William V. Allen Populist 1893 Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.[9]
Populist loss.
The seat was filled in March 1899, see below.
William V. Allen (Populist)
Nevada William Stewart Silver Republican 1887
1893
Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1899.[10] William Morris Stewart (Silver Republican)
A.C. Cleveland
W.W. Williams
Mason
Woodburn
New Jersey James Smith Jr. Democratic 1893 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 24, 1899.[11]
Republican gain.
John Kean (Republican)
James Smith Jr. (Democratic)
New York Edward Murphy Jr. Democratic 1893 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 17, 1899.
Republican gain.
Chauncey M. Depew (Republican)
Edward Murphy Jr. (Democratic)
North Dakota William N. Roach Democratic 1893 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 20, 1899.[12]
Republican gain.
Porter J. McCumber (Republican)
William N. Roach (Democratic)
ß[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Ohio Mark Hanna Republican 1897 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 12, 1898.
Winner also elected to finish the term, see above.
Mark Hanna (Republican) 73 votes
Robert McKisson (Republican) 70 votes
John J. Lentz (Democratic) 1 vote
Pennsylvania Matthew S. Quay Republican 1887
1893
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
Incumbent appointed to start the term, but Senate rejected credentials.
Seat would remain vacant until 1901.
Matthew S. Quay (Republican)
Rhode Island Nelson W. Aldrich Republican 1881 (Special)
1886
1892
Incumbent re-elected in 1898. Nelson W. Aldrich (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee William B. Bate Democratic 1887
1893
Incumbent re-elected in 1899. William B. Bate (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas Roger Q. Mills Democratic 1892
1893
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 24, 1899.[13]
Democratic hold.
Charles Culberson (Democratic)
Unopposed
Utah Frank J. Cannon Silver Republican 1896 Legislature failed to elect.[14]
Silver Republican loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1901.
Frank J. Cannon (Republican)
Alfred W. McCune (Democratic)
Vermont Redfield Proctor Republican 1891 (Appointed)
1892 (Special)
1892
Incumbent re-elected October 19, 1898.[15] Redfield Proctor (Republican)
Thomas W. Moloney (Democrats)
Virginia John W. Daniel Democratic 1887
1893
Incumbent re-elected in 1899. John W. Daniel (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Washington John L. Wilson Republican 1895 (Special) Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected February 1, 1899.[16]
Republican hold.
Addison G. Foster (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
West Virginia Charles J. Faulkner Democratic 1887
1893
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 25, 1899.[17]
Republican gain.
Nathan B. Scott (Republican) 48
J.F. McGraw (Democratic) 46
Nathan Goff Jr. (Republican) 1[17]
Wisconsin John L. Mitchell Democratic 1893 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 31, 1899.[18]
Republican gain.
Joseph V. Quarles (Republican)
Timoth E. Ryan (Democratic)
Wyoming Clarence D. Clark Republican 1895 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1899.[19] Clarence D. Clark (Republican)
John Eugene Osborne (Democratic)

Elections during the 56th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1899 after March 4, and seated in the 56th Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Nebraska
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect, see above.
New senator elected late March 8, 1899.[20]
Republican gain.
Monroe Hayward (Republican) 74 votes
William V. Allen (Populist) 58 votes[20]
Florida
(Class 1)
Samuel Pasco Democratic 1887
1893 (Failure to elect)
1893 (Appointed)
1893 (Special)
1899 (Failure to elect)
1899 (Appointed)
Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected April 19, 1899.[21]
Democratic hold.
James Taliaferro (Democratic)
Samuel Pasco (Democratic)

In this election, the winner was seated in the 57th Congress, starting March 4, 1901.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Virginia
(Class 2)
Thomas S. Martin Democratic 1893 (Early) Incumbent re-elected early December 19, 1899 for the term beginning March 4, 1901.[22] Thomas S. Martin (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races[edit]

New York[edit]

The election in New York was held January 17, 1899.

Democrat Edward Murphy Jr. had been elected to this seat in 1893, and his term would expire on March 3, 1899. At the State election in November 1898, 27 Republicans and 23 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1899-1900) in the State Senate; and 88 Republicans and 62 Democrats were elected for the session of 1899 to the Assembly. The 122nd New York State Legislature met from January 4 to April 28, 1899, at Albany, New York.

The Republican caucus met on January 12. State Senator Hobart Krum presided. They nominated Chauncey M. Depew unanimously. Depew had been Secretary of State of New York from 1864 to 1865, and was the frontrunning candidate to succeed Thomas C. Platt at the U.S. Senate special election in 1881 when he withdrew after the 41st ballot. Parallel to his political career, he moved up the ladder in the Vanderbilt Railroad System, being President of the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad from 1885 to 1898, and holding positions in dozens of other railroad companies.

The Democratic caucus met also on January 12. State Senator George W. Plunkitt presided. They re-nominated the incumbent U.S. Senator Edward Murphy, Jr. unanimously.

Chauncey M. Depew was the choice of both the Assembly and the State Senate, and was declared elected.

1899 United States Senator election result
House Republican Democratic
State Senate
(50 members)
Chauncey M. Depew 27 Edward Murphy, Jr. 23
State Assembly
(150 members)
Chauncey M. Depew 84 Edward Murphy, Jr. 60

Note: The votes were cast on January 17, but both Houses met in a joint session on January 18 to compare nominations, and declare the result.

Utah[edit]

In mid-August 1898, Alfred W. McCune decided to seek office as a Democrat for the United States Senate.[23] State legislators had already indicated they would not support the incumbent, Frank J. Cannon for reelection. Cannon, a Republican, had voted against the Dingley Act, which would have raised tariffs on sugar and helped the Utah sugar industry.[24] The Dingley bill was strongly supported by the LDS Church hierarchy, who now opposed his reelection.[24] Other factors were his support for Free Silver; rumors about immoral acts he may have committed while living in Washington, D.C.; and that the Utah legislature was controlled by Democrats.[24] The McCunes were close friends with Heber J. Grant, seventh LDS Church president and an ordained LDS apostle.[25] Although the LDS church had (just weeks before) made a decision to stay out of state politics, McCune asked Grant for the church's assistance in winning office.[23] Grant consulted with Joseph F. Smith (Apostle and sixth LDS president) and John Henry Smith (a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and the First Presidency of the LDS Church), both of whom supported McCune's senatorial bid.[23] But McCune was not alone in seeking the office. Former Representative William H. King was also running (and backed by two Apostles), as was James Moyle (a prominent attorney and founder of the Utah Democratic Party who was backed by state legislators) and George Q. Cannon (an Apostle and member of the First Presidency).[23]

At the time, members of the Senate were still elected by their respective state legislatures.[23] The Utah state legislature convened in January 1899.[26] There were 13 Republicans and 50 Democrats in the state legislature.[27] From the beginning, McCune was considered the leading candidate.[26] But the legislature quickly deadlocked over the election. One-hundred and twenty-one ballots were cast, and no winner emerged.[26] McCune was one or two votes shy of winning on several ballots.[26] on February 18, before the 122nd ballot, state representative Albert A. Law (a Republican from Cache County and a Cannon supporter) claimed McCune offered him $1,500 for his vote.[28] McCune strenuously denied the charge, and a seven-member legislative established to investigate the allegation.[26][28] The committee voted 7-to-2 to absolve McCune of the charge, and this outcome was announced to the legislature on March 6.[26][28] Balloting resumed, and on March 8, on the 149th ballot, McCune still lacked enough votes to win office (he had only 25 votes).[26][28] The legislature adjourned without having chosen a senator,[29] and McCune traveled in Europe for several weeks to regain his health (returning in June 1899).[30]

Utah's U.S. Senate seat remained vacant until January 1901.

See also[edit]

A late 19th century celluloid political button in black and white; on the top "For U.S. Senator" and at bottom "M.A. Hanna", framing an image of the candidate
Mark Hanna campaign button in Ohio

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "WHITE'S SUCCESSOR NOT NAMED". The New York Times. January 17, 1899. p. 2. 
  2. ^ "Hawley Elected in Connecticut". The New York Times. January 18, 1899. p. 2. 
  3. ^ "DEADLOCK IN DELAWARE". The New York Times. January 17, 1899. p. 1, 2. 
  4. ^ a b "Senator Pasco's Credentials". The New York Times. March 4, 1899. p. 2. 
  5. ^ a b Public Opinion. p. 137. 
  6. ^ "Henry Cabot Lodge Re-elected". The New York Times. January 18, 1899. p. 2. 
  7. ^ "SENATORS FORMALLY ELECTED". The Chicago Daily Tribune. January 19, 1899. p. 2. 
  8. ^ "Cockrell Re-elected in Missouri". The New York Times. January 18, 1899. p. 2. 
  9. ^ "No Election in Nebraska". The New York Times. p. 2. 
  10. ^ "Stewart Re-elected in Nevada". The New York Times. January 25, 1899. p. 2. 
  11. ^ "KEAN UNITED STATES SENATOR". The New York Times. January 25, 1899. p. 2. 
  12. ^ "An Election in North Dakota". The New York Times. January 21, 1899. p. 1. 
  13. ^ "Culberson Elected in Texas". The New York Times. January 25, 1899. p. 2. 
  14. ^ "Utah Fails to Elect Senator". Boston Evening Transcript. March 10, 1899. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  15. ^ "Senator Proctor Re-elected". The New York Times. October 19, 1898. p. 4. 
  16. ^ "AN ELECTION IN WASHINGTON". The New York Times. February 2, 1899. p. 2. 
  17. ^ a b "WEST VIRGINIA'S NEW SENATOR". The New York Times. January 26, 1899. p. 2. 
  18. ^ "Quarles Elected in Wisconsin". The New York Times. February 1, 1899. p. 8. 
  19. ^ "Clark Re-elected in Wyoming". The New York Times. January 25, 1899. p. 2. 
  20. ^ a b "Hayward Elected in Nebraska". The New York Times. March 9, 1899. p. 2. 
  21. ^ Byrd, p. 93.
  22. ^ "Senator Martin Is Re-elected". The New York Times. December 20, 1899. p. 9. 
  23. ^ a b c d e Alexander, p. 10.
  24. ^ a b c Powell, p. 70.
  25. ^ Wadley.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g Whitney (1916), p. 527.
  27. ^ Smoot, p. 860.
  28. ^ a b c d Smoot, p. 863.
  29. ^ "Utah With One Senator". The New York Times. March 11, 1899. 
  30. ^ Whitney1904, p. 508.

References[edit]