2020 United States Senate elections

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2020 United States Senate elections

← 2018 November 3, 2020 2022 →

33 of the 100 seats (Class 2) in the United States Senate
(and 2 special elections)
51 seats needed for a majority
  Mitch McConnell 2016 official photo (cropped).jpg Chuck Schumer official photo (cropped).jpg
Leader Mitch McConnell Chuck Schumer
Party Republican Democratic
Leader since January 3, 2007 January 3, 2017
Leader's seat Kentucky New York
Current seats 53 45
Seats needed Steady Increase 3–4[a]
Seats up 23 12

Party Independent
Current seats 2[b]
Seats up 0

United States Senate elections, 2020.svg
     Democratic senator running      Republican senator running
     Democratic senator retiring      Republican senator retiring
     No election
Rectangular inset (Georgia): both Republican senators running

Incumbent Majority Leader

Mitch McConnell

The 2020 United States Senate elections will be held on November 3, 2020,[1] with the 33 Class 2 seats of the Senate being contested in regular elections.[2] The winners will be elected to six-year terms extending from January 3, 2021, to January 3, 2027.[3] There will also be two special elections: one in Arizona to fill the vacancy created by the death of John McCain in 2018 and one in Georgia following the resignation of Johnny Isakson at the end of 2019.[4][5]

In the 2014 United States Senate elections (the last regularly scheduled elections for Class 2 Senate seats), the Republicans won nine seats from the Democrats and gained a majority in the Senate.[6] Republicans defended that majority in 2016[7] and 2018, and now hold 53 Senate seats. Democrats hold 45 seats, and independents caucusing with the Democratic Party hold two seats.[8]

Including the special elections in Arizona and Georgia, Republicans will be defending 23 seats in 2020, while the Democratic Party will be defending 12 seats.[9] Democrats will need to pick up three or four seats to gain a majority, depending on which party wins control of the vice presidency.[a][10]


Several sites and individuals publish predictions of competitive seats. These predictions look at factors such as the strength of the incumbent (if the incumbent is running for reelection) and the other candidates, and the state's partisan lean (reflected in part by the state's Cook Partisan Voting Index rating). The predictions assign ratings to each seat, indicating the predicted advantage that a party has in winning that seat.

Most election predictors use:

  • "tossup": no advantage
  • "tilt" (used by some predictors): advantage that is not quite as strong as "lean"
  • "lean": slight advantage
  • "likely" or "favored": significant, but surmountable, advantage
  • "safe" or "solid": near-certain chance of victory

By state[edit]

Constituency Incumbent 2020 election ratings
State PVI[11] Senator Last
May 15,
Apr 3,
Apr 30,
Daily Kos
May 11,
Apr 19,
May 4,
May 21,
Alabama R+14 Doug Jones 50.0% D
(2017 special)[d]
Lean R (flip) Lean R (flip) Likely R (flip) Likely R (flip) Lean R (flip) Likely R (flip) Lean R (flip)
Alaska R+9 Dan Sullivan 48.0% R Safe R Safe R Likely R Safe R Likely R Safe R Safe R
R+5 Martha McSally Appointed
Tossup Tossup Lean D (flip) Tossup Tossup Tossup Likely D (flip)
Arkansas R+15 Tom Cotton 56.5% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Colorado D+1 Cory Gardner 48.2% R Tossup Tilt D (flip) Lean D (flip) Lean D (flip) Tossup Tossup Likely D (flip)
Delaware D+6 Chris Coons 55.8% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Likely D Safe D Safe D
R+5 David Perdue 52.9% R Lean R Likely R Likely R Lean R Lean R Likely R Lean R
R+5 Kelly Loeffler Appointed
Lean R Likely R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R
Idaho R+19 Jim Risch 65.3% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Illinois D+7 Dick Durbin 53.5% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
Iowa R+3 Joni Ernst 52.1% R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Tossup
Kansas R+13 Pat Roberts
53.1% R Lean R Lean R Likely R Likely R Likely R Lean R Tossup
Kentucky R+15 Mitch McConnell 56.2% R Likely R Safe R Likely R Safe R Likely R Likely R Likely R
Louisiana R+11 Bill Cassidy 55.9% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Maine D+3 Susan Collins 68.5% R Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Lean D (flip)
Massachusetts D+12 Ed Markey 61.9% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
Michigan D+1 Gary Peters 54.6% D Lean D Lean D Lean D Lean D Lean D Tossup Safe D
Minnesota D+1 Tina Smith 53.0% D
(2018 special)[g]
Likely D Safe D Likely D Likely D Likely D Lean D Safe D
Mississippi R+9 Cindy Hyde-Smith 53.6% R
(2018 special)[h]
Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Likely R Likely R Safe R
Montana R+11 Steve Daines 57.9% R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Tossup Tossup
Nebraska R+14 Ben Sasse 64.5% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
New Hampshire D+1 Jeanne Shaheen 51.5% D Safe D Safe D Likely D Likely D Likely D Lean D Safe D
New Jersey D+7 Cory Booker 55.8% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Likely D Safe D
New Mexico D+3 Tom Udall
55.6% D Likely D Safe D Likely D Safe D Likely D Lean D Safe D
North Carolina R+3 Thom Tillis 48.8% R Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Lean D (flip)
Oklahoma R+20 Jim Inhofe 68.0% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Oregon D+5 Jeff Merkley 55.7% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Likely D Likely D Safe D
Rhode Island D+10 Jack Reed 70.6% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D
South Carolina R+8 Lindsey Graham 55.3% R Likely R Safe R Likely R Safe R Likely R Safe R Lean R
South Dakota R+14 Mike Rounds 50.4% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Tennessee R+14 Lamar Alexander
61.9% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Likely R Likely R Safe R
Texas R+8 John Cornyn 61.6% R Likely R Likely R Likely R Likely R Lean R Lean R Likely R
Virginia D+1 Mark Warner 49.1% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Likely D Likely D Safe D
West Virginia R+19 Shelley Moore Capito 62.1% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Wyoming R+25 Mike Enzi
72.2% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R
Overall[i] D - 46
R - 50
4 tossups
D - 47
R - 50
3 tossups
D - 48
R - 50
2 tossups
D - 47
R - 50
3 tossups
D - 46
R - 50
4 tossups
D - 45
R - 49
6 tossups
D - 50
R - 47
3 tossups

Competitive races[edit]

These are the 12 races generally seen as the most competitive, listed in order of how likely they are to flip parties.

Most likely to flip[edit]

Former governor John Hickenlooper is most likely to be the Democratic challenger to one-term Republican incumbent Cory Gardner, and leads Gardner by 10-20 points in the polls. Gardner is Colorado's only Republican statewide officeholder, and the once purple state has trended increasingly Democratic since Gardner's narrow win in 2014. Gardner also has low approval ratings due to his strong allegiance to Donald Trump, who is unpopular in Colorado. Hickenlooper has also raised significantly more money than Gardner.[19]

Democratic incumbent Doug Jones was narrowly elected in a 2017 special election held to replace Jeff Sessions, who resigned to become United States Attorney General. Alabama is one of the country's most Republican states and Jones’s win was in part due to sexual assault allegations against his Republican opponent, Roy Moore. Jones will face much stronger opposition this time around, facing either former Auburn Head Coach Tommy Tuberville or former senator Jeff Sessions, depending on who wins the Republican runoff primary. Many in the Democratic establishment see Jones’s seat as a lost cause and he has struggled to raise money.[20]

Once a solidly Republican state, Arizona has trended more purple in recent years. Incumbent Republican Martha McSally was appointed to the late John McCain's seat two months after losing the 2018 Arizona U.S. Senate election to Democrat Kyrsten Sinema. Her Democratic opponent, astronaut Mark Kelly, has raised significantly more money and leads her by 5-15 points in polling. McSally is also suffering from low approval ratings due to her strong allegiance to Trump, who is unpopular in Arizona despite winning the state by 3.5 points in 2016.[21]


Republican incumbent Susan Collins is polling neck-and-neck with or slightly behind her likely Democratic challenger, Sara Gideon. Collins has never faced a competitive election during her 24 years in the Senate even though Maine leans Democratic, as she runs on a centrist platform. But she faces growing unpopularity due to her votes to confirm Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court and to acquit Trump. Gideon raised over three times as much money as Collins in the first quarter of 2020.[22]

North Carolina
Incumbent Republican Thom Tillis was narrowly elected to a first term in 2014, but has grown unpopular among both centrist and conservative Republicans due to his inconsistent support of Trump. Tillis also suffers from low name recognition. North Carolina is also trending more purple, electing a Democratic governor in 2016. Tillis will face Democrat Cal Cunningham in the general election. Cunningham leads slightly in the polls.[23]

Once seen as likely to remain in Republican hands, Steve Daines's seat is now seen as competitive due to the last-minute entry of popular Democratic governor Steve Bullock. Bullock leads Daines by single digits in the most recent polling, but Montana is a solidly Republican state in presidential elections, so many voters are predicted to vote across party lines. Bullock has also raised more money than Daines. Montana reelected Jon Tester, a Democrat, to the Senate in 2018. Daines was elected to a first term by a comfortable margin in 2014.[24]

Republican incumbent Joni Ernst has lost popularity due to her support for trade tariffs that are unpopular among Iowa farmers after being elected to a first term by a comfortable margin in 2014. But Democrats have had a hard time winning statewide in Iowa in recent years, narrowly losing the governor’s election in 2018. Trump won the state by 9 points in 2016 after Barack Obama carried it in both 2008 and 2012. Democrats do hold three of Iowa’s four congressional seats, picking up two of them in 2018. Theresa Greenfield, a first-time candidate backed by the Democratic establishment, is the most likely Democratic nominee, but she faces a considerable primary challenge from admiral Michael Franken. Greenfield and Ernst are polling neck-and-neck in the general election, but Greenfield lacks name recognition, despite raising more money than Ernst.[25]

Could flip[edit]

Georgia (2 seats)
Due to the resignation of Republican Senator Johnny Isakson at the end of 2019, both of Georgia's seats will be up for election this year. While the state still leans Republican, the erosion of support for Republicans in Atlanta's suburbs has made the state more competitive, with a close governor's race in 2018. The special election is seen as more competitive than the regular election, where incumbent Republican David Perdue has an advantage over a crowded Democratic primary. Unlike the regular election, the special election is being conducted as a jungle primary: all candidates are listed on the same ballot regardless of party affiliation, and if no candidate gets more than 50% of the vote the top two will advance to a runoff on January 5, 2021. As in the regular election, there is a crowded field of Democratic candidates, but there is also a bitter contest on the Republican side between Kelly Loeffler, an outsider appointed to the seat after Isakson's resignation, and Doug Collins, a well-known U.S. Representative. Collins leads Loeffler in the polls due to allegations of insider trading against Loeffler.[26]

Incumbent Republican Pat Roberts is retiring, meaning this will be an open seat this year. The likely Democratic nominee is state representative Barbara Bollier. The Republican primary's front-runners are Kris Kobach and Roger Marshall. If Marshall wins the primary, he is expected to defeat Bollier as Kansas is a reliably Republican state. But if Kobach wins the primary, he is polling neck-and-neck with Bollier, as he is a controversial figure who lost the 2018 Kansas gubernatorial election to Democrat Laura Kelly.[27]

Michigan is one of the most competitive states in national elections, and incumbent Democrat Gary Peters is running for a second term. He will face Republican Iraq War veteran John James, who came unexpectedly close to unseating Michigan's other Democratic senator, Debbie Stabenow, in 2018. Stabenow is a longtime senator whose name recognition Peters lacks, but Republicans are growing more unpopular in Michigan after the state narrowly voted for Trump in 2016, and Peters leads James by 8-12 points in the polls.[28]

Most pundits see this as a likely Republican hold due to incumbent Republican Mitch McConnell's large amount of reelection campaign funds, but he is one of the country's most unpopular senators, and his likely Democratic opponent, Amy McGrath, has been a strong fundraiser and trails McConnell only by single digits in polling. McConnell has proven to be a tough campaigner, however, and Kentucky is one of the most Republican states in the country. Democrat Andy Beshear narrowly won the Kentucky governor’s race in 2019, facing and unseating a similarly unpopular Republican incumbent.[29]

Election summary[edit]


Parties Total
Democratic Independent Republican
Last election (2018) 45 2 53 100
Before this election 45 2 53 100
Not up 33 2 30 65
Class 1 (20182024) 21 2 10 33
Class 3 (20162022) 12 20 32
Up 12 23 35
Class 2 (2014→2020) 12 21 33
Special: Class 3 2 2
General elections
Incumbent retiring 1 3 4
Incumbent running 11 18 29
Special elections
Appointee ran 2 2

Special elections during the preceding Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners will serve when they are elected and qualified.

Elections are sorted by date then state.

(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
(Class 3)
Martha McSally Republican 2019 (appointed) Incumbent running.
(Class 3)
Kelly Loeffler Republican 2020 (appointed) Incumbent running.

Elections leading to the next Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners will be elected for the term beginning January 3, 2021. All of the elections involve Class 2 seats; they are ordered by state.

(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Doug Jones Democratic 2017 (special) Incumbent renominated.
Alaska Dan Sullivan Republican 2014 Incumbent running.
Arkansas Tom Cotton Republican 2014 Incumbent renominated.
Colorado Cory Gardner Republican 2014 Incumbent running.
Delaware Chris Coons Democratic 2010 (special)
Incumbent running.
Georgia David Perdue Republican 2014 Incumbent running.
Idaho Jim Risch Republican 2008
Incumbent running.
Illinois Dick Durbin Democratic 1996
Incumbent renominated.
Iowa Joni Ernst Republican 2014 Incumbent running.
Kansas Pat Roberts Republican 1996
Incumbent retiring.
Kentucky Mitch McConnell Republican 1984
Incumbent running.
Louisiana Bill Cassidy Republican 2014 Incumbent running.
Maine Susan Collins Republican 1996
Incumbent running.
Massachusetts Ed Markey Democratic 2013 (special)
Incumbent running.
Michigan Gary Peters Democratic 2014 Incumbent running.
Minnesota Tina Smith Democratic 2018 (appointed)
2018 (special)
Incumbent running.
Mississippi Cindy Hyde-Smith Republican 2018 (appointed)
2018 (special)
Incumbent renominated.
Montana Steve Daines Republican 2014 Incumbent running.
Nebraska Ben Sasse Republican 2014 Incumbent renominated.
New Hampshire Jeanne Shaheen Democratic 2008
Incumbent running.
New Jersey Cory Booker Democratic 2013 (special)
Incumbent running.
  • Eugene Anagnes (Republican)[55]
  • Cory Booker (Democratic)[55]
  • Patricia Flanagan (Republican)[55]
  • Lawrence Hamm (Democratic)[55]
  • Rik Mehta (Republican)[55]
  • Natalie Lynn Rivera (Republican)[55]
  • Hirsh Singh (Republican)[55]
New Mexico Tom Udall Democratic 2008
Incumbent retiring.
North Carolina Thom Tillis Republican 2014 Incumbent renominated.
Oklahoma Jim Inhofe Republican 1994 (special)
Incumbent running.
  • Sheila Bilyeu (Democratic)[58]
  • Elysabeth Britt (Democratic)[58]
  • Abby Broyles (Democratic)[58]
  • R. O. Joe Cassity, Jr. (Democratic)[58]
  • Joan Farr (Independent)[58]
  • Jim Inhofe (Republican)[58]
  • Neil Mavis (Republican)[58]
  • Robert Murphy (Libertarian)[58]
  • A. D. Nesbit (Independent)[58]
  • JJ Stitt (Republican)[58]
  • John Tompkins (Republican)[58]
Oregon Jeff Merkley Democratic 2008
Incumbent renominated.
Rhode Island Jack Reed Democratic 1996
Incumbent running.
South Carolina Lindsey Graham Republican 2002
Incumbent running.
South Dakota Mike Rounds Republican 2014 Incumbent running.
Tennessee Lamar Alexander Republican 2002
Incumbent retiring.
  • Clifford Adkins (Republican)[64]
  • Marquita Bradshaw (Democratic)[64]
  • Natisha Brooks (Republican)[64]
  • Byron Bush (Republican)[64]
  • Roy Dale Cope (Republican)[64]
  • Terry Dicus (Republican)[64]
  • Gary Davis (Democratic)[64]
  • Tom Emerson Jr. (Republican)[64]
  • Romi Faparusi (Independent)[64]
  • George Flinn Sr. (Republican)[64]
  • Jeffrey Grunau (Independent)[64]
  • Bill Hagerty (Republican)[64]
  • Robin Hayes (Democratic)[64]
  • Ronnie Henley (Independent)[64]
  • Jon Henry (Republican)[64]
  • G. Dean Hill (Independent)[64]
  • Steven Hooper (Independent)[64]
  • Aaron James (Independent)[64]
  • Robin Kimbrough (Democratic)[64]
  • James Mackler (Democratic)[64]
  • Elizabeth Macleod (Independent)[64]
  • Kacey Morgan (Independent)[64]
  • Kent Morrell (Republican)[64]
  • Glen Neal (Republican)[64]
  • John Osborne (Republican)[64]
  • Aaron Pettigrew (Republican)[64]
  • Mark Pickrell (Democratic)[64]
  • Danny Schuster (Republican)[64]
  • Manny Sethi (Republican)[64]
  • Eric Stansberry (Independent)[64]
Texas John Cornyn Republican 2002
Incumbent renominated.
Virginia Mark Warner Democratic 2008
Incumbent running.
West Virginia Shelley Moore Capito Republican 2014 Incumbent running.
Wyoming Mike Enzi Republican 1996
Incumbent retiring.
  • Mark Armstrong (Republican)[68]
  • Merav Ben-David (Democratic)[68]
  • Kenneth Casner (Democratic)[68]
  • James DeBrine (Democratic)[68]
  • John Holtz (Republican)[68]
  • Michael Kemler (Republican)[68]
  • Yana Ludwig (Democratic)[68]
  • Cynthia Lummis (Republican)[68]
  • Bryan Miller (Republican)[68]
  • Star Roselli (Republican)[68]
  • Robert Short (Republican)[68]
  • Joshua Wheeler (Republican)[68]
  • Rex Wilde (Democratic)[68]

Election dates[edit]

These are the election dates for the regularly scheduled general elections. Bold indicates a future date.

State Filing deadline for
major party candidates[69][70]
(if necessary)[69]
Filing deadline for minor
party and unaffiliated candidates[70]
Poll closing
Alabama November 8, 2019 March 3, 2020 July 14, 2020 March 3, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Alaska June 1, 2020 August 18, 2020 N/A August 18, 2020 November 3, 2020 1:00am[j]
Arizona (special) April 6, 2020 [k] August 4, 2020 N/A April 6, 2020 [l] November 3, 2020 9:00pm
Arkansas November 11, 2019 March 3, 2020 March 31, 2020 May 1, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:30pm
Colorado March 17, 2020 June 30, 2020 N/A July 9, 2020 November 3, 2020 9:00pm
Delaware July 14, 2020 September 15, 2020 N/A September 1, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Georgia March 6, 2020 June 9, 2020 August 11, 2020 August 14, 2020 November 3, 2020[m] 7:00pm
Georgia (special) March 6, 2020 November 3, 2020 N/A August 14, 2020 January 5, 2021[n] 9:00pm
Idaho March 13, 2020 June 2, 2020 N/A March 13, 2020 November 3, 2020 10:00pm
Illinois December 2, 2019 March 17, 2020 N/A August 7, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Iowa March 13, 2020 June 2, 2020 N/A March 13, 2020 November 3, 2020 10:00pm
Kansas June 1, 2020 August 4, 2020 N/A August 3, 2020 November 3, 2020 9:00pm
Kentucky January 10, 2020 June 23, 2020 N/A June 2, 2020 November 3, 2020 7:00pm
Louisiana July 17, 2020 November 3, 2020 N/A July 17, 2020 December 5, 2020[n] 9:00pm
Maine March 16, 2020 July 14, 2020 N/A June 1, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Massachusetts May 5, 2020 September 1, 2020 N/A August 25, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Michigan May 8, 2020 August 4, 2020 N/A July 16, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Minnesota June 2, 2020 August 11, 2020 N/A June 2, 2020 November 3, 2020 9:00pm
Mississippi January 10, 2020 March 10, 2020 March 31, 2020 January 10, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Montana March 9, 2020 June 2, 2020 N/A June 1, 2020 November 3, 2020 10:00pm
Nebraska March 2, 2020 May 12, 2020 N/A August 3, 2020 November 3, 2020 9:00pm
New Hampshire June 12, 2020 September 8, 2020 N/A September 2, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:00pm
New Jersey March 30, 2020 July 7, 2020 N/A July 7, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:00pm
New Mexico March 10, 2020 June 2, 2020 N/A June 25, 2020 November 3, 2020 9:00pm
North Carolina December 20, 2019 March 3, 2020 Not necessary March 3, 2020 November 3, 2020 7:30pm
Oklahoma April 10, 2020 June 30, 2020 August 25, 2020 April 10, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Oregon March 10, 2020 May 19, 2020 N/A August 25, 2020 November 3, 2020 10:00pm
Rhode Island June 24, 2020 September 8, 2020 N/A June 24, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:00pm
South Carolina March 30, 2020 June 9, 2020 June 23, 2020 August 17, 2020 November 3, 2020 7:00pm
South Dakota March 31, 2020 June 2, 2020 August 11, 2020 April 28, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Tennessee April 2, 2020 August 6, 2020 N/A April 2, 2020 November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Texas December 9, 2019 March 3, 2020 July 14, 2020 August 13, 2020[o] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Virginia March 26, 2020 June 9, 2020 N/A June 9, 2020 November 3, 2020 7:00pm
West Virginia January 25, 2020 June 9, 2020 N/A July 31, 2020 November 3, 2020 7:30pm
Wyoming May 29, 2020 August 18, 2020 N/A August 25, 2020 November 3, 2020 9:00pm

Partisan control[edit]

Republicans are defending 23 seats in 2020, while Democrats defending 12.[9] Each block represents one of the 100 Senate seats. "D#" is a Democratic senator, "I#" is an Independent senator, and "R#" is a Republican senator. They are arranged so that the parties are separated and a majority is clear by crossing the middle.

Before the elections[edit]

Each block indicates an incumbent senator's actions going into the election. Both independents caucus with the Democrats.

D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
Majority → R50
Ga. (sp)
Ariz. (sp)
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the elections[edit]

D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
Majority →
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
D# Democratic
R# Republican
I# Independent, caucusing with Democrats


Incumbent Democrat Doug Jones was elected in a special election in 2017, narrowly defeating Republican nominee Roy Moore. Jones is running for his first full term as a senator.[73][74]

Former senator and attorney general Jeff Sessions and former Auburn University football head coach Tommy Tuberville advanced in the Republican primary on March 3 and will face each other in a runoff on July 14. Sessions occupied the seat until 2017, when he resigned to become attorney general. Defeated in the primary were 2017 Republican nominee Roy Moore, evangelist Stanley Adair,[75] Representative Bradley Byrne,[76] state representative Arnold Mooney,[77] and community activist Ruth Page Nelson.[78] Secretary of State John Merrill was also a candidate[79] but suspended his campaign before the primary.[80]


One-term incumbent Republican Dan Sullivan was elected in 2014, defeating incumbent Democrat Mark Begich. He is running for a second term.[81]

Potential Democratic candidates include Begich, who was the Democratic nominee for governor of Alaska in 2018, and Anchorage mayor Ethan Berkowitz, who was the Democratic nominee for governor of Alaska in 2010.

On July 2, 2019, Al Gross, an orthopedic surgeon and fisherman, declared his candidacy as an Independent.[82]

Arizona (special)[edit]

Republican senator John McCain was elected to a sixth term in 2016, but died in office in August 2018.[83] Republican governor Doug Ducey appointed former senator Jon Kyl to fill McCain's seat for the remainder of the 115th United States Congress.[84] After the end of the 115th Congress, Ducey appointed outgoing U.S. Representative and 2018 Republican Senate nominee Martha McSally as Kyl's successor for the 116th Congress.[85] McSally is running in the 2020 special election to fill the remainder of the term, which expires in 2022.[86]

Retired astronaut Mark Kelly is running for the Democratic nomination.[87]


One-term incumbent Republican Tom Cotton was elected in 2014 after serving two years in the United States House of Representatives, defeating incumbent Democratic senator Mark Pryor by a comfortable margin. Cotton is seeking a second term.[88]

Joshua Mahony, a nonprofit executive and 2018 Democratic nominee for Congress in Arkansas's 3rd congressional district, filed to run for the Democratic nomination,[89] but dropped out just after the filing deadline.[90] No other Democrats filed within the filing deadline.

Christian missionary Ricky Dale Harrington, Jr., is running as a Libertarian,[91] and progressive activist Dan Whitfield is running as an independent.[92]


One-term incumbent Republican Cory Gardner was elected in 2014 after serving four years in the United States House of Representatives, narrowly defeating one-term incumbent Mark Udall. Gardner is seeking reelection in 2020.[93]

Announced Democratic candidates include former Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper and former state House speaker Andrew Romanoff.


One-term incumbent Democrat Chris Coons was reelected in 2014; Coons first took office after winning a 2010 special election, which occurred after longtime senator Joe Biden resigned his seat to become vice president of the United States.

Georgia (regular)[edit]

One-term incumbent Republican David Perdue was elected in 2014. He is seeking a second term in 2020.[94]

Former Columbus mayor Teresa Tomlinson,[95] 2018 lieutenant governor nominee Sarah Riggs Amico,[96] and former congressional candidate Jon Ossoff[97] are running for the Democratic nomination. Other potential Democratic candidates include former state senator Jason Carter and state representative Scott Holcomb.[94]

Georgia (special)[edit]

Three-term senator Johnny Isakson announced that he would resign from the Senate at the end of 2019, citing health concerns.[98] A "Louisiana primary" will be held on November 3, 2020; a candidate earning a majority of votes cast will win, but if no one candidate wins a majority, a runoff election between the top two finishers will be held in January 2021.[99] The winner of the special election will serve until the expiration of Isakson's Senate term on January 3, 2023.

Georgia Governor Brian Kemp appointed Republican Kelly Loeffler to the seat; Loeffler took office on January 6, 2020, and will compete in the November 2020 election.[100] Other Republicans running for the seat include Wayne Johnson, former chief operating officer of the Office of Federal Student Aid,[101] and four-term U.S. representative Doug Collins.[102]

Democrats running for the seat include Raphael Warnock,[103][104] Matt Lieberman,[105] Ed Tarver,[106][107] and Richard Dien Winfield.[108]


Two-term incumbent Republican Jim Risch was easily reelected in 2014. On August 13, 2019, he announced that he would seek a third term.[109] Former gubernatorial nominee Paulette Jordan is running for the Democratic nomination.


Four-term incumbent Democrat and Senate minority whip Dick Durbin was reelected in 2014 and is seeking a fifth term.[110] Antiwar activist Marilyn Jordan Lawlor[111] and State representative Anne Stava-Murray[112] were going to challenge Durbin in the primary, but both have withdrawn.[113][114]

Republicans who have announced they are running include businessman Casey Chlebek,[115] former Lake County Sheriff Mark Curran,[116] U.S. Navy veteran and former police officer Peggy Hubbard,[117] Vietnam War veteran, physician, and 2018 Democratic primary candidate for governor of Illinois Robert Marshall,[118][119] Omeed Memar,[120] a dermatologist convicted of health care fraud in 2018,[121] Preston Gabriel Nelson,[122] Dean Seppelfrick,[123] and Tom Tarter.[124] Memar, Nelson, and Seppelfrick failed to file their candidacies with the Illinois Board of Elections and will not appear on the ballot.


One-term incumbent Republican Joni Ernst was elected in 2014 after serving four years in the state Senate. She is seeking a second term.[125]

Democrats in the race include former Vice-Admiral Michael T. Franken, attorney Kimberly Graham, real estate broker Theresa Greenfield, and businessman Eddie Mauro.


Four-term incumbent Republican Pat Roberts is retiring. Former secretary of state Kris Kobach,[126] state Turnpike Authority chairman (a former Kansas City Chief) Dave Lindstrom,[127] Representative Roger Marshall, conservative commentator Bryan Pruitt,[128] Kansas Board of Education member Steve Roberts,[129] state senate president Susan Wagle, and Republican socialist Brian Matlock have all announced their candidacies.[130] Other potential candidates include state attorney general Derek Schmidt and wealthy businessman and former 2018 lieutenant governor nominee Wink Hartman. Kansas state treasurer Jake LaTurner[131] previously sought the nomination, but announced on September 3, 2019, that he was dropping out of the Senate race to run for the U.S. House of Representatives.[132] There was considerable speculation about a Senate bid by Mike Pompeo (the United States Secretary of State, former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, and former U.S. Representative for Kansas's 4th congressional district), but he opted not to run.[133][134]

Among Democrats, state senator Barbara Bollier is running, as is Usha Reddi, mayor of Manhattan,[135] and Robert Tillman, nominee for Kansas's 4th congressional district in 2012 and candidate in 2016 and 2017.[136] Former congressional candidate Brent Welder is also considered a potential candidate for the Democratic nomination.[137][138] Former U.S. attorney Barry Grissom[139] and former congresswoman Nancy Boyda[140] announced runs, but withdrew before the primary. Former governor Kathleen Sebelius has declined to run.


Six-term incumbent and Senate majority leader Republican Mitch McConnell was reelected by a comfortable margin in 2014 and is seeking a seventh term.

Former Kentucky Auditor of Public Accounts and state legislator Mary Ann Tobin filed papers to run for the U.S. Senate on January 10, 2020.[141]

Amy McGrath announced her candidacy on July 9, 2019.[142] She is a former Marine and Navy fighter pilot who ran unsuccessfully for Congress in 2018 against incumbent Representative Andy Barr.

Charles Booker, a member of the Kentucky House of Representatives[143] and Kentucky's youngest black state lawmaker,[144] entered the Senate race on January 5, 2020.[145]

Other candidates for the Democratic nomination include Jimmy Ausbrooks, a mental health counselor,[146] Mike Broihier, farmer and former U.S. Marine,[147] Andrew Maynard,[148] John R. Sharpensteen[148] and Bennie J. Smith, local business owner.[149] Other potential Democratic candidates include state representative Rocky Adkins.[150] Steven Cox, a registered pharmacy technician,[151] has dropped out and endorsed Booker.[152]


One-term incumbent Republican Bill Cassidy was elected in 2014 after serving six years in the United States House of Representatives, defeating three-term incumbent Mary Landrieu. A jungle primary will be held on November 3, 2020; if no candidate wins a majority of the vote in the primary, a runoff election will be held.


Four-term incumbent Republican Susan Collins was reelected by a wide margin in 2014. She is seeking a fifth term.[153]

Democrats running include state House speaker Sara Gideon,[154] travel agent Michael Bunker,[155] attorney Bre Kidman,[156] and activist and 2018 gubernatorial candidate Betsy Sweet.[157] Other potential Democratic candidates include U.S. Representative Chellie Pingree and former Lewiston mayor James Howaniec.[158] Retired US Air Force General Jon Treacy[159] and physician Cathleen London[160] announced candidacies for the Democratic nomination, but later withdrew.[161][162]


One-term incumbent Democrat Ed Markey was reelected in 2014; first elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1976, Markey later won a 2013 special election to replace longtime incumbent John Kerry, who resigned from the Senate to become U.S. secretary of state. He is running for a second term.[46] Joe Kennedy III, four-term U.S. representative for Massachusetts's Fourth District and grandson of former U.S. senator and U.S. attorney general Robert F. Kennedy, is challenging Markey for the Democratic nomination,[163] as are labor attorney Shannon Liss-Riordan[164] and Allen Waters.[165] Chief human resources officer for Workhuman Steve Pemberton declared his candidacy,[166] but later withdrew.[167]

Noted conspiracy theorist Shiva Ayyadurai, Independent candidate for U.S. Senate in 2018, is seeking the Republican nomination.[168]


One-term incumbent Democrat Gary Peters was elected in 2014 after serving six years in the U.S. House of Representatives. He is seeking a second term.[169]

2018 Senate nominee John James has declared his candidacy for the Republican nomination.[170] Other potential Republican candidates include former congresswoman Candice Miller,[171] former state House speaker Tom Leonard, and businessman Sandy Pensler.[172] On August 14, 2019, it was announced that Leonard had been nominated for United States Attorney for Western Michigan, making a Senate campaign highly unlikely.[173]


Incumbent Democrat Tina Smith was appointed to the U.S. Senate to replace Al Franken in 2018 after serving as lieutenant governor, and won a special election later in 2018 to serve the remainder of Franken's term. She is seeking a full term in 2020.[174]

Former congressman Jason Lewis is running for the Republican nomination.[175] Other potential Republican candidates include 2018 lieutenant governor candidate Donna Bergstrom[176] and former state representative Doug Wardlow.[177] On July 2, 2019, 2018 Republican nominee Karin Housley announced that she would not run again, instead seeking reelection to the Minnesota State Senate.[178]


After seven-term incumbent Republican senator Thad Cochran resigned in April 2018, Republican governor Phil Bryant appointed state agriculture commissioner Cindy Hyde-Smith to succeed him until a special election could be held later in the year. Hyde-Smith won the November 2018 special election to fill the remainder of Cochran's term, which ends in January 2021. Hyde-Smith is running for a full term.[179] Other potential Republican candidates include state senator Chris McDaniel, who also sought the seat in 2014 and 2018.[180]

Democratic candidates include former U.S. Secretary of Agriculture and 2018 Senate candidate Mike Espy.[181]


One-term incumbent Republican Steve Daines was elected in 2014 after serving two years in the United States House of Representatives. He is seeking a second term.[182]

Governor Steve Bullock is running for the Democratic nomination,[183] as is nuclear engineer and U.S. Navy veteran John Mues.[184]


One-term incumbent Republican Ben Sasse was elected in 2014 after serving as the president of Midland University. He is seeking a second term.[185] Businessman and former Lancaster County Republican Party chair Matt Innis is challenging Sasse for the nomination.[186][187]

Democrats in the race include businessman and 2018 U.S. Senate candidate Chris Janicek[188] and mental health advocate Angie Philips.[188]

New Hampshire[edit]

Two-term incumbent Democrat Jeanne Shaheen was narrowly reelected in 2014. She is seeking a third term.[189]

Former U.S. Army brigadier general Donald C. Bolduc has announced his candidacy.[190] Other potential Republican challengers include former U.S. senator Kelly Ayotte,[191] Ambassador to New Zealand Scott Brown, who challenged Shaheen in 2014 and previously served as Senator from Massachusetts after winning a special election to fill the vacancy caused by Ted Kennedy's death; state House minority leader William L. O'Brien, and businessman Jay Lucas. Governor Chris Sununu has indicated that he will not run for the Senate,[192] as has former Trump campaign manager Corey Lewandowski.[193]

New Jersey[edit]

One-term incumbent Democrat Cory Booker was reelected in 2014; Booker first took office by winning a 2013 special election after serving seven years as mayor of Newark. Booker sought his party's nomination for President of the United States in 2020. Although the state allows him to simultaneously run for both president and for the U.S. Senate, Booker suspended his presidential campaign on January 13, 2020, and confirmed his intention to seek a second Senate term.[194] Other potential Democratic candidates include Governor Phil Murphy, Representative Donald Norcross, and Representative Josh Gottheimer.[195] Republican candidates are pharmacist and attorney Rik Mehta and engineer Hirsh Singh.

New Mexico[edit]

Two-term incumbent Democrat Tom Udall is the only incumbent Democratic U.S. senator retiring in 2020.[196] U.S. representative Ben Ray Luján[197] is running for the Democratic nomination. On April 10, 2019, U.S. Representative Deb Haaland said that she would not run for Senate, but instead seek reelection.[198]

Among Republicans, former U.S. Interior Department official Gavin Clarkson has announced his candidacy.[199] Potential Republican candidates include former governor Susana Martinez, former Albuquerque mayor Richard J. Berry,[200] former U.S. representative and former U.S. Secretary of the Air Force Heather Wilson, former U.S. representative Steve Pearce and former state representative Yvette Herrell.[201]

North Carolina[edit]

One-term incumbent Republican Thom Tillis was elected in 2014 after serving eight years in the state House of Representatives, narrowly defeating one-term incumbent Kay Hagan. He faced a primary challenge from three different candidates.

State senator Erica D. Smith, Mecklenburg County commissioner Trevor Fuller, and former state senator Cal Cunningham ran for the Democratic nomination.

On March 3, 2020, Tillis and Cunningham won their parties' primaries.[202]


Four-term incumbent Republican Jim Inhofe was easily reelected in 2014. He is seeking a fifth term. J.J. Stitt, a farmer and gun shop owner, is challenging Inhofe for the Republican nomination.[203] Democrats in the race include attorney Abby Broyles, professor Dylan Billings, software developer Tyler Dougherty, industrialist Bevon Rogers, and perennial candidate Mike Workman.


Two-term incumbent Democrat Jeff Merkley was reelected by a comfortable margin in 2014. Merkley, who was considered a possible 2020 presidential candidate, is instead seeking a third Senate term.[204]

Rhode Island[edit]

Four-term incumbent Democrat Jack Reed was easily reelected in 2014. Reed is seeking a fifth term.[60]

South Carolina[edit]

Three-term incumbent Republican Lindsey Graham was reelected in 2014 and is seeking a fourth term. Former South Carolina Democratic Party chairman Jaime Harrison is running for the Democratic nomination.

South Dakota[edit]

One-term incumbent Republican Mike Rounds was elected in 2014 after serving two terms as the governor of South Dakota. He faces a primary challenge from state representative Scyller Borglum.[205] Potential Democratic candidates include state Senate minority leader Billie Sutton[206] and 2018 Democratic gubernatorial nominee and former South Dakota State Representative Dan Ahlers.[207]


Three-term incumbent Republican Lamar Alexander was reelected in 2014. He announced in December 2018 that he would not seek a fourth term.[208] Among Republicans, orthopedic surgeon Manny Sethi has announced his candidacy,[209] as has former Ambassador to Japan William F. Hagerty.[210] James Mackler, an Iraq War veteran and Nashville attorney, has announced his candidacy for the Democratic nomination. State Senator Jeff Yarbro is another possible Democratic candidate.[211]


Three-term incumbent Republican John Cornyn was reelected in 2014 by a wide margin. He is seeking a fourth term.[212] Cornyn is facing former Cleveland school board member Dwayne Stovall and former Dallas Wings owner Mark Yancey in the Republican primary.[213][214][215] State Senator Pat Fallon considered challenging Cornyn, but announced in mid-October that he would not.[215][216]

Democrats in the race include former Congressman Chris Bell,[217] pastor and 2018 lieutenant governor candidate Michael Cooper,[218] Houston City Council member Amanda Edwards,[219] MJ Hegar, an Air Force combat veteran who was the 2018 Democratic nominee for Texas's 31st congressional district,[220][218] Sema Hernandez, a candidate for U.S. Senate in 2018,[221][222] Midland City Councilman John B. Love,[223] financial analyst Adrian Ocegueda,[218] labor organizer and author Cristina Tzintzún Ramirez,[224] and state senator Royce West.[225][226] Other potential Democratic candidates include Congressman Colin Allred, Congresswoman Lizzie Pannill Fletcher, Congresswoman Veronica Escobar, Congresswoman Sylvia Garcia, San Antonio mayor Ron Nirenberg, and state representative Rafael Anchia.[227] On July 22, 2019, former state senator Wendy Davis announced that she would not run for the Senate, running for the House of Representatives instead.[228]


Two-term incumbent Democrat Mark Warner was reelected by a very narrow margin in 2014 after winning easily in 2008. He is seeking a third term.[229]

Republicans in the race include teacher Allisa Baldwin,[230] professor and U.S. Army veteran Daniel Gade,[231] and U.S. Army veteran and intelligence officer Thomas Speciale.[232]

West Virginia[edit]

One-term incumbent Republican Shelley Moore Capito was easily elected after serving 14 years in the U.S. House of Representatives. She is being challenged in the Republican primary by Allen Whitt, president of the West Virginia Family Policy Council.[233]

Social justice activist Paula Jean Swearengin, a candidate for U.S. Senate in 2018,[234] and former state senator Richard Ojeda, a nominee for the U.S. House of Representatives in West Virginia's 3rd congressional district in 2018 and briefly a candidate for president in 2020, have announced their candidacies for the Democratic nomination.


Four-term incumbent Republican Mike Enzi was reelected in 2014, and announced in May 2019 that he will retire. Announced Republican candidates include former congresswoman Cynthia Lummis.[235] Representative Liz Cheney has announced that she will not be a candidate,[236] as has former two-term governor Matt Mead.[237][238][239]

Chuck Jagoda, teacher,[240] and Yana Ludwig, activist and community organizer,[241] are seeking the Democratic nomination. Other potential Democratic candidates include former governor Dave Freudenthal, state senator Mike Gierau, former state senator John Hastert,[242] and 2018 U.S. Senate nominee Gary Trauner.[243]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Because the vice president of the United States has the power to break ties in the Senate, a Senate majority requires either 51 Senate seats without control of the vice presidency or 50 seats with control of the vice presidency. Thus, assuming that the two independents continue to caucus with the Senate Democratic Caucus, the Democrats will have to pick up at least three Senate seats to win a majority. If a Republican is elected as vice president in the 2020 election, then Democrats will have to pick up at least four Senate seats to win a majority.
  2. ^ The 2 independents, Bernie Sanders and Angus King, have caucused with the Democratic Party since joining the Senate.
  3. ^ The last elections for this group of senators were in 2014, except for those elected in a special election or who were appointed after the resignation or passing of a sitting senator, as noted.
  4. ^ Republican Jeff Sessions ran uncontested in 2014 and won with 97.3% of the vote, but resigned on February 8, 2017 to become United States Attorney General.
  5. ^ Republican John McCain won in 2016 with 53.7% of the vote, but died on August 25, 2018.
  6. ^ Republican Johnny Isakson won with 54.8% of the vote in 2016, but resigned on December 31, 2019, due to declining health.
  7. ^ Democrat Al Franken won with 53.2% of the vote in 2014, but resigned on January 2, 2018.
  8. ^ Republican Thad Cochran won with 59.9% of the vote in 2014, but resigned on April 1, 2018 due to declining health.
  9. ^ Democratic total includes 2 Independents who caucus with the Democrats
  10. ^ the following morning
  11. ^ June 25, 2020 for write-in candidates[72]
  12. ^ September 24, 2020 for write-in candidates[72]
  13. ^ If no candidate wins a majority of the vote in the November 3, 2020 general election, the top two candidates will go to run-off on January 5, 2021.
  14. ^ a b If no candidate wins a majority of the vote in the November 3, 2020 jungle primary, the top two candidates will go to run-off.
  15. ^ Initial declaration of intent's deadline for unaffiliated candidates is December 9, 2019


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