United States Senate elections, 2016

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United States Senate elections, 2016
United States Senate
2014 ←
November 8, 2016 → 2018

Class 3 (34 of the 100) seats in the United States Senate
51 seats needed for a majority
  Sen Mitch McConnell official.jpg Harry Reid official portrait 2009.jpg
Leader Mitch McConnell Harry Reid
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Kentucky Nevada
Current seats 54 44
Seats needed Steady Increase 5[Note 1]
Seats up 24 10

Party Independent
Current seats 2
Seats up 0

2016 Senate election map.svg

     Democrat running      Democrat retiring
     Republican running      Republican retiring
     No election
  1. ^ Assuming Angus King (I-ME), and Bernie Sanders (I-VT) continue to caucus with them, the Democrats would need to pick up four seats. The U.S. Vice President casts the tie-breaking vote, if necessary.

Incumbent Majority Leader

Mitch McConnell

Elections for the United States Senate will be held on November 8, 2016, with 34 of the 100 seats in the Senate being contested in regular elections whose winners will serve six-year terms in the 115th United States Congress until January 3, 2023. All class 3 Senators are up for election; class 3 was last up for election in 2010, when Republicans won a net gain of six seats. Currently, Democrats are expected to have 10 seats up for election, and Republicans are expected to have 24 seats up for election. However, as of June 7, only 9 Democratic held seats are in contention, as the Democrats have already secured California, with the top two finishers in the California Senate jungle primary both being Democrats. Republicans, having taken control of the Senate in the 2014 election, currently hold the Senate majority with 54 seats.

The 2016 presidential election, 2016 House elections, 2016 gubernatorial elections, and many state and local elections will also be held on this date.

Partisan composition[edit]

All 34 Class 3 Senators are up for election in 2016; Class 3 currently consists of 10 Democrats and 24 Republicans. Of the Senators not up for election, 35 Senators are Democrats, 30 Senators are Republicans and one Senator is an independent who caucuses with the Senate Democrats. If vacancies occur in Class 1 or Class 2 Senate seats, the state might require a special election to take place during the 114th Congress, possibly concurrently with the other 2016 Senate elections.

Parties Total
Democratic Republican Independent
Before these elections 44 54 2 100
Up 10 24 0 34
Class 3 (2010→2016) 10 24 0 34
Special: All classes 0 0 0 0
Not up 34 30 2 66
Class 1 (20122018) 23 8 2 33
Class 2 (20142020) 11 22 0 33
General election
Incumbent retiring 3 2 5
Incumbent running 7 22 29

Change in composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

I1 I2 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
Majority →
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the elections[edit]

I1 I2 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
TBD TBD TBD TBD D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
Majority →
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
D# Democratic
R# Republican
I# Independent, caucusing with Democrats[1][2]

Latest predictions of competitive seats[edit]

Several sites and individuals publish predictions of competitive seats. These predictions look at factors such as the strength of the incumbent (if the incumbent is running for re-election), the strength of the candidates, and the partisan leanings of the state (reflected in part by the state's Cook Partisan Voting Index rating). The predictions assign ratings to each seat, with the rating indicating the predicted advantage that a party has in winning that seat. Most election predictors use "tossup" to indicate that neither party has an advantage, "lean" to indicate that one party has a slight advantage, "likely" or "favored" to indicate that one party has a significant but not insurmountable advantage, and "safe" or "solid" to indicate that one party has a near-certain chance of victory. Some predictions also include a "tilt" rating that indicates that one party has an advantage that is not quite as strong as the "lean" rating would indicate.

The New York Times' Upshot gave the Democrats a 60% chance of winning the Senate on August 24, 2016;[3] on September 23, their model gave Republicans a 58% chance to maintain control.[4]

All seats classified with at least one rating of anything other than "safe" or "solid" are listed below.

State PVI Incumbent 2010
Sept. 9
Sept. 26
Sept. 2
Sept. 23
Sept. 23
Alaska R+12 Murkowski, LisaLisa Murkowski (R) 39.5%[10] Likely R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Arizona R+7 McCain, JohnJohn McCain (R) 59.2% Lean R Likely R Lean R Likely R Likely R
Colorado D+1 Bennet, MichaelMichael Bennet (D) 47.7% Likely D Safe D Safe D Safe D Lean D
Florida R+2 Rubio, MarcoMarco Rubio (R) 48.9% Tossup Lean R Tilt R Lean R Lean R
Georgia R+6 Isakson, JohnnyJohnny Isakson (R) 58.1% Likely R Safe R Safe R Safe R Likely R
Illinois D+8 Kirk, MarkMark Kirk (R) 48.2% Lean D Likely D Lean D Lean D Tossup
Indiana R+5 Coats, DanDan Coats (R)
56.4% Tossup Tossup Tilt D Tossup Tossup
Iowa D+1 Grassley, ChuckChuck Grassley (R) 64.5% Likely R Safe R Safe R Likely R Lean R
Kentucky R+13 Paul, RandRand Paul (R) 55.7% Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Likely R
Louisiana R+12 Vitter, DavidDavid Vitter (R)
56.6% Safe R Likely R Safe R Safe R Likely R
Missouri R+5 Blunt, RoyRoy Blunt (R) 54.3% Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Tossup
Nevada D+2 Reid, HarryHarry Reid (D)
50.2% Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup
New Hampshire D+1 Ayotte, KellyKelly Ayotte (R) 60.2% Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup
North Carolina R+3 Burr, RichardRichard Burr (R) 55.0% Tossup Lean R Tilt R Lean R Tossup
Ohio R+1 Portman, RobRob Portman (R) 57.3% Lean R Safe R Lean R Likely R Likely R
Pennsylvania D+1 Toomey, PatPat Toomey (R) 51.0% Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup
Wisconsin D+2 Johnson, RonRon Johnson (R) 51.9% Lean D Likely D Tilt D Lean D Lean D

Cook, Sabato, Rothenberg, Daily Kos Elections, and Real Clear Politics consider the states listed below to be safe seats for the party currently holding the seat.

Safe Republican Safe Democratic
Alabama CaliforniaO
Arkansas Connecticut
Idaho Hawaii
Kansas MarylandO
North Dakota New York
Oklahoma Oregon
South Carolina Vermont
South Dakota Washington

O indicates an open seat

Primary dates[edit]

This table shows the primary dates for regularly-scheduled elections. It also shows the type of primary.

  • "Open" primary: any registered voter can vote in any party's primary
  • "Closed" primary, only voters registered with a specific party can vote in that party's primary.
  • "Top-two" primary, all candidates run against each other regardless of party affiliation, and the top two candidates advance to the second round of voting (in Louisiana, a candidate can win the election by winning a majority of the vote in the first round).
  • All of the various other primary types are classified as "hybrid." Alaska in 2008 provides one example of a hybrid primary: the Democratic Party allowed unaffiliated voters to vote in its primary, while the Republican Party only allowed party members to vote in its primary.[11]
State Date[12] Type[11]
Alabama Mar. 1R Open
Arkansas Mar. 1R Open
Illinois Mar 15 Hybrid
North Carolina Mar 15 Hybrid
Ohio Mar 15 Hybrid
Maryland April 26 Hybrid
Pennsylvania April 26 Closed
Indiana May 3 Open
Idaho May 17 Hybrid
Kentucky May 17 Closed
Oregon May 17 Hybrid
Georgia May 24R Open
California June 7 Top-two
Iowa June 7 Hybrid
South Dakota June 7R Hybrid
Nevada June 14 Closed
North Dakota June 14 Open
South Carolina June 14R Hybrid
Colorado June 28 Hybrid
New York June 28 Closed
Oklahoma June 28R Hybrid
Utah June 28 Hybrid
Kansas Aug 2 Closed
Missouri Aug 2 Open
Washington Aug 2 Top-two
Connecticut Aug 9 Hybrid
Vermont Aug 9 Open
Wisconsin Aug 9 Open
Hawaii Aug 13 Open
Alaska Aug 16 Hybrid
Arizona Aug 30 Hybrid
Florida Aug 30 Closed
New Hampshire Sep 13 Hybrid
Louisiana Nov 8 Top-two

RIndicates a state that requires primary run-off elections under certain conditions.

Race summary[edit]

(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Status Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
Alabama Shelby, RichardRichard Shelby Republican 1986
Incumbent running. Richard Shelby (Republican)[13]
Ron Crumpton (Democratic)[14]
Alaska Murkowski, LisaLisa Murkowski Republican 2002 (Appointed)
Incumbent running. Lisa Murkowski (Republican)[15]
Ray Metcalfe (Democratic)[16]
Joe Miller (Libertarian)[17]
Margaret Stock (Independent)[18][19]
Arizona McCain, JohnJohn McCain Republican 1986
Incumbent running. John McCain (Republican)[20]
Ann Kirkpatrick (Democratic)[21]
Merissa Hamilton (Libertarian/Write-in)[22]
Gary Swing (Green/Write-in)[23]
Arkansas Boozman, JohnJohn Boozman Republican 2010 Incumbent running. John Boozman (Republican)[24]
Conner Eldridge (Democratic)[25]
Frank Gilbert (Libertarian)[26]
California Boxer, BarbaraBarbara Boxer Democratic 1992
Incumbent retiring. Kamala Harris (Democratic)[27]
Loretta Sanchez (Democratic)[28]
Colorado Bennet, MichaelMichael Bennet Democratic 2009 (Appointed)
Incumbent running. Michael Bennet (Democratic)[29]
Darryl Glenn (Republican)[30]
Lily Tang Williams (Libertarian)[31]
Arn Menconi (Green)[32]
Connecticut Blumenthal, RichardRichard Blumenthal Democratic 2010 Incumbent running. Richard Blumenthal (Democratic)[33]
Dan Carter (Republican)[34]
Richard Lion (Libertarian)[35]
Jeff Russell (Green)[36]
Florida Rubio, MarcoMarco Rubio Republican 2010 Incumbent running. Patrick Murphy (Democratic)[37]
Marco Rubio (Republican)[38]
Paul Stanton (Libertarian)[39]
Georgia Isakson, JohnnyJohnny Isakson Republican 2004
Incumbent running. Johnny Isakson (Republican)[40]
Jim Barksdale (Democratic)[41]
Allen Buckley (Libertarian)[42]
Hawaii Schatz, BrianBrian Schatz Democratic 2012 (Appointed)
2014 (Special)
Incumbent running. Brian Schatz (Democratic)[43]
John Carroll (Republican)[43]
Michael Kokoski (Libertarian)[44]
Idaho Crapo, MikeMike Crapo Republican 1998
Incumbent running. Mike Crapo (Republican)[45]
Jerry Sturgill (Democratic)[46]
Illinois Kirk, MarkMark Kirk Republican 2010 Incumbent running. Mark Kirk (Republican)[47]
Tammy Duckworth (Democratic)[48]
Kent McMillen (Libertarian)[49]
Scott Summers (Green)[50]
Indiana Coats, DanDan Coats Republican 1989 (Appointed)
1990 (Special)
Incumbent retiring. Evan Bayh (Democratic)[51]
Todd Young (Republican)[52]
Lucy Brenton (Libertarian)[53]
Iowa Grassley, ChuckChuck Grassley Republican 1980
Incumbent running. Chuck Grassley (Republican)[54]
Patty Judge (Democratic)[55]
Chuck Aldrich (Libertarian)[56]
Kansas Moran, JerryJerry Moran Republican 2010 Incumbent running. Jerry Moran (Republican)[57]
Patrick Wiesner (Democratic)[58]
Robert Garrard (Libertarian)[59]
Kentucky Paul, RandRand Paul Republican 2010 Incumbent running. Jim Gray (Democratic)[60]
Rand Paul (Republican)[61]
Louisiana Vitter, DavidDavid Vitter Republican 2004
Incumbent retiring. Charles Boustany (Republican)[62]
Foster Campbell (Democratic)[63]
Joseph Cao (Republican)[64]
Donald "Crawdaddy" Crawford (Republican)[65]
David Duke (Republican)[66]
Derrick Edwards (Democratic)[67]
Caroline Fayard (Democratic)[68]
John Fleming (Republican)[69]
John Kennedy (Republican)[70]
Gary Landrieu (Democratic)[65]
Rob Maness (Republican)[71]
Charles Marsala (Republican)[65]
Vinny Mendoza (Democratic)[65]
Abhay Patel (Republican)[72]
Josh Pellerin (Democratic)[73]
Peter Williams (Democratic)[65]
Thomas Clements (Libertarian)[74]
LeRoy Gilliam (Libertarian)[74]
Maryland Mikulski, BarbaraBarbara Mikulski Democratic 1986
Incumbent retiring. Chris Van Hollen (Democratic)[75]
Kathy Szeliga (Republican)[76]
Margaret Flowers (Green)[77]
Missouri Blunt, RoyRoy Blunt Republican 2010 Incumbent running. Roy Blunt (Republican)[78]
Jason Kander (Democratic)[79]
Jonathan Dine (Libertarian)[80]
Nevada Reid, HarryHarry Reid Democratic 1986
Incumbent retiring. Catherine Cortez Masto (Democratic)[81]
Joe Heck (Republican)[82]
New Hampshire Ayotte, KellyKelly Ayotte Republican 2010 Incumbent running. Kelly Ayotte (Republican)[83]
Maggie Hassan (Democratic)[84]
Brian Chabot (Libertarian)[85]
New York Schumer, ChuckChuck Schumer Democratic 1998
Incumbent running. Chuck Schumer (Democratic)[33]
Wendy Long (Republican)[86]
Alex Merced (Libertarian)[87]
Robin Wilson (Green)[88]
North Carolina Burr, RichardRichard Burr Republican 2004
Incumbent running. Richard Burr (Republican)[89]
Deborah Ross (Democratic)[90]
Sean Haugh (Libertarian)[91]
North Dakota Hoeven, JohnJohn Hoeven Republican 2010 Incumbent running. John Hoeven (Republican)[92]
Eliot Glassheim (Democratic)[93]
Robert Marquette (Libertarian)[94]
Ohio Portman, RobRob Portman Republican 2010 Incumbent running. Rob Portman (Republican)[95]
Ted Strickland (Democratic)[96]
Joseph DeMare (Green)[97]
Oklahoma Lankford, JamesJames Lankford Republican 2014 (Special) Incumbent running. James Lankford (Republican)[33]
Mike Workman (Democratic)[98]
Robert Murphy (Libertarian)[99]
Oregon Wyden, RonRon Wyden Democratic 1996 (Special)
Incumbent running. Ron Wyden (Democratic)[33]
Mark Callahan (Republican)[100]
Jim Lindsay (Libertarian)[101]
Eric Navickas (Green)[101]
Pennsylvania Toomey, PatPat Toomey Republican 2010 Incumbent running. Pat Toomey (Republican)[102]
Kathleen McGinty (Democratic)[103]
Edward Clifford (Libertarian)[104]
South Carolina Scott, TimTim Scott Republican 2013 (Appointed)
2014 (Special)
Incumbent running. Tim Scott (Republican)[33]
Thomas Dixon (Democratic)[105]
Bill Bledsoe (Libertarian)[106]
South Dakota Thune, JohnJohn Thune Republican 2004
Incumbent running. John Thune (Republican)[107]
Jay Williams (Democratic)[108]
Utah Lee, MikeMike Lee Republican 2010 Incumbent running. Mike Lee (Republican)[109]
Misty K. Snow (Democratic)[110]
Vermont Leahy, PatrickPatrick Leahy Democratic 1974
Incumbent running. Patrick Leahy (Democratic)[111]
Scott Milne (Republican)[112]
Washington Murray, PattyPatty Murray Democratic 1992
Incumbent running. Patty Murray (Democratic)[113]
Chris Vance (Republican)[114]
Wisconsin Johnson, RonRon Johnson Republican 2010 Incumbent running. Russ Feingold (Democratic)[115]
Ron Johnson (Republican)[116]
Phil Anderson (Libertarian)[117]

A grey shading indicates that the primaries have yet to take place for that race.

Complete list of races[edit]

Thirty-four seats are up for election in 2016:

  • 7 Democrats and 21 Republicans are seeking re-election.
  • 5 Senators (3 Democrats, 2 Republicans) are retiring.


Five-term Senator Richard Shelby (Republican) was re-elected with 65.3% of the vote in 2010. He will be 82 years old in 2016. He served in the Senate as a Democrat until switching parties in 1994. Shelby is running for re-election, and is facing four challengers in the Republican primary: ex-state Senator Shadrack McGill, former Marine and Birmingham businessman Jonathan McConnell, Marcus Bowman, and John Martin.[118] On March 1, Shelby won the primary with 64.9% of the vote.[119]

There were two Democratic candidates: Ron Crumpton, patient rights advocate.[14][120] and Charles Nana.[118] Crumpton won the primary with 56.2% of the vote.[119]


Two-term Senator Lisa Murkowski (Republican) was appointed in 2002 and elected to a full term in 2004. She was defeated in the Republican primary in 2010 by Joe Miller. She later ran as a write-in candidate in the 2010 general election and was re-elected to a second full term with 39.5% of the vote, making her one of two senators in US history to win election via write-in votes. She will be 59 years old in 2016 and is running for re-election.[15]

Thomas Lamb, a candidate for the State House in 2006, and Bob Lochner have filed to run against Murkowski.[121] Other potential Republican primary challengers include 2010 nominee and 2014 candidate Joe Miller, State Senator Mike J. Dunleavy, former Lieutenant Governor Mead Treadwell, and former Mayor of Anchorage Dan Sullivan.[122]

The only person to have filed for the Democratic primary as of May 20 is writer and satirist Richard Grayson, who previously sought election to Wyoming's House seat in 2014.[123][124][125][121] Potential Democratic candidates include State Senator Dennis Egan, State Representative Andy Josephson, State Senator Bill Wielechowski, State Senator Hollis French and State Senate Minority Leader Johnny Ellis.[126] Former Senator Mark Begich was mentioned as a possible candidate,[127] but has declined to run.[128]

Murkowski won her primary on August 16, 2016 with 72 percent of the vote.

Joe Miller received the Libertarian nomination, and will run against Murkowski in the general election.

Anchorage attorney and veteran Margaret Stock is running as an Independent candidate.[129]


Five-term Senator and Republican presidential candidate in 2008 John McCain was re-elected with 59.3% of the vote in 2010. He will be 80 years old in 2016. Despite speculation that he might retire,[130] McCain is running for re-election.[20]

McCain is facing primary challenges from Fair Tax activist Alex Meluskey,[131] businessman David Pizer,[132] talk radio host Clair Van Steenwyk,[133] and State Senator Kelli Ward[134] are running for the Republican nomination. David Pizer has since dropped out of the race. Representatives Matt Salmon and David Schweikert were both mentioned as possible candidates,[135] but both chose not to run.[136][137] Other potential Republican candidates included former Governor Jan Brewer,[138] businesswoman and 2014 gubernatorial candidate Christine Jones,[139] former Governor of Alaska and 2008 vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin,[140] former U.S. Representative John Shadegg,[141] and former Arizona Attorney General Grant Woods.[141]

Congresswoman Ann Kirkpatrick[21] and teacher Lennie Clark[142] were running for the Democratic nomination. Lennie Clark has since dropped out and Ann Kirkpatrick is the Democratic nominee. Other potential Democratic candidates include U.S. Representative Ruben Gallego, former Surgeon General and 2012 nominee Richard Carmona, 2014 gubernatorial nominee Fred DuVal, Phoenix Mayor Greg Stanton, and retired astronaut Mark Kelly, who is the husband of ex-Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords.[143][144]


One-term Senator John Boozman (Republican) defeated two-term Senator Blanche Lincoln with 58.0% of the vote in 2010. He will be 65 years old in 2016. Despite speculation that he might retire following health problems,[145][146] Boozman is running for re-election.[24] Fellow Republican Curtis Coleman, who ran against Boozman in 2010 but came in fifth place, is running again.[147]

Conner Eldridge, the former U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas, is the only Democrat who met the filing deadline.[148]

Frank Gilbert is the candidate for the Libertarian Party,[149][150][151] and Jason Tate is running a write-in campaign.[152]


Four-term Senator Barbara Boxer (Democrat) was re-elected with 52.1% of the vote in 2010. Boxer declined to run for re-election.[153] California Attorney General Kamala Harris and U.S. Representative Loretta Sanchez, both Democrats, finished first and second, respectively,[154] in California's nonpartisan blanket primary, and will contest the general election. As such, Boxer's successor is guaranteed to be a Democrat.[155] This marks a historic first such occasion in California, ever since the Senate elections began in 1914.

Other Democrats on the primary ballot included "President" Cristina Grappo, Massie Munroe, Herbert Peters, Emory Rogers, and Steve Stokes.[156] Among the potential candidates who declined to run were Governor Jerry Brown, Lieutenant Governor Gavin Newsom, U.S. Representatives Xavier Becerra and Adam Schiff, and Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti.

Former state Republican Party chairs Tom Del Beccaro[157] and Duf Sundheim,[158] and former State Senator Phil Wyman[159][160] ran, along with Don Krampe,[161] Tom Palzer,[162] Karen Roseberry,[163] Greg Conlon, Von Huogo, Jerry Laws, Ron Unz, Jarrell Williamson, and George Yang.[156] State Assemblymen Rocky Chavez was running as well,[164] but withdrew from the race.[165] Republicans who were once considered potential candidates but ruled out runs included San Diego Mayor Kevin Faulconer, former Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Financial Stability and 2014 gubernatorial nominee Neel Kashkari, U.S. Representative Darrell Issa, and businesswoman and nominee for the U.S. Senate in 2010 Carly Fiorina.[166]

Independent Mike Beitiks ran on a single-issue climate change platform.[167]

Polling conducted by the SurveyUSA from March 30, 2016 to April 3, 2016 indicated that Harris was ahead with 26%, compared to Rep. Sanchez with 22%, Del Beccaro with 8%, Wyman with 8%, and Sundheim with 3%; 7% of those polled were supporting other candidates, and 24% were undecided.[168]


One-term Senator Michael Bennet (Democrat) was appointed in 2009 and elected to a full term with 47.7% of the vote in 2010. He will be 51 years old in 2016. He is running for re-election.[29]

Businessman Robert Blaha,[169] former Aurora councilman Ryan Frazier,[170] El Paso County Commissioners Darryl Glenn,[30] and Peggy Littleton,[171] former Colorado State University Athletic Director Jack Graham,[172] State Representative Jon Keyser,[173] former SBA director Greg Lopez,[174] State Senator Tim Neville,[175] and Jefferson County Commissioner Donald Rosier[176][177] ran for the Republican nomination. Glenn, Graham, Blaha, Keyser, and Frazier actually competed in the primary.[178]

Darryl Glenn won the Republican nomination with 37% of the vote against four other opponents.[178]


One-term Senator Richard Blumenthal (Democrat) was elected with 55.1% of the vote in 2010. He will be 70 years old in 2016. He is running for re-election.[33]

State Representative Dan Carter,[34] apparel company CEO and 2004 Senate nominee Jack Orchulli,[179] and former Olympic athlete August Wolf[180] are running for the Republican nomination. Another potential candidate is former West Hartford Town Councilor Joe Visconti, who ran for CT-01 in 2008 and ran as an Independent for Governor in 2014.[181] Former U.S. Comptroller General and 2014 candidate for Lieutenant Governor David M. Walker,[182][183] former U.S. Representative and 2010 candidate Rob Simmons,[184] and economist and former CNBC television host Lawrence Kudlow have declined to run.[185][186]


One-term Senator Marco Rubio (Republican) was elected in a three-way race with 48.9% of the vote in 2010. In April 2014, Rubio stated that he would not run for both the Senate and President in 2016, as Florida law prohibits a candidate from appearing twice on a ballot.[187] In April 2015, he announced that he would run for President and would not seek re-election.[188] After suspending his campaign on March 15, 2016, Rubio announced on June 22, 2016 that he changed his mind and will run for re-election.[38]

U.S. Representative Ron DeSantis, combat veteran Todd Wilcox,[189] real estate developer Carlos Beruff,[190] retired college lecturer Ilya Katz,[191] and Donald J. DeRenzo are running for the Republican nomination.[192][193] Ben Carson, retired neurosurgeon and candidate for President in 2016 is also mentioned as a potential candidate.[194] On June 17, 2016, U.S. Representative David Jolly withdrew from the race to run for re-election to his House seat, four days after Rubio began openly considering reversing his decision to not run for re-election.[195]

U.S. Representative Patrick Murphy[37] defeated fellow representative Alan Grayson, as well as Pam Keith, Lateresa Jones, Richard Coleman, Sam Brian Gibbons, and Josh Larose, for the Democratic nomination. Murphy will face Marco Rubio in the November general election.[196][192][193]


Two-term Senator Johnny Isakson (Republican) was re-elected with 58.1% of the vote in 2010. He will be 71 years old in 2016. He is running for re-election.[40] In 2015, Isakson announced he was being treated for Parkinson's disease, but stated that his treatment would not interfere with his re-election campaign or his ability to serve another term.[197]

Mary Kay Bacallao, college professor, former Fayette County Board of Education member, and candidate for State Superintendent of Schools in 2014[198] and Derrick Grayson, candidate for the state's other Senate seat in 2014,[199] challenged Isakson for the Republican nomination. Isakson won the Republican nomination with more than three quarters of the vote.[200]

Investment firm executive Jim Barksdale,[41] project manager Cheryl Copeland,[201] and businessman John Coyne[202] ran for the Democratic nomination. USAF veteran Jim Knox was running but dropped out of the race.[203] Barksdale defeated Copeland in a close race to win the Democratic nomination.[200]


In 2012, Hawaii Governor Neil Abercrombie appointed Lieutenant Governor Brian Schatz (Democrat) to take the place of deceased nine-term Senator Daniel Inouye. Schatz won a 2014 special election to serve the remainder of Inouye's term. Schatz is running for re-election.[33]

Former U.S. Representative and 2014 Senate candidate Colleen Hanabusa may challenge Schatz in the primary again,[204] while U.S. Representative Tulsi Gabbard declined to seek the Democratic nomination for the seat.[205]

Charles Collins, a Republican who ran for the Senate in 2012 and for Governor in 2014, was seeking the nomination again,[206] but withdrew from the race.[207]


Three-term Senator Mike Crapo (Republican) was re-elected with 71.1% of the vote in 2010. Crapo will be 65 years old in 2016. He is seeking re-election to a fourth term.[45] U.S Representative Raul Labrador declined to challenge Crapo in the Republican primary.[208][209]

Jerry Sturgill is running for the Democratic nomination.[46]

Perennial candidate Pro-Life is running as an independent.[210][211] He was defeated in the Constitution Party primary on May 17, 2016 to Ray J. Writz.[212]


One-term Senator Mark Kirk (Republican) was elected with 48.4% of the vote in 2010. He will be 57 years old in 2016. Kirk suffered a stroke in January 2012 that kept him away from the Senate until January 2013.[213] In June 2013, he confirmed that he was planning to run for re-election,[214] but speculation he might retire persisted.[215] In November 2014, Kirk reiterated that he was going to run for re-election, saying: "No frickin' way am I retiring."[216]

Joe Walsh, a former U.S. Representative and conservative talk radio host, declined to challenge Kirk in the Republican primary.[217] Two others filed for the right to challenge Senator Kirk in the primary: businessman James Marter,[218] and Elizabeth Pahlke,[219] but Pahlke was disqualified, so only Marter was on the ballot running against Kirk.[220] On March 15, Kirk won the primary with 70.6% of the vote.[221]

U.S. Representative Tammy Duckworth,[222] President and CEO of the Chicago Urban League Andrea Zopp,[223] and State Senator Napoleon Harris ran for the Democratic nomination.[224][225] On March 15, Duckworth won the primary with 64.4% of the vote.[221]

In December 2015, Jim Brown, a teacher and former businessman, announced he is running as an independent.[226]

Chris Aguayo, an Iraq/Afghan war Veteran and Veterans Party State Chair, announced he is running representing the Veterans Party.[227]


Three-term Senator Dan Coats (Republican) was elected with 54.6% of the vote in 2010; Coats served in the Senate from 1989 to 1999 and then returned to serve another term from 2011 to 2017. Coats is not running for re-election.[228] Republican candidates include U.S. Representatives Marlin Stutzman[229] and Todd Young.[52] Coats's chief of Staff Eric Holcomb was a candidate but withdrew from the race.[230][231]

Former U.S. Representative Baron Hill won the Democratic nomination on May 3, but withdrew in July 2016 in favor of Evan Bayh.[232] Bayh held the seat from 1999 until his retirement in 2011, and also served as Governor of Indiana from 1989 to 1997. Former non-profit director John Dickerson also announced he was going to run, but suspended his campaign in early 2016.[233][234]


Six-term Senator Chuck Grassley was re-elected with 64.5% of the vote in 2010. He will be 83 years old in 2016. Grassley is running for re-election as the Republican nominee.[235][236] Talk radio host Robert Rees announced he was going to challenge Grassley for the nomination,[237] but later withdrew.[238]

Former Lt Governor Patty Judge [55] earned the Democratic nomination by defeating State Senator Rob Hogg,[239] former state Senator Tom Fiegen,[240] and former state representative Bob Krause.[241] Former state representative Ray Zirkelbach[242] briefly ran but ended his campaign soon after.


One-term Senator Jerry Moran (Republican) was elected with 70.3% of the vote in 2010. He will be 62 years old in 2016. He is running for re-election.[57] Radiologist and 2014 Senate candidate Milton R. Wolf is not committing to running[243] and U.S. Representative Tim Huelskamp declined to run.[57][143][244][245]

Patrick Wiesner, an attorney and a candidate for the Senate in 2010 and 2014, and Monique Singh-Bey[246] have filed to run for the Democratic nomination.[58] Other potential candidates include Wichita Mayor Carl Brewer, 2014 Governor nominee Paul Davis, former Kansas City Mayor Joe Reardon, former U.S. Representative and 2008 nominee Jim Slattery, and 2014 KS-02 nominee Margie Wakefield.[143]

2014 Independent Senate candidate Greg Orman could run again, either as an Independent or a Democratic candidate.[143]


One-term Senator Rand Paul (Republican) was elected with 55.7% of the vote in 2010. He will be 53 years old in 2016. Paul has filed for re-election,[61] although he was also running for President of the United States in 2016.[247] Although Kentucky law does not allow for a candidate to appear twice on the same ballot, Paul successfully convinced the Kentucky GOP to adopt a caucus system for 2016, allowing Paul to run for president and for the Senate simultaneously.[248] Kentucky law still bars Paul from appearing twice on the ballot in the general election.[248] However, on February 3, 2016, Paul ended his campaign for the presidency and will run for reelection.[249] James Gould and Stephen Slaughter filed to run against Paul.[250] Paul won the primary with almost 85% of the vote.[251]

Lexington Mayor Jim Gray,[60] Rory Houlihan,[252] Ron Leach,[253] Sellus Wilder[254] Jeff Kender, Tom Recktenwald (who was a candidate in 2014), and Grant Short ran for the Democratic nomination.[250] Gray won the nomination.


Two-term Senator David Vitter (Republican) was re-elected with 56.6% of the vote in 2010. After losing the 2015 gubernatorial race, Vitter chose to retire from the Senate at the end of his term.[33][255]

Republicans who are running for the seat include, but are not limited to, U.S. Representatives Charles Boustany[62] and John Fleming,[69] former U.S. Representative Joseph Cao,[64] State Treasurer John Neely Kennedy,[70] retired U.S. Air Force Colonel Rob Maness,[71] and former Louisiana State Representative David Duke. Other potential Republican candidates are Public Service Commissioner Erik Skrmetta,[256] 2014 candidate for LA-05 Zach Dasher,[256] state representative Paul Hollis,[257] and former President of Jefferson Parish John Young.[258]

Democratic candidates include, but are not limited to, Public Service Commissioner Foster Campbell,[63] attorney Derrick Edwards,[67] Caroline Fayard, an attorney and candidate for Lieutenant Governor in 2010,[68] and businessman Josh Pellerin.[73] Other potential Democratic candidates include state legislators Robert Johnson, Eric LaFleur, and Gary Smith, Jr., and Mayor of Alexandria Jacques Roy.[259][260][261] Former U.S. Senator Mary Landrieu and her brother, New Orleans Mayor Mitch Landrieu, declined to run.[262]


Five-term Senator Barbara Mikulski (Democrat) was re-elected with 61.8% of the vote in 2010. She is the longest-serving female Senator and the longest-serving woman in the history of the U.S. Congress. She is not seeking reelection.[263]

The candidates who have filed for the Democratic nomination are: U.S. Representatives Donna Edwards[264] and Chris Van Hollen,[75] Freddie Donald Dickson, Jr., Ralph Jaffe, Theresa Scaldaferri, Charles Smith, Violate Staley, Blaine Taylor, Ed Tinus, and Lih Young.[265] Van Hollen won the April 26 primary.

The Republican candidates who have filed are former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense and Senate candidate in 2012 Richard Douglas,[266] Chrys Kefalas,[267] State Delegate Kathy Szeliga,[76] Chris Chaffee, Sean Connor, John Graziani, Greg Holmes, Joseph David Hooe, Mark McNicholas, Lynn Richardson, Anthony Seda, Richard Shawver, Dave Walle, and Garry T. Yarrington.[265] Szeliga won the primary and will face Van Hollen in the general election.


One-term Senator Roy Blunt (Republican) was elected with 54.3% of the vote in 2010. He will be 66 years old in 2016. He is running for re-election.[78] Former U.S. Representative and 2012 Senate nominee Todd Akin was rumored to be a possible candidate, but declined to run.[268][269] Two candidates are running against Blunt for the Republican nomination: sales manager, tea party activist, and 2010 candidate Kristi Nichols and retired Army sergeant and perennial candidate Bernie Mowinski.[270]

For the Democrats, Secretary of State Jason Kander,[79] Pastor Cori Bush,[271][272] and activist Chief Wana Dubie[273] are running. Governor Jay Nixon and State Treasurer Clint Zweifel chose not to seek election to the Senate.[274][275]


Five-term Senator and Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid (Democrat) was re-elected with 50.2% of the vote in 2010. Reid is not seeking re-election.[276] Former Nevada Attorney General Catherine Cortez Masto earned the Democratic nomination, defeating Bobby Mahendra, Liddo Susan O'Briant, and Allen Rheinhart in the primary on June 14, 2016. Heck defeated eight other candidates to win the Republican nomination, also on June 14, 2016.

Congressman Joe Heck[82] defeated 2010 nominee Sharron Angle, who ran against Reid in 2010,[277] for the Republican nomination.

Jarrod M. Williams, an independent candidate is running for the seat. He describes himself as a Democratic Socialist, a supporter of Bernie Sanders, and is a member of the Socialist Party USA, although the party doesn't have a chapter in the State of Nevada.[citation needed]

New Hampshire[edit]

One-term Senator Kelly Ayotte (Republican) was elected with 60.2% of the vote in 2010. She will be 48 years old in 2016. Ayotte is running for re-election.[83] If she does run, Ayotte may face a primary challenge from the Tea Party.[278] Jim Rubens, a former state senator, candidate for Governor in 1998 and for the Senate in 2014, has announced a challenge to Ayotte in the primary.[279][280]

Brian Chabot is the Libertarian candidate for US Senate in 2016. He is a relative newcomer to politics, having run for US Senate in 2010 and US Representative in 2014.

Governor Maggie Hassan is running for the Democratic nomination.[84] Other potential candidates include Executive Councilor Chris Pappas, State Senators Dan Feltes and Donna Soucy, Portsmouth City Councilor and daughter of U.S. Senator Jeanne Shaheen Stefany Shaheen, and campaign manager for Senator Shaheen Mike Vlacich.[281]

A series of polls taken by WMUR/UNH in February, April, and July 2016, as well as WBUR polls taken in May and July/August, show Hassan gaining support over time and now leading Ayotte.

New York[edit]

Three-term Senator Chuck Schumer (Democrat) was re-elected with 66% of the vote in 2010. He will be 66 years old in 2016. He is running for re-election.[33] If reelected, Chuck Schumer is widely expected to succeed Harry Reid as the leader of the Senate Democrats.[282]

Wendy Long, the Republican nominee in 2012, is running as the nominee of Republican, Conservative, and Reform Parties.[86] Other potential Republican candidates included U.S. Representatives Chris Gibson and Peter T. King.[283] U.S. Representative Richard L. Hanna, Manhattan Republican Party Chairwoman Adele Malpass, and former CNBC television host Larry Kudlow[284] were also mentioned as possible candidates, but all have declined to run.[283][285]

North Carolina[edit]

Two-term Senator Richard Burr (Republican) was re-elected with 55% of the vote in 2010. He will be 61 years old in 2016. There had been speculation that Burr might retire,[286] but he is running for re-election.[89][287]

Three Republicans challenged Sen. Burr in the primary: Greg Brannon,[288] Larry Holmquist,[289] and former Superior Court Judge Paul Wright.[290] On March 15, Burr won the primary with 61.4% of the vote.[291]

Former state representative Deborah Ross,[90] Spring Lake Mayor Chris Rey,[292] businessman Kevin Griffin,[293] and retired U.S. Army Captain Ernest Reeves[294] ran for the Democratic nomination. Former U.S. Senator Kay Hagan,[295] state treasurer Janet Cowell,[296] and Anthony Foxx, the United States Secretary of Transportation and former Mayor of Charlotte, declined to run.[297] On March 15, Ross won the primary with 62.4% of the vote.[298]

Polling conducted by Public Policy Polling in January 2016 found Burr leading Deborah Ross 43% to 33%.[299]

North Dakota[edit]

One-term Senator John Hoeven (Republican) was elected with 76.2% of the vote in 2010. He will be 59 years old in 2016. He is running for re-election.[92]

Democrats endorsed state representative Eliot Glassheim[300]

On November 7, 2015, the Libertarian party nominated Robert Marquette.


One-term Senator Rob Portman (Republican) was elected with 57.3% of the vote in 2010. He will be 60 years old in 2016. He is running for re-election. He had considered running for President, but decided not to.[95]

Two candidates filed to challenge him: Don Elijah Eckhart, who ran for OH-15 as an independent in 2008,[301] and Melissa Strzala, but Strzala was disqualified.[302] On March 15, Portman won the primary with 82.2% of the vote.

Former Governor and Congressman Ted Strickland, Cincinnati City Councilman P.G. Sittenfeld, and occupational therapist Kelli Prather are running for the Democratic nomination.[303][304][305] Former State Representative Bob Hagan had filed papers to run,[306] but later withdrew from the race.[307] On March 15, Strickland won the primary with 65% of the vote.

Joseph DeMare, a machinist from Bowling Green, is the Green Party candidate. He ran unopposed in the March 15, 2016 primary, and received enough votes to substantially increase the number of enrolled Green Party members. In Ohio, the only way to join a political party is to vote in that Party's primary.


Two-term Senator Tom Coburn (Republican) was re-elected with 70.64% of the vote in 2010, but chose to leave office before the end of his term after being diagnosed with prostate cancer. James Lankford won the 2014 special election to serve the remainder of Coburn's term.[308] Lankford is running for re-election.[33]

Former Congressman Dan Boren is viewed by some Oklahoma political operatives as the only Democrat who could make the 2016 race competitive, but is seen as unlikely to run.[309] Lankford's 2014 special election opponent Constance N. Johnson has said that she plans to run again.[310]


Three-term Senator Ron Wyden (Democrat) was re-elected with 57.3% of the vote in 2010. He will be 67 years old in 2016. He is running for re-election.[33]

Medford City Councilor Kevin Stine[311] and retired locomotive engineer Paul Weaver[312] challenged Wyden for the Democratic nomination. Wyden won the Democratic nomination.

Information technology consultant and 2014 candidate Mark Callahan,[100] businessman Sam Carpenter,[313] business consultant Dan Laschober,[314] Steven Reynolds,[312] and Lane County commissioner Faye Stewart[315] ran for the Republican nomination. Callahan won the Republican nomination.


One-term Senator Pat Toomey (Republican) was elected with 51% of the vote in 2010. He will be 54 years old in 2016. Toomey is seeking re-election.[102]

Everett Stern, a security intelligence consultant and whistleblower of the HSBC money laundering scandal, announced that he would challenge Toomey for the Republican nomination,[316] but has missed the filing deadline, so Toomey was unopposed in the primary.

Democratic candidates included Katie McGinty, former Chief of Staff to Governor Tom Wolf and former Secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection,[103] former Congressman Joe Sestak, who defeated incumbent Senator Arlen Specter for the 2010 Democratic nomination, but lost to Toomey in the general election,[317] the current mayor of Braddock, Pennsylvania, John Fetterman,[318] who is an AmeriCorps alum and Harvard University graduate,[319] and small businessman and senate candidate in 2010 and 2012 Joseph Vodvarka.[320] Allentown Mayor Ed Pawlowski announced his candidacy for the seat but suspended his campaign due to an FBI investigation of Allentown.[321] McGinty won the primary and will face Toomey in the general election.

South Carolina[edit]

Two-term Republican Senator Jim DeMint (Republican) was re-elected with 61.48% of the vote in 2010. He resigned at the start of 2013 to become President of The Heritage Foundation and U.S. Representative Tim Scott (Republican) of South Carolina's 1st congressional district was appointed to replace him by Governor Nikki Haley.[322] Scott subsequently won the special election in 2014 for the remaining two years of the term. Scott is running for re-election[33] and he was a potential Republican vice presidential nominee.[323][324]

Other potential Republican candidates include Congressmen Mick Mulvaney,[325] Jeff Duncan and Mark Sanford, along with State Senator Tom Davis, State Treasurer Curtis Loftis and State Attorney General Alan Wilson.[323] Darla Moore has also been mentioned as a potential candidate for either party.[323]

On the Democratic side, pastor Thomas Dixon is running.[105]

South Dakota[edit]

Two-term Senator John Thune (Republican) ran unopposed and was re-elected with 100% in 2010. He will be 55 years old in 2016. He is running for re-election.[107]

Jay Williams, Chair of the Yankton County Democratic Party, and candidate for the State House in 2010 and 2014, is running for the Democratic nomination.[108] Other potential Democratic candidates include State Senator Bernie Hunhoff[326] and filmmaker and former television news producer Sam Hurst.[327] Former U.S. Representative Stephanie Herseth Sandlin, Sioux Falls Mayor Mike Heuther, and 2014 nominee Rick Weiland have declined to run.[328][329]


One-term Senator Mike Lee (Republican) was elected with 61.6% of the vote in 2010. He will be 45 years old in 2016. He is running for re-election.[109] State party chair Thomas Wright, former State Senator Dan Liljenquist, State Senator Aaron Osmond, Congressman Jason Chaffetz, Congressman Chris Stewart, former Governor of Utah Mike Leavitt, and Mitt Romney's son Josh Romney[330][331][332] were mentioned as potential primary challengers, but they all declined to run.[333][334] Lee ran unopposed at the Utah Republican convention and is the Republican nominee.[335]

Marriage therapist Jonathan Swinton[336] and grocery store clerk Misty Snow ran for the Democratic nomination. Snow defeated Swinton by more than 20 percentage points, and became the first transgender woman to become a major party's nominee for the Senate.[337]


Seven-term Democratic Senator Patrick Leahy was re-elected with 64.4% of the vote in 2010. He will be 76 years old in 2016. Leahy is seeking re-election.[111]

Scott Milne, the Republican nominee in the 2014 Vermont gubernatorial election, has indicated that he will run against Leahy.[338][339]


Four-term Senator Patty Murray (Democrat) was re-elected with 52.15% of the vote in 2010. She will be 66 years old in 2016. She is running for re-election.[113]

The only declared Republican candidate is former State Representative and former chair of the Washington State Republican Party Chris Vance.[114] Congressman Dave Reichert was considered a potential Republican candidate[340] but chose to run for reelection.[341]


One-term Senator Ron Johnson (Republican) defeated three-term Senator Russ Feingold (Democrat) with 51.9% of the vote in 2010. He will be 61 years old in 2016. He is running for re-election.[116]

On May 14, 2015, Feingold announced that he would seek a rematch against Johnson for his former Senate seat.[115] Immediately after his announcement, the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee endorsed Feingold's candidacy.[342] Businesswoman and 2014 gubernatorial nominee Mary Burke has declared that she is not seeking statewide office in 2016.[343]

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