United States Senate elections, 1900 and 1901

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United States Senate elections, 1900 and 1901
United States
← 1898 / 1899 January 16, 1900 –
February 24, 1901
1902 / 1903 →

30 of the 90 seats in the U.S. Senate
(as well as special elections)

46 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  William B. Allison - Brady-Handy.jpg James Jones.png
Leader William B. Allison James K. Jones
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Iowa Arkansas
Seats before 51 26
Seats won 14 13
Seats after 48 28
Seat change Decrease 3 Increase 2
Seats up 17 11

  Third party Fourth party Fifth party
 
Party Populist Silver Republican Silver
Seats before 5 3 2
Seats won 0 1 0
Seats after 4 3 2
Seat change Decrease 1 Steady Steady
Seats up 1 1 0

Majority Party before election

Republican

Elected Majority Party

Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1900 and 1901 were elections in which the Democratic Party gained two seats in the United States Senate, and which corresponded with President William McKinley's landslide re-election. By the beginning of the next Congress, however, the Republicans gained five additional seats, giving them a ten-seat majority.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 57th Congress (1901–1903)

  • Majority Party: Republican (53)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (28)
  • Other Parties: Populist (2); Silver Republican 3; Vacant 4
  • Total Seats: 90

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

At the beginning of 1900.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5
D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6
D16
Ran
D17
Ran
D18
Ran
D19
Ran
D20
Ran
D21
Ran
D22
Retired
D23
Retired
D24
Retired
D25
Retired
SR2 SR1 S1 S2 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
Ran
D26
Retired
SR3
Ran
R51
Retired
R50
Unknown
R49
Ran
R48
Ran
R47
Ran
R46
Ran
R45
Ran
R44
Ran
V1
Majority → V2
R36
Ran
R37
Ran
R38
Ran
R39
Ran
R40
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R43
Ran
V3
R35
Ran
R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26
R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

Result of the general elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5
D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6
D16
Re-elected
D17
Re-elected
D18
Re-elected
D19
Re-elected
D20
Re-elected
D21
Hold
D22
Hold
D23
Hold
D24
Hold
D25
Hold
SR1 S1 S2 P1 P2 P3 P4 D28
Gain from P
D27
Gain from R
D26
Gain from R
SR2 SR3
Gain from R
R48
Gain from SR
R47
Re-elected
R46
Re-elected
R45
Re-elected
R44
Hold
R43
Re-elected
V5
D Loss
V1
Majority → V4
R Loss
V2
R36
Re-elected
R37
Re-elected
R38
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R40
Re-elected
R41
Re-elected
R42
Hold
V3
R35
Re-elected
R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26
R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5
D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10
Change from SR
D9 D8 D7 D6
D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25
R52
Gain from V
R53
Gain from V
SR2 SR1 P1 P2 P3 D28 D27 D26
R51
Change from P
R50
Change from S
R49
Change from S
R48 R47 R46 R45 R44 V4
D Loss
V1
Majority →
R36 R37 R38 R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 V3 V2
R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26
R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5
Key:
D# Democratic
P# Populist
R# Republican
S# Silver
SR# Silver Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Elections during the 56th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winner was seated in the current (56th) Congress during 1900 or in 1901 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Mississippi
(Class 2)
William V. Sullivan Democratic 1898 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 16, 1900.
Winner was not a candidate in the election for the next term, see below.
William V. Sullivan (Democratic)
Unopposed[1]
California
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
New senator elected February 7, 1900.
Republican gain.
Thomas R. Bard (Republican) 85 votes
James D. Phelan (Democratic) 30 votes
Stephen M. White (Democratic) 1 vote[2]
Vermont
(Class 3)
Jonathan Ross Republican 1899 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected October 18, 1900.[1]
Republican hold.
William P. Dillingham (Republican) 162 votes
W.W. Grout (Republican) 96 votes
Seneca Hazleton (Democratic) 6 votes
Jonathan Ross (Republican) 5 votes
C.A. Prouty (Republican) 1 vote[1]
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Predecessor appointed, but declared not entitled to the seat.[3]
Predecessor re-elected January 16, 1901.
Republican gain.
Matthew S. Quay (Republican) 130 votes
James M. Guffey (Democratic) 56 votes
John Dalzell (Republican) 34 votes
Charles E. Smith (Republican) 12 votes
George Franklin Huff (Republican) 7 votes
John Stewart (Republican) 3 votes
Others, 1 each, see below[4]
Minnesota
(Class 1)
Charles A. Towne Democratic 1900 (Appointed) Unknown if interim appointee retired or lost election.
New senator elected January 23, 1901.
Republican gain.
Moses E. Clapp (Republican) 135 votes
Charles A. Towne (Democratic) 38 votes[5]
Utah
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.[1]
New senator elected January 23, 1901.
Republican gain.
Thomas Kearns (Republican) 37 votes
A.W. McCune (Democratic) 25 votes[6]
Delaware
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect to begin the term.
Legislature again failed to elect to finish the term.[7]
John Edward Addicks (Republican)
Charles F. Richards (Republican)
Willard Saulsbury (Democratic)[7]

In this election, the winner was seated in the 58th Congress, starting March 4, 1903.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Samuel D. McEnery Democratic 1896 Incumbent re-elected early May 22, 1900 for the term beginning March 4, 1903.[1][8] Samuel D. McEnery (Democratic) 148 votes
Unopposed[3]

Elections leading to the 57th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1901; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama John Tyler Morgan Democratic 1876
1882
1888
1894
Incumbent re-elected November 27, 1900.[9] John Tyler Morgan (Democratic)
Unopposed[10]
Arkansas James Berry Democratic 1885 (Special)
1889
1895
Incumbent re-elected January 22, 1901.[11] James Berry (Democratic) 123 votes
H. L. Remmel (Republican) 2 votes.[11]
Colorado Edward O. Wolcott Republican 1889
1895
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 15, 1901.[12]
Democratic gain.
Thomas M. Patterson (Democratic) 91 votes
Edward O. Wolcott (Republican) 8 votes[12]
Delaware Richard R. Kenney Democratic 1897 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
John Edward Addicks (Republican)
Henry A. Dupont (Republican)
Anthony Higgins (Republican)
Richard R. Kenney (Democratic)[7]
Georgia Augustus Bacon Democratic 1894 Incumbent re-elected November 6, 1900.[1] Augustus Bacon (Democratic)
Unopposed[1]
Idaho George Shoup Republican 1890
1895
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 16, 1901.[13][14]
Silver Republican gain.
New senator changed party to Democratic.
Fred Dubois (Silver Republican) 37 votes
George Shoup (Republican) 27 votes[7]
Illinois Shelby M. Cullom Republican 1882
1888
1894
Incumbent re-elected January 22, 1901.[7][15] Shelby M. Cullom (Republican) 100 votes
Samuel Alschuler (Democratic) 85 votes[7]
Iowa John H. Gear Republican 1894 Incumbent re-elected January 17, 1900.[16][1]
Incumbent died July 14, 1900.[1]
A new senator was appointed to finish the term and to the next term.[1]
John H. Gear (Republican) 111 votes
Fred E. White (Democratic) 32 votes[16][17]
Kansas Lucien Baker Republican 1895 Incumbent re-elected January 22, 1901.[18] Joseph R. Burton (Republican) 109 votes
David Overmyer (Democratic) 51 votes[7]
Kentucky William Lindsay Democratic 1882 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 16, 1900, after an election January 10, 1900[1] was cast in doubt.[19]
Democratic hold.
Joseph Blackburn (Democratic) 79 votes
William O. Bradley (Republican) 54 votes
Louisiana Donelson Caffery Democratic 1894 (Appointed)
1894 (Special)
1894
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected May 22, 1900.[8]
Democratic hold.
Murphy J. Foster (Democratic) 148 votes
Unopposed[1]
Maine William P. Frye Republican 1881 (Special)
1883
1889
1895
Incumbent re-elected January 15, 1901.[20][21] William P. Frye (Republican) 131 votes
Swasey M. Staples (Democratic) 14 votes[21][20]
Massachusetts George Frisbie Hoar Republican 1877
1883
1889
1895
Incumbent re-elected January 15, 1901.[5][22] George Frisbie Hoar (Republican) 77 votes
Richard Olney (Democratic) 56 votes
Charles H. Bradley (Social Democratic) 1 vote.[5][22]
Michigan James McMillan Republican 1889
1895
Incumbent re-elected January 15, 1901.[5][23] James McMillan (Republican) 116 votes
Thomas E. Barkworth 1 vote[23][5]
Minnesota Knute Nelson Republican 1895 Incumbent re-elected January 22, 1901.[5] Knute Nelson (Republican) 136 votes
R.R. Nelson (Democratic) 40 votes[5]
Mississippi William V. Sullivan Democratic 1898 (Appointed) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 16, 1900.
Democratic hold.
Winner was not a candidate to finish the term, see above.
Anselm J. McLaurin (Democratic)
Unopposed[1]
Montana Thomas H. Carter Republican 1895 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 16, 1901.[5]
Democratic gain.
The election was later challenged.[1]
William A. Clark (Democratic) 57 votes
Thomas H. Carter (Republican) 31 votes
Martin Maginnis (Democratic) 4 votes
R.B. Smith (Democratic) 1 vote[24]
Nebraska John Mellen Thurston Republican 1895 Legislature failed to elect.[25]
Republican loss.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire William E. Chandler Republican 1889 (Special)
1895
Incumbent lost remomination.
New senator elected January 15, 1901.[26][4]
Republican hold.
Henry Burnham (Republican) 301 votes
Charles F. Stone (Democratic) 84 votes
Henry M. Baker (Independent) 1 vote[26][4]
New Jersey William Sewell Republican 1895 Incumbent re-elected January 22, 1901.[4][27] William Sewell (Republican) 62 votes
Alvah A. Clark (Democratic) 17 votes[4][27]
North Carolina Marion Butler Populist 1894 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 22, 1901.[4][28]
Democratic gain.
Furnifold M. Simmons (Democratic) 124 votes
Richmond Pearson (Republican) 26 votes[4]
Oregon George W. McBride Republican 1895 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected February 24, 1901.[4][29]
Republican hold.
John H. Mitchell (Republican) 46 votes
Henry W. Corbett (Republican) 29 votes
A. S. Bennett (Democratic) 16 votes[4][29]
Rhode Island George P. Wetmore Republican 1894 Incumbent re-elected June 12, 1900.[30] George P. Wetmore (Republican) 88 votes
Samuel R. Honey (Democratic) 10 votes[1]
South Carolina Benjamin Tillman Democratic 1894 Incumbent re-elected January 15, 1901.[6][31] Benjamin Tillman (Democratic)
Unopposed[6]
South Dakota Richard F. Pettigrew Silver Republican 1889
1894
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 22, 1901.[6][32]
Republican gain.
Robert J. Gamble (Republican) 115 votes
Richard F. Pettigrew (Silver Republican) 13 votes[6][32]
Tennessee Thomas B. Turley Democratic 1883 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 16, 1901.[6][33]
Democratic hold.
Edward W. Carmack (Democratic) 99 votes
Thomas N. Burkett (Republican) 24 votes[6]
Texas Horace Chilton Democratic 1882 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 22, 1901.[6][34]
Democratic hold.
Joseph Weldon Bailey (Democratic) 137 votes
E.A. Atlee (Democratic) 2 votes
Horace Chilton 2 votes
M.M. Crane (Democratic) 1 vote
John H. Reagan (Democratic) 1 vote[6][34]
Virginia Thomas S. Martin Democratic 1893 (Early) Incumbent re-elected early December 19, 1899. Thomas S. Martin (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
West Virginia Stephen B. Elkins Republican 1895 Incumbent re-elected January 22, 1901.[6][35] Stephen B. Elkins (Republican) 61 votes
John T. McGraw (Democratic) 23 votes[6]
Wyoming Francis E. Warren Republican 1890
1893 (Lost)
1895
Incumbent re-elected January 22, 1901.[6] Francis E. Warren (Republican) 52 votes
John E. Osborne (Democratic) 3 votes[6][36]

Elections during the 57th Congress[edit]

In this election, the winner was elected in 1901 after March 4 and seated in the 57th Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Montana
(Class 1)
Vacant William A. Clark had resigned May 15, 1900, and was later elected to the state's other seat, see above.
New senator elected March 7, 1901.[5]
Democratic gain.
Paris Gibson (Democratic) 47 votes
Thomas H. Carter (Republican) 33 votes
H.L. Frank (Democratic) 1 vote
John MacGinnis (Democratic)11 votes[5]
Nebraska
(Class 1)
William V. Allen Populist 1893
1899 (Lost)
1899 (Appointed)
Interim appointee lost election as a Fusion candidate.[37]
New senator elected March 28, 1901.[25]
Republican gain.
Charles H. Dietrich (Republican) 70 votes
William V. Allen (Fusion)[37] 58 votes
George W. Berge 2 votes[25]
Nebraska
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect, see above.
New senator elected March 28, 1901.[25]
Republican gain.
Joseph Millard (Republican) 70 votes
W.H. Thompson (Fusion)[37] 52 votes
G.M. Hitchcock (Fusion)[37] 8 votes[25]

Complete list of races[edit]

Pennsylvania (Special)[edit]

The special election in Pennsylvania was held on January 15, 1901, after the regularly scheduled legislative election in January–April 1899 failed to elect a Senator. Former Senator Matthew Quay, who had left the Senate for nearly two years because of the political stalemate, was again elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[38][39]

Republican Matthew Quay was re-elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, in the 1893 election. With Sen. Quay's term expiring on March 4, 1899, the General Assembly convened on January 18, 1899, to elect a Senator for the next term. Between January 18 and April 19, 1899, seventy-nine ballots were recorded in an attempt to elect a Senator. Instead, the legislature adjourned sine die without electing a Senator due to a dispute between Sen. Quay's political machine and an anti-Quay faction within the Republican Party, along with Democratic Party opposition.[38]

Sen. Quay's term expired on March 4, 1899. Since a Senator had not been elected for the successive term, the seat was vacated. At the time, Quay was under indictment for misuse of funds. He was acquitted, after which Governor William Stone appointed Quay to the vacated Senate seat (a power the Governor did not legally have until the ratification of the 17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1913). The Senate refused to recognize Quay's appointment, and the seat remained vacant until a Senator could be officially elected (which would ultimately be Quay himself, after a nearly two-year hiatus). This incident, among others, would later be cited by supporters of the 17th Amendment, which mandated the direct election of U.S. Senators.[38]

The Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on January 15, 1901, for a special election to elect a Senator to serve out the remainder of the term that began on March 4, 1899. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[39][40]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Matthew Quay 130 51.18
Democratic James M. Guffey 56 22.05
Republican John Dalzell 34 13.39
Republican Charles E. Smith 12 4.72
Republican George Franklin Huff 7 2.76
Republican John Stewart 3 1.18
Socialist John H. Harris 1 0.39
Republican William McConway 1 0.39
Republican Henry C. McCormick 1 0.39
Republican Marlin Olmsted 1 0.39
Prohibition Silas C. Swallow 1 0.39
Republican Charles Tubbs 1 0.39
N/A Not voting 6 2.36
Totals 254 100.00%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Tribune Almanac (1901), p. 300.
  2. ^ Tribune Almanac (1901), pp. 299–300.
  3. ^ a b Tribune Almanac (1901), p. 299.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Tribune Almanac (1902), p. 300.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tribune Almanac (1902), p. 298.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Tribune Almanac (1902), p. 301.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Tribune Almanac (1902), p. 297.
  8. ^ a b "Louisiana Senators Elected.". The New York Times. May 23, 1900. p. 2. 
  9. ^ "Senator morgan re-elected". The New York Times. November 28, 1900. p. 7. 
  10. ^ Tribune Almanac (1901), pp. 299-300.
  11. ^ a b "Another Term for Berry of Arkansas". The New York Times. January 23, 1901. p. 5. 
  12. ^ a b "Patterson wins in colorado". The New York Times. January 16, 1901. p. 3. 
  13. ^ "Dubois lands the prize". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Idaho. January 16, 1901. p. 1. 
  14. ^ "Dubois chosen on first ballot". The Spokesman-Review. Spokane, Washington. January 16, 1901. p. 1. 
  15. ^ "Cullom of Illinois Succeeds Himself". The New York Times. January 23, 1901. p. 5. 
  16. ^ a b Clark, p. 245.
  17. ^ A different source tallied the results with an additional vote for both Gear and White.
  18. ^ "J.R. Burton the Choice in Kansas". The New York Times. January 23, 1901. p. 5. 
  19. ^ "Blackburn's Election Duplicated". The New York Times. January 17, 1900. p. 2. 
  20. ^ a b Tribune Almanac (1902), pp. 297–298.
  21. ^ a b "Frye Wins Out in Maine.". The New York Times. January 16, 1901. p. 3. 
  22. ^ a b "Democrats Help Re-elect Hoar.". The New York Times. January 16, 1901. p. 3. 
  23. ^ a b "McMillan of Michigan Re-elected.". The New York Times. January 16, 1901. p. 3. 
  24. ^ Tribune Almanac (1902), p. 299.
  25. ^ a b c d e Tribune Almanac (1902), pp. 299–300.
  26. ^ a b "Burnham Is New Hampshire's Choice". The New York Times. January 16, 1901. p. 3. 
  27. ^ a b "Senator sewell re-elected". The New York Times. January 23, 1901. p. 5. 
  28. ^ "North Carolina Elects a Democrat". The New York Times. January 23, 1901. p. 5. 
  29. ^ a b "Oregon elects a senator". The New York Times. February 25, 1901. p. 1. 
  30. ^ "Senator wetmore re-elected". The New York Times. June 13, 1900. p. 2. 
  31. ^ "Tillman South Carolina's Choice". The New York Times. January 24, 1901. p. 5. 
  32. ^ a b "R.J. Gamble Succeeds Pettigrew". The New York Times. January 23, 1901. p. 5. 
  33. ^ "Tennessee Elects Carmack". The New York Times. January 17, 1901. p. 2. 
  34. ^ a b "Bailey a Senator from Texas". The New York Times. January 23, 1901. p. 5. 
  35. ^ "Elkins Re-elected in West Virginia". The New York Times. January 23, 1901. p. 5. 
  36. ^ "Warren Wins in Wyoming". The New York Times. January 23, 1901. p. 5. 
  37. ^ a b c d "Fusion" here meant Democratic.
  38. ^ a b c "U.S. Senate Election - 1899" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 23, 2012. 
  39. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 15 January 1901" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 23, 2012. 
  40. ^ "PA US Senate - Special Election". OurCampaigns. Retrieved December 22, 2012. 

References[edit]