United States Senate elections, 1972

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
United States Senate elections, 1972
United States
← 1970 November 7, 1972 1974 / 1975 →

34 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate
51 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Michael Joseph Mansfield.jpg SenHughScott.jpg
Leader Mike Mansfield Hugh Scott
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Montana Pennsylvania
Seats before 54 44
Seats after 56 42
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 2
Popular vote 17,199,567 19,821,203
Percentage 45.5% 52.4%
Swing Decrease 6.9% Increase 12.5%
Seats up 14 19
Races won 16 17

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Independent Conservative (N.Y.)
Seats before 1 1
Seats after 1[1] 1
Seat change Steady Steady
Seats up 0 0
Races won 0 0

1972 Senate election map.svg
Results, with special elections
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold

Majority Leader before election

Mike Mansfield
Democratic

Elected Majority Leader

Mike Mansfield
Democratic

The 1972 United States Senate elections coincided with the landslide re-election of Republican President Richard Nixon. Despite Nixon's victory, Democrats increased their majority by two seats. After the elections, Democrats held 56 seats and Republicans held 42 seats, with 1 Conservative and 1 independent Senator. These were the first elections that citizens at least 18 years of age (instead of 21 and older) could vote due to the 1971 passage of the 26th Amendment.

Results summary[edit]

Parties Total seats Popular vote
Incum-
bents
Not
up
This election Result +/- Vote  %
Up Re-
elected
Held Gained Lost
Democratic 54 40 14 8 2 Increase 6 Decrease 4 56 Increase 2 17,199,567 45.49%
Republican 44 24 20 13 1 Increase 4 Decrease 6 42 Decrease 2 19,821,203 52.42%
Independent 1 1 0 0 0 Steady Steady 1 Steady 318,238 0.84%
Conservative (N.Y.) 1 1 0 0 0 Steady Steady 1 Steady 42,348 0.11%
Others 0 0 0 0 0 Steady Steady 0 Steady 470,090 1.24%
Total 100 66 34 21 3 Increase 10 Decrease 10 100 Steady 37,809,098 100.0%

Source: Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives (1973). "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 7, 1972" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. 

Gains and losses[edit]

Democratic pickups included open seats in Kentucky and South Dakota, and defeats of Senators Gordon L. Allott of Colorado, J. Caleb Boggs of Delaware, Jack Miller of Iowa, and Margaret Chase Smith of Maine.

Republican pickups included open seats in New Mexico, North Carolina, and Oklahoma, and the defeat of incumbent William B. Spong, Jr. of Virginia.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the January 7, 1972 Vermont special election.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40 D39 D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41
Ran
D42
Ran
D43
Ran
D44
Ran
D45
Ran
D46
Ran
D47
Ran
D48
Ran
D49
Ran
D50
Ran
Majority → D51
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Retired
R43
Retired
R44
Retired
C1 I1 D54
Retired
D53
Retired
D52
Retired
R40
Ran
R39
Ran
R38
Ran
R37
Ran
R36
Ran
R35
Ran
R34
Ran
R33
Ran
R32
Ran
R31
Ran
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26
Ran
R27
Ran
R28
Ran
R29
Ran
R30
Ran
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the general elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40 D39 D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41
Re-elected
D42
Re-elected
D43
Re-elected
D44
Re-elected
D45
Re-elected
D46
Re-elected
D47
Re-elected
D48
Re-elected
D49
Hold
D50
Hold
Majority → D51
Gain
R41
Gain
R42
Gain
C1 I1 D56
Gain
D55
Gain
D54
Gain
D53
Gain
D52
Gain
R40
Gain
R39
Gain
R38
Hold
R37
Re-elected
R36
Re-elected
R35
Re-elected
R34
Re-elected
R33
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R31
Re-elected
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26
Re-elected
R27
Re-elected
R28
Re-elected
R29
Re-elected
R30
Re-elected
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the November special elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40 D39 D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48 D49 D50
Majority → D51
R41 R42 C1 I1 D56
Hold
D55 D54 D53 D52
R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
Key:
C# Conservative (N.Y.)
D# Democratic
R# Republican
I# Independent

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 92nd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated during 1972 or before January 3, 1973; ordered by election date, then state.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Vermont
(Class 1)
Robert Stafford Republican 1971 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected January 7, 1972.
Republican hold.
Robert Stafford (Republican) 64.4%
Randolph T. Major (Democratic) 33.4%
Bernie Sanders (Liberty Union) 2.2%[2]
Georgia
(Class 2)
David H. Gambrell Democratic 1971 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost nomination.
New senator elected November 7, 1972.
Democratic hold.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Sam Nunn (Democratic) 52.0%
S. Fletcher Thompson (Republican) 46.5%
Alice Conner (Independent) 1.0%
George Schmidt (Independent) 0.5%[3]

Elections leading to the next Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1973; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama John Sparkman Democratic 1946 (Special)
1948
1954
1960
1966
Incumbent re-elected. John Sparkman (Democratic) 62.3%
Winton M. Blount (Republican) 33.1%
John L. LeFlore (Nat'l Democratic) 3.0%
Jerome Couch (AL Prohibition) 1.0%
Herbert Stone (AL Conservative) 0.6%
Alaska Ted Stevens Republican 1968 (Appointed)
1970 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected. Ted Stevens (Republican) 77.3%
Gene Guess (Democratic) 22.7%
Arkansas John McClellan Democratic 1942
1948
1954
1960
1966
Incumbent re-elected. John McClellan (Democratic) 60.8%
Wayne H. Babbitt (Republican) 39.1%
Colorado Gordon L. Allott Republican 1954
1960
1966
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Floyd K. Haskell (Democratic) 49.4%
Gordon L. Allott (Republican) 48.4%
Secundion Salazar (Raza Unida) 1.4%
Henry Olshaw (American) 0.8%
Delaware J. Caleb Boggs Republican 1960
1966
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Joe Biden (Democratic) 50.5%
J. Caleb Boggs (Republican) 49.1%
Georgia David H. Gambrell Democratic 1971 (Appointed) Incumbent lost nomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Winner also elected to finish the term, see above.
Sam Nunn (Democratic) 54.0%
Fletcher Thompson (Republican) 46.0%[3]
Idaho Leonard B. Jordan Republican 1962 (Appointed)
1962 (Special)
1966
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
James A. McClure (Republican) 52.3%
William E. Davis (Democratic) 45.5%
Illinois Charles H. Percy Republican 1966 Incumbent re-elected. Charles H. Percy (Republican) 62.2%
Roman Pucinski (Democratic) 37.4%
Iowa Jack Miller Republican 1960
1966
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Dick Clark (Democratic) 55.1%
Jack Miller (Republican) 44.1%
Kansas James B. Pearson Republican 1962 (Appointed)
1962 (Special)
1966
Incumbent re-elected. James B. Pearson (Republican) 71.4%
Arch Tetzlaff (Democratic) 23.0%
Kentucky John Sherman Cooper Republican 1946 (Special)
1948 (Lost)
1952 (Special)
1954 (Lost)
1956 (Special)
1960
1966
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Walter D. Huddleston (Democratic) 50.9%
Louie B. Nunn (Republican) 47.6%
Louisiana Elaine S. Edwards Democratic 1972 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Interim appointee resigned November 13, 1972 to give successor preferential seniority.
Winner appointed November 14, 1972.
J. Bennett Johnston (Democratic) 55.2%
John McKeithen (Independent) 23.1%
Ben C. Toledano (Republican) 16.1%
Hall M. Lyons (American Party), 2.7%
Maine Margaret Chase Smith Republican 1948
1954
1960
1966
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
William Hathaway (Democratic) 53.2%
Margaret Chase Smith (Republican) 46.8%
Massachusetts Edward Brooke Republican 1966 Incumbent re-elected. Edward Brooke (Republican) 63.5%
John J. Droney (Democratic) 34.7%
Donald Gurewitz (Socialist Workers) 1.7%
Michigan Robert P. Griffin Republican 1966 (Appointed)
1966
Incumbent re-elected. Robert P. Griffin (Republican) 52.3%
Frank J. Kelley (Democratic) 46.3%
Minnesota Walter Mondale Democratic 1964 (Appointed)
1966
Incumbent re-elected. Walter Mondale (Democratic) 56.7%
Phil Hansen (Republican) 42.9%
Mississippi James Eastland Democratic 1942
1948
1954
1960
1966
Incumbent re-elected. James Eastland (Democratic) 58.1%
Gil Carmichael (Republican) 38.7%
Montana Lee Metcalf Democratic 1960
1966
Incumbent re-elected. Lee Metcalf (Democratic) 52.0%
Henry S. Hibbard (Republican) 48.1%
Nebraska Carl Curtis Republican 1954
1960
1966
Incumbent re-elected. Carl Curtis (Republican) 53.1%
Terry Carpenter (Democratic) 46.8%
New Hampshire Thomas J. McIntyre Democratic 1962 (Special)
1966
Incumbent re-elected. Thomas J. McIntyre (Democratic) 56.9%
Wesley Powell (Republican) 43.1%
New Jersey Clifford P. Case Republican 1954
1960
1966
Incumbent re-elected. Clifford P. Case (Republican) 62.5%
Paul J. Krebs (Democratic) 34.5%
New Mexico Clinton P. Anderson Democratic 1948
1954
1960
1966
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Pete Domenici (Republican) 54.0%
Jack Daniels (Democratic) 46.0%
North Carolina B. Everett Jordan Democratic 1958 (Appointed)
1958 (Special)
1960
1966
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Jesse Helms (Republican) 54.0%
Nick Galifianakis (Democratic) 46.0%
Oklahoma Fred R. Harris Democratic 1964 (Special)
1966
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Dewey F. Bartlett (Republican) 51.4%
Ed Edmondson (Democratic) 47.6%
Oregon Mark Hatfield Republican 1966 Incumbent re-elected. Mark Hatfield (Republican) 53.7%
Wayne Morse (Democratic) 46.2%
Rhode Island Claiborne Pell Democratic 1960
1966
Incumbent re-elected. Claiborne Pell (Democratic) 53.7%
John Chafee (Republican) 45.7%
South Carolina Strom Thurmond Republican 1954
1954 (Appointed)
1956 (Resigned)
1956 (Special)
1960
1966
Incumbent re-elected. Strom Thurmond (Republican) 63.3%
Eugene N. Zeigler (Democratic) 36.7%
South Dakota Karl Earl Mundt Republican 1948
1948 (Appointed)
1954
1960
1966
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
James Abourezk (Democratic) 57.0%
Robert W. Hirsch (Republican) 42.9%
Tennessee Howard Baker Republican 1966 Incumbent re-elected. Howard Baker (Republican) 61.6%
Ray Blanton (Democratic) 37.9%
Texas John Tower Republican 1961 (Special)
1966
Incumbent re-elected. John Tower (Republican) 53.4%
Barefoot Sanders (Democratic) 44.3%
Virginia William B. Spong, Jr. Democratic 1966 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
William L. Scott (Republican) 51.5%
William B. Spong, Jr. (Democratic) 46.1%
West Virginia Jennings Randolph Democratic 1958 (Special)
1960
1966
Incumbent re-elected. Jennings Randolph (Democratic) 66.5%
Louise Leonard (Republican) 33.6%
Wyoming Clifford Hansen Republican 1966 Incumbent re-elected. Clifford Hansen (Republican) 71.3%
Mike Vinich (Democratic) 28.7%

Alabama[edit]

Alaska[edit]

Arkansas[edit]

Colorado[edit]

Delaware[edit]

U.S. Senate election in Delaware, 1972
Delaware
← 1966
1978 →
  Joebiden2.png BoggsCaleb.jpg
Nominee Joe Biden J. Caleb Boggs
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 116,006 112,844
Percentage 50.48% 49.10%

Delaware election results, NC Kent Democrat, Sussex Republican.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

J. Caleb Boggs
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Joe Biden
Democratic

Incumbent Republican J. Caleb Boggs ran for a third term. Boggs faced off against Joe Biden, a New Castle County Councilman. Though Senator Boggs was expected to easily win a third term over the then-unknown Biden, it ended up being the closest Senate election in 1972, and Biden narrowly beat out Boggs by a little over three thousand votes, winning what would be his first of seven terms.

Longtime Delaware political figure and Republican incumbent Senator J. Caleb Boggs was considering retirement, which would likely have left U.S. Representative Pete du Pont and Wilmington Mayor Harry G. Haskell, Jr. in a divisive primary fight. To avoid that, U.S. President Richard M. Nixon helped convince Boggs to run again with full party support.[4]

No other Democrat wanted to run against Boggs besides Biden, a New Castle County Councilman.[5] Biden's campaign had virtually no money and was given no chance of winning.[6] It was managed by his sister Valerie Biden Owens (who would go on to manage his future campaigns as well) and staffed by other members of his family, and relied upon handed-out newsprint position papers.[7] Biden did receive some assistance from the AFL-CIO and Democratic pollster Patrick Caddell.[5] Biden's campaign issues focused on withdrawal from Vietnam, the environment, civil rights, mass transit, more equitable taxation, health care, the public's dissatisfaction with politics-as-usual, and "change".[5][7]

During the summer Biden trailed by almost 30 percentage points,[5] but his energy level, his attractive young family, and his ability to connect with voters' emotions gave the surging Biden an advantage over the ready-to-retire Boggs.[8] Biden won the November 7, 1972 election in an upset by a margin of 3,162 votes.[7]

At the time of the election Biden was a little less than 30 years old; age 30 is a constitutional requirement for the U.S. Senate, and he reached that on November 20, in time for the Senate term beginning January 3. After his election he became the sixth-youngest Senator in history.[9]

United States Senate election in Delaware, 1972[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Joe Biden 116,006 50.48% +9.59%
Republican J. Caleb Boggs (Incumbent) 112,844 49.10% -10.02%
American Henry Majka 803 0.35%
Prohibition Herbert B. Wood 175 0.07%
Majority 3,162 1.38% -16.86%
Turnout 229,828
Democratic gain from Republican Swing

Georgia[edit]

Georgia (Special)[edit]

Idaho[edit]

Illinois[edit]

U.S. Senate election in Illinois, 1972
Illinois
← 1966
1978 →
  Charles Percy.jpg RomanPucinski.jpg
Nominee Charles Percy Roman Pucinski
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 2,867,078 1,721,031
Percentage 62.21% 37.35%

U.S. Senator before election

Charles H. Percy
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Charles H. Percy
Republican

Incumbent Republican Charles H. Percy sought re-election. Percy was opposed by: Democratic nominee Roman Pucinski, a Congressman from Illinois's 11th congressional district, Edward C. Gross (SL) and Arnold Becchetti (C). Percy handily won a second term.

United States Senate election in Illinois, 1972[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Charles H. Percy, (Incumbent) 2,867,078 61.21% +7.27%
Democratic Roman Pucinski 1,721,031 37.35% -6.55%
Socialist Labor Edward C. Gross 13,384 0.29%
Communist Arnold Becchetti 6,103 0.13%
Write-ins 784 0.02%
Majority 1,146,047 24.87% +13.82%
Turnout 3,822,724
Republican hold Swing

Iowa[edit]

Kansas[edit]

Kentucky[edit]

Louisiana[edit]

Maine[edit]

U.S. Senate election in Maine, 1972
Maine
← 1966
1978 →
  William Dodd Hathaway.jpg MargaretChaseSmith.jpg
Nominee William Hathaway Margaret Chase Smith
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 224,270 197,040
Percentage 53.2% 46.8%

U.S. Senator before election

Margaret Chase Smith
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

William Hathaway
Democratic

Incumbent Republican Margaret Chase Smith ran for re-election to a fifth term, but was defeated by Democrat William Hathaway, member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Maine's 2nd congressional district.

General election results[11]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William Hathaway 224,270 53.23%
Republican Margaret Chase Smith (Incumbent) 197,040 46.77%

Massachusetts[edit]

U.S. Senate election in Massachusetts, 1972
Massachusetts
← 1966
1978 →
  Edward Brooke.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Edward Brooke John J. Droney
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,505,932 823,278
Percentage 63.53% 34.73%

1972 MA Senate.png
Results by town. Red indicates towns carried by Edward Brooke, blue indicates towns carried by John J. Droney.

U.S. Senator before election

Edward Brooke
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Edward Brooke
Republican

Incumbent Republican Edward Brooke, first elected in 1966 as the first African-American elected to the Senate by popular vote.[12], defeated his challengers, among them: John J. Droney, the Middlesex County District Attorney.[13]

Democratic Primary
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic John J. Droney 215,523 45.05%
Democratic Gerald O'Leary 169,876 35.51%
Democratic John P. Lynch 92,979 19.43%
General election[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Edward Brooke 1,505,932 63.53% +2.85%
Democratic John J. Droney 823,278 34.73% -4.01%
Socialist Workers Donald Gurewitz 41,369 1.75% +1.41%


Michigan[edit]

Minnesota[edit]

Mississippi[edit]

Montana[edit]

U.S. Senate election in Montana, 1972
Montana
← 1966
1978 →
  Lee Warren METCALF.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Lee Metcalf Hank Hibbard
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 163,609 151,316
Percentage 51.95% 48.05%

U.S. Senator before election

Lee Metcalf
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Lee Metcalf
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Lee Metcalf, who was first elected to the Senate in 1960 and was re-elected in 1966, ran for re-election. After winning the Democratic primary, he moved on to the general election, where he faced Hank Hibbard, a State Senator and the Republican nominee. Following a close campaign, Metcalf managed to narrowly win re-election to his third term in the Senate over Hibbard.

Democratic Party primary results[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Lee Metcalf (Incumbent) 106,491 86.42%
Democratic Jerome Peters 16,729 13.58%
Total votes 123,220 100.00%
Republican Primary results[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Hank Hibbard, State Senator 43,028 49.70%
Republican Harold E. Wallace, 1970 GOP Senate nominee 26,463 30.57%
Republican Norman C. Wheeler 13,826 15.97%
Republican Merrill K. Riddick 3,259 3.76%
Total votes 86,576 100.00%
United States Senate election in Montana, 1972[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Lee Metcalf (Incumbent) 163,609 51.95% -1.22%
Republican Hank Hibbard 151,316 48.05% +1.22%
Majority 12,293 3.90% -2.43%
Turnout 314,925
Democratic hold Swing

Nebraska[edit]

U.S. Senate election in Nebraska, 1972
Nebraska
← 1966
1978 →
  CURTIS, Carl Thomas,.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Carl Curtis Terry Carpenter
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 301,841 265,922
Percentage 53.16% 46.84%

U.S. Senator before election

Carl Curtis
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Carl Curtis
Republican

Incumbent Republican Carl Curtis won re-election.

United States Senate election in Nebraska, 1972[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Carl Curtis (Incumbent) 301,841 53.16% -7.88%
Democratic Terry Carpenter, former congressman 265,922 46.84% +8.09%
Majority 35,919 6.33% -15.97%
Turnout 567,763
Republican hold Swing

New Hampshire[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

New Mexico[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

Oklahoma[edit]

Oregon[edit]

Rhode Island[edit]

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina (Special)[edit]

South Dakota[edit]

Tennessee[edit]

Texas[edit]

Vermont (Special)[edit]

U.S. Senate special election in Vermont, 1972
Vermont
← 1970 January 7, 1972 (1972-01-07) 1976 →
  Robert Theodore Stafford.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Robert Stafford Randolph T. Major
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 45,888 23,842
Percentage 64.4% 33.4%

U.S. Senator before election

Robert Stafford
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Robert Stafford
Republican

The special election was held January 7, 1972. Incumbent Republican Robert Stafford, appointed in September 1971 to fill the vacancy created by the death of Winston L. Prouty, successfully ran for re-election to the remainder of Prouty's term in the United States Senate. Stafford defeated Democratic candidate Randolph T. Major. Bernie Sanders, the Liberty Union candidate,[16] was later elected to this seat in 2006, serving as an Independent.

United States Senate special election in Vermont, 1972[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Robert Stafford (Incumbent) 45,888 64.4
Democratic Randolph T. Major 23,842 33.4
Liberty Union Bernie Sanders 1,571 2.2
Total votes 71,301 100

Virginia[edit]

West Virginia[edit]

Wyoming[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Harry F. Byrd Jr. (VA) was an Independent who caucused with the Democrats. In some circles he is called an "Independent Democrat," but his actual registration was listed as "Independent." See, e.g., United States Congress. "Harry Flood Byrd, Jr. (id: B001209)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. 
  2. ^ a b "General Election Results - U.S. Senator - 1914-2014" (PDF). Office of the Vermont Secretary of State. Retrieved June 16, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "Senate Class II - History" – via OurCampaigns.com. 
  4. ^ Cohen, Celia (2002). Only in Delaware, Politics and Politicians in the First State. Grapevine Publishing.  p. 199
  5. ^ a b c d Moritz, Charles (ed.) (1987). Current Biography Yearbook 1987. New York: H. W. Wilson Company. , p. 43.
  6. ^ Broder, John M. (October 23, 2008). "Father’s Tough Life an Inspiration for Biden". The New York Times. Retrieved October 24, 2008. 
  7. ^ a b c Naylor, Brian (October 8, 2007). "Biden's Road to Senate Took Tragic Turn". NPR. Retrieved September 12, 2008. 
  8. ^ Barone, Michael; Cohen, Richard E. (2008). The Almanac of American Politics. Washington: National Journal Group. ISBN 0-89234-117-3. , p. 364.
  9. ^ "Youngest Senator". United States Senate Historical Office – via senate.gov. 
  10. ^ a b c d Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 7, 1972" (PDF). United States Government Printing Office. Retrieved April 4, 2015 – via Clerk.house.gov. 
  11. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=6513
  12. ^ Edward Brooke at ourcampaigns.com
  13. ^ John Droney at ourcampaigns.com
  14. ^ Massachusetts race details at ourcampaigns.com
  15. ^ a b "Report of the Official Canvass of the Vote Cast at the Primary Election Held in the State of Montana and of the Vote Cast at the Separate Election for Ratification or Rejection of the Proposed Constitution, June 6, 1972" (PDF). Montana Secretary of State. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
  16. ^ McCullum, April (May 21, 2015). "McKibben to speak at Sanders kickoff". USA Today. Retrieved August 22, 2017. 

External links[edit]